Strategic Explorations of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru

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Strategic Explorations of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) is a multi-year survey that used the Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii in an effort to directly image extrasolar planets and protoplanetary/debris disks around several hundred nearby stars.[1] Near-infrared imaging was carried out using the AO188 Adaptive Optics System[2] and HiCIAO high-contrast imaging instrument.[3][4][5] The survey is headquartered at National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and led by Principal Investigator Motohide Tamura. The survey team includes over a hundred members from dozens of institutes around the world. Observations began in late October 2009, and finished in early January 2015. The goals of the survey are to address the following key issues in exoplanet/disk science: (1) the detection and census of exoplanets in the outer circumstellar regions around stars, (2) the evolution of protoplanetary and debris disks including their morphological diversity, and (3) the link between exoplanets and circumstellar disks.


Kappa Andromedae b, the Super-Jupiter exoplanet of 12.8 Jupiter masses discovered as part of the SEEDS survey
The confirmed brown dwarf GJ 758 B and the candidate GJ 758 C, which was later found to be a background star
  • Direct imaging discovery of a cold Jovian exoplanet in orbit around the Sun-like star GJ 504[6]
  • Direct imaging discovery of a Super-Jupiter around the late B-Type Star Kappa Andromedae[7]
  • Discovery and characterization of GJ 758 B[8][9]
  • New high resolution imaging of the AB Aurigae system[10]
  • Detection of extended outer regions of the debris ring around HR 4796 A[11]
  • New reflected light imaging of the transitional disk gap around LkCa 15[12]
  • Explorations for outer massive bodies around the transiting planet system HAT-P-7[13]
  • Imaging discovery of the debris disk around HIP 79977[14]
  • First infrared images of the inner gap in the 2MASS J16042165-2130284 transitional disk.[15]
  • Direct imaging discovery of a giant inner gap in the protoplanetary disk around PDS 70[16]
  • Discovery of spiral structures in the transitional disk around SAO 206462[17]
  • Discovery of a stellar companion to the extrasolar planet system HAT-P-7[18]
  • Near-IR scattered light detection of the spiral-armed transitional disk of the star MWC 758[19]
  • Direct imaging of the UX Tau A pre-transitional disk revealing gap structures[20]
  • Scattered light imaging of the MWC 80 protoplanetary disk at a historic minimum of the near-IR excess[21]
  • High-contrast imaging discovery of architecture in the LkCa 15 transitional disk [22]
  • Submillimeter and near-infrared observation of the transitional disk around Sz 91 [23]
  • First high resolution infrared images of circumstellar disk around SU Aur revealing tidal-like tails[24]


From SEEDS, three planets and boundary-mass-objects (GJ 504 b, κ And b, GJ 758 b) were directly imaged and three brown dwarfs were detected in Pleiades. GJ 504b is a cold Jovian planet orbiting a relatively old Sun-like star and has unique atmospheric features. One young planet is also confirmed (HD 100546 b). Wide-orbit planets population can be explained as a single distribution and its frequency is ~2% from SEEDS preliminary results.[25] Many circumstellar disks were detected down to a radius of r=0.1” (0.1 degree-seconds). Fine structures such as gaps and spirals of scale <100 au were discovered for the first time, structures which known to be possible signs of planet formations. With the latest ALMA performance, these NIR scattering data sets will complement the submillimeter thermal emission information gathered from various disks (HL Tau, TW Hya).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tamura, Motohide (August 2009). "Subaru Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with HiCIAO/AO188 (SEEDS)". AIP Conference Proceedings. 1158 (1): 11–16. Bibcode:2009AIPC.1158...11T. doi:10.1063/1.3215811.
  2. ^ Minowa, Yosuke; et al. (July 2010). Ellerbroek, Brent L; Hart, Michael; Hubin, Norbert; Wizinowich, Peter L (eds.). "Performance of Subaru adaptive optics system AO188" (PDF). Proceedings of the SPIE. Adaptive Optics Systems II. 7736: 122M. Bibcode:2010SPIE.7736E..3NM. CiteSeerX doi:10.1117/12.857818.
  3. ^ Tamura, Motohide; et al. (July 2006). McLean, Ian S; Iye, Masanori (eds.). "Concept and science of HiCIAO: high contrast instrument for the Subaru next generation adaptive optics" (PDF). Proceedings of the SPIE. Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy. 6269: 62690V. Bibcode:2006SPIE.6269E..0VT. CiteSeerX doi:10.1117/12.670742.
  4. ^ Hodapp, Klaus; et al. (August 2008). McLean, Ian S; Casali, Mark M (eds.). "HiCIAO: the Subaru Telescope's new high-contrast coronographic imager for adaptive optics" (PDF). Proceedings of the SPIE. Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy II. 7014: 42H. Bibcode:2008SPIE.7014E..19H. doi:10.1117/12.788088.
  5. ^ Suzuki, Ryuji; et al. (July 2010). McLean, Ian S; Ramsay, Suzanne K; Takami, Hideki (eds.). "Performance characterization of the HiCIAO instrument for the Subaru Telescope" (PDF). Proceedings of the SPIE. Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy III. 7735: 101S. Bibcode:2010SPIE.7735E..30S. CiteSeerX doi:10.1117/12.857361.
  6. ^ Kuzuhara, Masayuki; et al. (August 2013). "Direct Imaging of a Cold Jovian Exoplanet in Orbit around the Sun-like Star GJ 504". Astrophysical Journal. 774 (1): 11. arXiv:1307.2886. Bibcode:2013ApJ...774...11K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/774/1/11.
  7. ^ Carson, Joseph; et al. (January 2013). "Direct Imaging Discovery of a 'Super-Jupiter' Around the late B-Type Star Kappa And". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 763 (2): 32. arXiv:1211.3744. Bibcode:2013ApJ...763L..32C. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/763/2/L32.
  8. ^ Thalmann, Christian; et al. (December 2009). "Discovery of the Coldest Imaged Companion of a Sun-Like Star". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 707 (2): L123–L127. arXiv:0911.1127. Bibcode:2009ApJ...707L.123T. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/707/2/L123.
  9. ^ Janson, Markus; et al. (January 2011). "Near-infrared Multi-band Photometry of the Substellar Companion GJ 758 B". The Astrophysical Journal. 728 (2): 85. arXiv:1011.5505. Bibcode:2011ApJ...728...85J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/728/2/85.
  10. ^ Hashimoto, Jun; et al. (March 2011). "Direct Imaging of Fine Structures in Giant Planet-forming Regions of the Protoplanetary Disk Around AB Aurigae". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 729 (2): 17. arXiv:1102.4408. Bibcode:2011ApJ...729L..17H. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/729/2/L17.
  11. ^ Thalmann, Christian; et al. (December 2011). "Images of the Extended Outer Regions of the Debris Ring around HR 4796 A". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 743 (1): 6. arXiv:1110.2488. Bibcode:2011ApJ...743L...6T. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/743/1/L6.
  12. ^ Thalmann, Christian; et al. (August 2010). "Imaging of a Transitional Disk Gap in Reflected Light: Indications of Planet Formation Around the Young Solar Analog LkCa 15". Astrophysical Journal. 718 (2): L87–L91. arXiv:1005.5162. Bibcode:2010ApJ...718L..87T. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/718/2/L87.
  13. ^ Narita, Norio; et al. (June 2010). "Search for Outer Massive Bodies around Transiting Planetary Systems: Candidates of Faint Stellar Companions around HAT-P-7". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 62 (3): 779–786. arXiv:1004.2458. Bibcode:2010PASJ...62..779N. doi:10.1093/pasj/62.3.779.
  14. ^ Thalmann, Christian; et al. (February 2013). "Imaging Discovery of the Debris Disk Around HIP 79977". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 763 (2): 29. arXiv:1301.0625. Bibcode:2013ApJ...763L..29T. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/763/2/L29.
  15. ^ Mayama, Satoshi; et al. (December 2012). "Subaru Imaging of Asymmetric Features in a Transitional Disk in Upper Scorpius". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 760 (2): 26. arXiv:1211.3284. Bibcode:2012ApJ...760L..26M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/760/2/L26.
  16. ^ Hashimoto, Jun; et al. (October 2012). "Polarimetric Imaging of Large Cavity Structures in the Pre-transitional Protoplanetary Disk around PDS 70: Observations of the Disk". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 758 (1): 19. arXiv:1208.2075. Bibcode:2012ApJ...758L..19H. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/758/1/L19.
  17. ^ Muto, Takayuki; et al. (April 2012). "Discovery of Small-scale Spiral Structures in the Disk of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B): Implications for the Physical State of the Disk from Spiral Density Wave Theory". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 748 (2): 22. arXiv:1202.6139. Bibcode:2012ApJ...748L..22M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/748/2/L22.
  18. ^ Narita, Norio; et al. (December 2012). "A Common Proper Motion Stellar Companion to HAT-P-7". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 64 (2): 7. arXiv:1209.4422. Bibcode:2012PASJ...64L...7N. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/748/2/L22.
  19. ^ Grady, C.A.; et al. (January 2013). "Spiral Arms in the Asymmetrically Illuminated Disk of MWC 758 and Constraints on Giant Planets". Astrophysical Journal. 762 (1): 48. arXiv:1212.1466. Bibcode:2013ApJ...762...48G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/762/1/48.
  20. ^ Tanii, Ryoko; et al. (December 2012). "High-Resolution Near-Infrared Polarimetry of a Circumstellar Disk around UX Tau A". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 64 (6): 124. arXiv:1206.1215. Bibcode:2012PASJ...64..124T. doi:10.1093/pasj/64.6.124.
  21. ^ Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; et al. (July 2012). "High-Contrast NIR Polarization Imaging of MWC480". Astrophysical Journal. 753 (2): 153. arXiv:1205.3159. Bibcode:2012ApJ...753..153K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/753/2/153.
  22. ^ Thalmann, Christian; et al. (Feb 2014). "The architecture of the LkCa 15 transitional disk revealed by high-contrast imaging". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 566: 23. arXiv:1402.1766. Bibcode:2014A&A...566A..51T. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322915.
  23. ^ Tsukagoshi, Takashi; et al. (Feb 2014). "High-Resolution Submillimeter and Near-Infrared Studies of the Transition Disk around Sz 91". Astrophysical Journal. 783 (2): 90. arXiv:1402.1538. Bibcode:2014ApJ...783...90K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/783/2/90.
  24. ^ de Leon, Jerome; Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Sitko, Michael; Mayama, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Nobuyuki; Akiyama, Eiji (2015-06-04). "Near-IR High-Resolution Imaging Polarimetry of the SU Aur Disk: Clues for Tidal Tails?". The Astrophysical Journal. 806 (1): L10. arXiv:1505.03610. Bibcode:2015ApJ...806L..10D. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/806/1/L10. ISSN 2041-8213.
  25. ^ Brandt, Timothy; et al. (2014). "A Statistical Analysis of SEEDS and Other High-contrast Exoplanet Surveys: Massive Planets or Low-mass Brown Dwarfs". Astrophysical Journal. 794, 159 (2): 25. arXiv:1404.5335. Bibcode:2014ApJ...794..159B. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/794/2/159.