Jump to content

Streaming television

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Streaming television is the digital distribution of television content, such as television series and films, streamed over the Internet.[1] Standing in contrast to dedicated terrestrial television delivered by over-the-air aerial systems, cable television, and/or satellite television systems,[2] streaming television is provided as over-the-top media (OTT),[3] or as Internet Protocol television (IPTV). In the United States, streaming television has become "the dominant form of TV viewing."[4]



Up until the 1990s, it was not thought possible that a television show could be squeezed into the limited telecommunication bandwidth of a copper telephone cable to provide a streaming service of acceptable quality, as the required bandwidth of a digital television signal was (in the mid-1990s perceived to be) around 200 Mbit/s, which was 2,000 times greater than the bandwidth of a speech signal over a copper telephone wire.[5] By the year 2000, a television broadcast could be compressed to 2 Mbit/s, but most consumers still had little opportunity to obtain greater than 1 Mbit/s connection speeds.[6]

Streaming services started as a result of two major technological developments: MPEG (motion-compensated DCT) video compression and asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) data communication.[5]

The first worldwide live-streaming event was a radio live broadcast of a baseball game between the Seattle Mariners and the New York Yankees streamed by ESPN SportsZone on September 5, 1995. During the mid-2000s, the streaming media was based on UDP, whereas the basis of the majority of the Internet was HTTP and content delivery networks (CDNs). In 2007, HTTP-based adaptive streaming was introduced by Move Networks. This new technology would be a significant change for the industry. One year later the introduction of HTTP-based adaptive streaming, many companies such as Microsoft and Netflix developed their streaming technology. In 2009, Apple launched HTTP Live Streaming (HLS), and Adobe, in 2010, HTTP Dynamic Streaming (HDS). In addition, HTTP-based adaptive streaming was chosen for important streaming events such as Roland Garros, Wimbledon, Vancouver and London Olympic Games, and many others and on premium on-demand services (Netflix, Amazon Instant Video, etc.). The increase in streaming services required a new standardization, therefore in 2012, with the contributions of Apple, Netflix, Microsoft, and other companies, Dynamic Adaptive Streaming, known as MPEG-DASH, was published as the new HTTP-based adaptive streaming standard.[7]

The mid-2000s were the beginning of television programs becoming available via the Internet. In 2003, TVonline Station was founded in Greece, making it the world's first television station to produce and broadcast content exclusively over the internet.[8][9] The Online video platform site YouTube was launched in early 2005, allowing users to share illegally posted television programs.[10] YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, and later from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not easily find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.[11]

Apple's iTunes service also began offering select television programs and series in 2005, available for download after direct payment.[10] A few years later, television networks and other independent services began creating sites where shows and programs could be streamed online. Amazon Prime Video began in the United States as Amazon Unbox in 2006, but did not launch worldwide until 2016.[12] Netflix, a website originally created for DVD rentals and sales, began providing streaming content in 2007.[13] In 2008 Hulu, owned by NBC and Fox, was launched, followed by tv.com in 2009, owned by CBS. The first generation Apple TV was released in 2007 and in 2008 the first generation Roku streaming device was announced.[14][15] Digital media players also began to become available to the public during this time. These digital media players have continued to be updated and new generations released.[16]

Smart TVs took over the television market after 2010 and continue to partner with new providers to bring streaming video to even more users.[17] As of 2015, smart TVs are the only type of middle to high-end television being produced. Amazon's version of a digital media player, Amazon Fire TV, was not offered to the public until 2014.[18]

Access to television programming has evolved from computer and television access to include mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Corresponding apps for mobile devices started to become available via app stores in 2008, but they grew in popularity in the 2010s with the rapid deployment of LTE cellular network.[19][20] These mobile apps allow users to view provided streaming media on mobile devices which support them.

In 2008, the International Academy of Web Television, headquartered in Los Angeles, formed in order to organize and support television actors, authors, executives, and producers in web series and streaming television. The organization also administers the selection of winners for the Streamy Awards. In 2009, the Los Angeles Web Series Festival was founded. Several other festivals and award shows have been dedicated solely to web content, including the Indie Series Awards and the Vancouver Web Series Festival. In 2013, in response to the shifting of the soap opera All My Children from broadcast to streaming television, a new category for "Fantastic web-only series" in the Daytime Emmy Awards was created.[21] Later that year, Netflix made history by earning the first Primetime Emmy Award nominations for a streaming television series, for Arrested Development, Hemlock Grove, and House of Cards, at the 65th Primetime Emmy Awards.[22] Hulu earned the first Emmy win for Outstanding Drama Series, for The Handmaid's Tale at the 69th Primetime Emmy Awards.

Traditional cable and satellite television providers began to offer services such as Sling TV, owned by Dish Network, which was unveiled in January 2015.[23] DirecTV, another satellite television provider launched their own streaming service, DirecTV Stream, in 2016.[24][25] Sky launched a similar streaming service in the UK called Now.

In 2013, Video on demand website Netflix earned the first Primetime Emmy Award nominations for original streaming television at the 65th Primetime Emmy Awards. Three of its series, House of Cards, Arrested Development, and Hemlock Grove, earned nominations that year.[26] On July 13, 2015, cable company Comcast announced an HBO plus broadcast TV package at a price discounted from basic broadband plus basic cable.[27]

In 2017, YouTube launched YouTube TV, a streaming service that allows users to watch live television programs from popular cable or network channels, and record shows to stream anywhere, anytime.[28] As of 2017, 28% of US adults cite streaming services as their main means for watching television, and 61% of those ages 18 to 29 cite it as their main method.[29] As of 2024, Netflix is the world's largest streaming TV network and also the world's largest Internet media and entertainment company with 269 million paid subscribers, and by revenue and market cap.[30][31] In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic had a strong impact in the television streaming business with the lifestyle changes such as staying at home and lockdowns.[32][33][34][35][36][37]



The Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV (HbbTV) consortium of industry companies (such as SES, Humax, Philips, and ANT Software) is currently promoting and establishing an open European standard for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast and broadband digital television and multimedia applications with a single-user interface.[38]

BBC iPlayer originally incorporated peer-to-peer streaming, moved towards centralized distribution for their video streaming services. BBC executive Anthony Rose cited network performance as an important factor in the decision, as well as consumers being unhappy with their own network bandwidth being used for transmitting content to other viewers.[39] Samsung TV has also announced their plans to provide streaming options including 3D Video on Demand through their Explore 3D service.[40]

Access control


Some streaming services incorporate digital rights management. The W3C made the controversial decision to adopt Encrypted Media Extensions due in large part to motivations to provide copy protection for streaming content. Sky Go has software that is provided by Microsoft to prevent content being copied.[41]

Additionally, BBC iPlayer makes use of a parental control system giving users the option to "lock" content, requiring a password to access it.[42] The goal of these systems is to enable parents to keep children from viewing sexually themed, violent, or otherwise age-inappropriate material.[citation needed] Flagging systems can be used to warn a user that content may be certified or that it is intended for viewing post-watershed.[citation needed] Honour systems are also used where users are asked for their dates of birth or age to verify if they are able to view certain content.[citation needed]



IPTV delivers television content using signals based on the Internet Protocol (IP), through managed private network infrastructure entirely owned by a single telecom or Internet service provider (ISP). This stands in contrast to delivering content over unmanaged public networks - a practice known as over-the-top content delivery. Both IPTV and OTT use the Internet protocol over a packet-switched network to transmit data, but IPTV operates in a closed system—a dedicated, managed network controlled by the local cable, satellite, telephone, or fiber-optic company.[43] In its simplest form, IPTV simply replaces traditional circuit switched analog or digital television channels with digital channels which happen to use packet-switched transmission. In both the old and new systems, subscribers have set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment that communicates directly over company-owned or dedicated leased lines with central-office servers. Packets never travel over the public Internet, so the television provider can guarantee enough local bandwidth for each customer's needs.

The Internet protocol is a cheap, standardized way to enable two-way communication and simultaneously provide different data (e.g., TV-show files, email, Web browsing) to different customers. This supports DVR-like features for time shifting television: for example, to catch up on a TV show that was broadcast hours or days ago, or to replay the current TV show from its beginning. It also supports video on demand—browsing a catalog of videos (such as movies or television shows) which might be unrelated to the company's scheduled broadcasts.

IPTV has an ongoing standardization process (for example, at the European Telecommunications Standards Institute).

IPTV Over-the-top technology
Content provider Local telecom Studio, channel, or independent service
Transmission network Local telecom - dedicated owned or leased network Public Internet + local telecom
Receiver Local telecom provides (set-top box) Purchased by consumer (box, stick, TV, computer, or mobile)
Display device Screen provided by consumer Screen provided by consumer
Examples U-verse TV, Bell Fibe TV, Verizon Fios (IPTV service now discontinued) Video on demand services like 3ABN+, Disney+, Catchplay, Disney+ Hotstar, MeWatch, iWantTFC, Vidio, Sky Go, YouTube, Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Max, Discovery+, Peacock, Paramount+, JioVoot, BET+, YuppTV, Crunchyroll, BBC iPlayer, Hulu, SonyLIV, myTV, NOW, Noggin, Viu, ZEE5, MX Player.

Streaming quality


Streaming quality is the quality of image and audio transmission from the servers of the distributor to the user's screen. Also, Streaming resolution helps to measure the size of the streaming quality of video pixels. High-definition video (720p+) and later standards require higher bandwidth and faster connection speeds than previous standards, because they carry higher spatial resolution image content. In addition, transmission packet loss and latency caused by network impairments and insufficient bandwidth degrade replay quality. Decoding errors may manifest themselves with video breakup and macro blocks. The generally accepted download rate for streaming high-definition (1080p) video encoded in AVC is 6000 kbit/s, whereas UHD requires upwards of 16,000 kbit/s.[44]

For users who do not have the bandwidth to stream HD/4K video or even SD video, most streaming platforms make use of an adaptive bitrate stream so that if the user's bandwidth suddenly drops, the platform will lower its streaming bitrate to compensate. Most modern television streaming platforms offer a wide range of both manual and automatic bitrate settings which are based on initial connection tests during the first few seconds of a video loading, and can be changed on the fly. This is valid for both Live and Catch-up content. Additionally, platforms can also offer content in standards such as HDR or Dolby Vision or at higher framerates which can require additional costs or subscription tiers to access.



Internet television is common in most US households as of the mid-2010s. In a 2013 study by eMarketer, about one in four new televisions being sold is a smart TV.[45] Within the same decade, rapid deployment of LTE cellular network and general availability of smartphones have increased popularity of the streaming services, and the corresponding apps on mobile devices.[46] On August 18, 2022, Nielsen reported that for the first time, streaming viewership has surpassed cable.

Considering the popularity of smart TVs, smartphones, and devices such as the Roku and Chromecast, much of the US public can watch television via the Internet. Internet-only channels are now established enough to feature some Emmy-nominated shows, such as Netflix's House of Cards.[47] Many networks also distribute their shows the next day to streaming providers such as Hulu[48] Some networks may use a proprietary system, such as the BBC utilizes their BBC iPlayer format. This has resulted in bandwidth demands increasing to the point of causing issues for some networks. It was reported in February 2014 that Verizon Fios is having issues coping with the demand placed on their network infrastructure. Until long-term bandwidth issues are worked out and regulation such at net neutrality Internet Televisions push to HDTV may start to hinder growth.[49]

Aereo was launched in March 2012 in New York City (and subsequently stopped from broadcasting in June 2014). It streamed network TV only to New York customers over the Internet. Broadcasters filed lawsuits against Aereo, because Aereo captured broadcast signals and streamed the content to Aereo's customers without paying broadcasters. In mid-July 2012, a federal judge sided with the Aereo start-up. Aereo planned to expand to every major metropolitan area by the end of 2013.[50] The Supreme Court ruled against Aereo June 24, 2014.[51]

Some have noted that as opposed to broadcast television, with demographics of mostly "unspokenly straight" white viewers, cable, and with streaming services, dollars from subscription can "level the playing field," giving viewers from marginalized communities, and representation of their communities, "equal power."[52]

Market competitors


Many providers of Internet television services exist—including conventional television stations that have taken advantage of the Internet as a way to continue showing television shows after they have been broadcast, often advertised as "on-demand" and "catch-up" services. Today, almost every major broadcaster around the world is operating an Internet television platform.[53] Examples include the BBC, which introduced the BBC iPlayer on 25 June 2008 as an extension to its "RadioPlayer" and already existing streamed video-clip content, and Channel 4 that launched 4oD ("4 on Demand") (now All 4) in November 2006 allowing users to watch recently shown content. Most Internet television services allow users to view content free of charge; however, some content is for a fee. In the UK, the term catch up TV was most commonly used to refer to these sort of services at the time.[54]

Since 2012, around 200 over-the-top (OTT) platforms providing streamed and downloadable content have emerged.[55] Investment by Netflix in new original content for its OTT platform reached $13bn in 2018.[56]

Streaming platforms


Amazon Prime Video

Logo used since 2024

Amazon Prime Video was originally launched in the year 2006. Upon its initial release, the popular streaming service was referred to as Amazon Unbox. Amazon Prime Video was created due to the development of Amazon Prime, which is a paid service that includes free shipping of different types of goods. Amazon Prime Video is available in approximately 200 countries around the world. Each year, Amazon invests in the production of films and TV series that are streamed as Amazon originals.[57]

Apple TV+

Logo used since 2019

Apple TV+ is a streaming service owned by Apple Inc. Apple TV+[58] is a streaming subscription platform that launched November 1, 2019. The service offers original content exclusively made by Apple, being seen as Apple Originals. This streaming platform solely releases content that can only be found on Apple TV+, there is no third-party content found on the platform whereas several other streaming services have third-party content. The AppleTV+ name derives from the Apple TV media player that was released in 2007.[59]


Logo used since 2024

Disney+ is an American subscription streaming service owned and operated by the Disney Entertainment division of The Walt Disney Company.[60] Released on November 12, 2019, the service primarily distributes films and television series produced by The Walt Disney Studios and Walt Disney Television, with dedicated content hubs for the brands The Walt Disney Company, Pixar, Marvel, Star Wars, and National Geographic, as well as Star in some regions. Original films and television series are also distributed on Disney+.


Logo used since 2018

Launched in 2007, Hulu is only available to viewers in the United States because of licensing restrictions. Hulu is one of the only streaming services that provides streaming for current on-air television shows a few days after their original broadcast on cable television, but with limited availability. Hulu originally had both a free and paid plan. The free plan was accessible only via computer and there was a limited amount of content for users, whereas the paid plan could be accessed via computers, mobile devices, and connected televisions. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company became the major owner of Hulu.[61] The platform has bundle deals where customers can subscribe to both Hulu and Disney+.


Logo used since 2023

Max is a streaming service released by Warner Bros. Discovery. The platform was released on May 27, 2020 in the United States, and within the first five months of launching, had amassed 8 million subscribers across the country. It offers classic Warner Bros. films and self-produced programs, and has won the right to exclusively air Ghibli Studios films in the United States. It is not until 45 days after the theatrical release from 2022 that the release is taking place on the platform and reached 70 million subscribers in December 2021. In September 2022, 92 million households were counted as subscribers, but since this was announced, including subscribers to the HBO channel, it is expected that the actual population of Max alone will be much smaller.[62]


Logo used since 2014

Netflix, founded by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph, is a media streaming and video rental in 1997. Two years later, Netflix was offering the audience the possibility of an online subscription service. Subscribers could select movies and TV shows on Netflix's website and receive the chosen titles via DVDs in prepaid return envelopes. In 2007, Netflix's subscribers could watch some movies and TV shows online, directly from their homes.[63] In 2010, Netflix launched an only-streaming plan with unlimited streaming services without DVDs. Starting from the United States, the only-streaming plan reached several countries; by 2016 more than 190 countries could use this service.[64] In 2011, Netflix began to negotiate the production of original programming, starting with the series House of Cards.[65]

Paramount +

Logo used since 2021

Paramount+ is a streaming service that is owned by the Paramount Global Media Company. The streaming service was launched on October 28, 2014, and was known as CBS All Access originally.[66] At the time of the release, the platform focused primarily on streaming programs from local CBS stations as well as complete access to all CBS network content. In 2016 the streaming service created original content that could only be found by using the platform. As the network continued to expand with its content, the service decided to rebrand themselves and took the name Paramount+, taking its name from Paramount Pictures film studio. The network since expanded to Latin America, Europe and Australia.[67]


Logo used since 2020

Peacock is a streaming service owned and operated by Peacock TV,[68] which is a subsidiary of NBC Universal Television and Streaming. The streaming service gets its name from the NBC logo based on its colors. The platform had launched on July 15, 2020. The streaming service primarily features content that can be found on NBC networking channels as well as other third-party sources. Additionally, Peacock now offers original content that cannot be found on any other streaming platform. In December 2022, Peacock reached 20 million paid subscribers. In March 2023, the platform had 22 million paid subscribers.


Logo used since 2017

The domain name of YouTube was bought and activated by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim in the beginning of 2005. YouTube launched later that year as an online video sharing and social media platform. The video platform became popular among the audience thanks to a short video, called Lazy Sunday, uploaded by Saturday Night Live in December 2005. The SNL's video was not broadcast on TV, therefore people looked for it on Google by typing "SNL rap video," "Lazy Sunday SNL," or "Chronicles of Narnia SNL." The first result of searches was a link video on YouTube, which was the beginning of sharing videos on YouTube. Because of its popularity, YouTube had some issues caused by its bandwidth expenses. In 2006, Google bought Youtube, and after some months the video platform was the second-largest engine search in the world.[69]



In the 1990s, the practice of watching entire seasons in a short amount of time emerged with the introduction of the DVD box. Media-marathoning consists of watching at least one season of a TV show in a week or less, watching three or more films from the same series in a week or less, or reading three or more books from the same series in a month or less. The term "binge-watching" arrived with streaming TV, when Netflix launched its first original production, House of Cards, and started marketing this process of watching TV series episode after episode in 2013. COVID-19 gave another connotation to binge-watching, which was considered a negative activity.[70]

Broadcasting rights


Broadcasting rights (also called Streaming rights in this case)[71] vary from country to country and even within provinces of countries. These rights govern the distribution of copyrighted content and media and allow the sole distribution of that content at any one time. An example of content only being aired in certain countries is BBC iPlayer. The BBC checks a user's IP address to make sure that only users located in the UK can stream content from the BBC. The BBC only allows free use of their product for users within the UK as those users have paid for a television license that funds part of the BBC. This IP address check is not foolproof as the user may be accessing the BBC website through a VPN or proxy server. Broadcasting rights can also be restricted to allowing a broadcaster rights to distribute that content for a limited time. Channel 4's online service All 4 can only stream shows created in the US by companies such as HBO for thirty days after they are aired on one of the Channel 4 group channels. This is to boost DVD sales for the companies who produce that media.

Some companies pay very large amounts for broadcasting rights with sports and US sitcoms usually fetching the highest price from UK-based broadcasters. A trend among major content producers in North America [when?] is the use of the "TV Everywhere" system. Especially for live content, the TV Everywhere system restricts viewership of a video feed to select Internet service providers, usually cable television companies that pay a retransmission consent or subscription fee to the content producer. This often has the negative effect of making the availability of content dependent upon the provider, with the consumer having little or no choice on whether they receive the product.

Profits and costs


With the advent of broadband Internet connections, multiple streaming providers have come onto the market in the last couple of years. The main providers are Netflix, Hulu and Amazon. Some of these providers such as Hulu advertise and charge a monthly fee. Other such as Netflix and Amazon charge users a monthly fee and have no commercials. Netflix is the largest provider with more than 217 million subscribers.[72] The rise of internet TV has resulted in cable companies losing customers to a new kind of customer called "cord cutters". Cord cutters are consumers who are cancelling their cable TV or satellite TV subscriptions and choosing instead to stream TV series, films and other content via the Internet. Cord cutters are forming communities. With the increasing availability of Online video platform (e.g., YouTube) and streaming services, there is an alternative to cable and satellite television subscriptions. Cord cutters tend to be younger people.

Overview of platforms and availability

Service Supporting company/companies Regional availability Website-based Windows application Mac application Linux application iOS application Android application Console application TV set application Set Top Box application Free
APSFL IPTV SAYT-TV2 Andhra Pradesh, India No No No No APSFL Android Player No No APSFL IPTV and video on Demand Yes
BBC iPlayer BBC UK Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[73] Wii, PS3, PS4, PS5, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S Android TV, Samsung, LG, Sony, Panasonic, Philips Virgin Media On Demand, Freesat, Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast Yes
Citytv Citytv Rogers Communications Inc. Canada Yes. Website[74] . . . . . . . . Yes. Free until February 5, 2024.
NBC NBCUniversal (Comcast) US Yes No No No Yes Yes[75] PS3, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S Android TV, Samsung, Vizio Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast Yes
ABC Walt Disney Television (The Walt Disney Company) US Yes No No No Yes Yes PS4, PS5, Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S Android TV, Samsung, Vizio Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast Yes
FOX Now Fox Corporation US Yes No No No Yes Yes PS4, PS5, Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S Android TV, Samsung, Vizio Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast Yes
The CW The CW Network US Yes No No No Yes Yes PS4, PS5, Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S Android TV, Samsung, Vizio Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast Yes
CBS Paramount Streaming
(Paramount Global)
US Yes No No No Yes Yes PS4, PS5, Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S Android TV, Samsung, Vizio Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast Yes
Jio TV LYF India No No No No Yes Yes No No Jio on Demand Yes
Tivibu Argela TR Yes Yes Yes Yes Argela Android Player Pending None Ttnet on Demand No
Sky Go Sky UK (Comcast) UK & Ireland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PS3, PS4, PS5, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S Android TV, Samsung, LG, Sony, Panasonic, Philips Amazon Fire TV, Apple TV, Chromecast No
Eros Now Eros India Yes Yes Yes Yes Eros Android Player No Yes Bollywood on Demand, Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast Yes
ITVX ITV UK Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PS3, PS4, PS5, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S Android TV Virgin Media On Demand, Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast Yes
STV Player STV UK Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PS3 Android TV Amazon Fire TV, Apple TV, Chromecast, Now TV, Roku, Sky Glass, Virgin Media On Demand Yes
ABC iview ABC Australia Yes No No No Yes Yes PS3, PS4, PS5, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S Android TV, Samsung, LG, Sony, Panasonic, Philips Apple TV, Chromecast, Amazon Fire TV Yes
SBS On Demand SBS Australia Yes No No No Yes Yes PS3, PS4, Xbox 360 Android TV, Samsung, LG, Sony, Panasonic, Philips Apple TV, Chromecast, Amazon Fire TV Yes
7plus Seven West Media Australia Yes No No No Yes Yes PS4, PS5 Android TV, Samsung, LG, Panasonic, Philips Apple TV, Chromecast, Amazon Fire TV Yes
9Now Nine Entertainment Australia Yes No No No Yes Yes PS4 Android TV, Samsung, LG, Panasonic, Philips Apple TV, Chromecast, Amazon Fire TV, Roku Yes
10Play Paramount Networks UK & Australia
(Paramount Global)
Australia Yes No No No Yes Yes Xbox 360, Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S Android TV, Samsung, LG, Panasonic, Philips Apple TV, Chromecast, Amazon Fire TV Yes
Foxtel Now Foxtel Australia Yes No No No Yes Yes PS4 and PS5 Android TV, Samsung, LG, Sony, Hisense Apple TV and Chromecast No
Channel 4 Channel 4 UK & Ireland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PS3, PS4, PS5, Xbox 360, Xbox One, Xbox Series X/S Android TV Virgin Media On Demand, Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast Yes
RTÉ Player RTÉ Ireland Yes Yes Yes Android TV Apple TV and Chromecast Yes
TG4 Beo TG4 Ireland and Worldwide/International Yes Android TV Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast Yes
Virgin Media Player Virgin Media Ireland Ireland Yes Yes Yes Android TV Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast Yes
Global Video Global Canada Yes Yes Yes Android TV Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast No
CBC Gem CBC Canada Yes[76] Yes Yes Android TV Amazon Fire TV, Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast Yes
myTV OSN, Rotana Group, SNA Corp Americas, Australasia No Not yet Not yet No Yes Yes Not yet Samsung Smart TV, LG Smart TV, Google TV Western Digital, Boxee Box, Netgear NTV 300, Google TV devices, Samsung and Android tablets No
PTCL Smart TV App PTCL Pakistan Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No None Standalone PTCL Smart Settop Box No
My5 Channel 5, Paramount Global UK Yes No No Yes Yes Yes None Samsung Smart TV, LG Smart TV, Google TV Amazon Fire TV, Apple TV, Chromecast, Now TV, Roku, Sky Glass, Virgin Media On Demand No

See also



  1. ^ Supan, Joe (June 22, 2023). "What you need to stream TV: A beginner's guide". Allconnect. Archived from the original on January 20, 2024.
  2. ^ "What is streaming TV?". CenturyLink. 2020. Archived from the original on March 25, 2024. Retrieved 2 April 2024.
  3. ^ "What is OTT? Understanding the streaming platforms such as Netflix, Amazon, and Apple TV". TravSonic. February 29, 2024. Archived from the original on June 13, 2024. Retrieved 29 April 2024.
  4. ^ "Need to Know: What's the difference between OTT, CTV and streaming?". Nielsen Corporation. February 2024. Archived from the original on April 4, 2024. Retrieved 29 April 2024.
  5. ^ a b Lea, William (1994). Video on demand: Research Paper 94/68. House of Commons Library. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  6. ^ Hogan, Hank (1 March 2000). "Full-Stream Ahead for Multimedia Content?". Multichannel News International. Cahners. p. 32. Retrieved 11 May 2024.
  7. ^ Zambelli, Alex (1 March 2013). "A history of media streaming and the future of connected TV". The Guardian.
  8. ^ TV News "Crete TV", YouTube, August 20, 2014.
  9. ^ "Telework", Telework, August 6, 2013.
  10. ^ a b Waterman, David; Sherman, Ryland; Wook Ji, Sung (October 2013). "The economics of online television: Industry development, aggregation, and 'TV Everywhere'". Telecommunications Policy. 37 (9): 725–736. doi:10.1016/j.telpol.2013.07.005.
  11. ^ Hopkins, Jim (October 11, 2006). "Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
  12. ^ "Amazon - Press Room - Press Release".[dead link] phx.corporate-ir.net. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  13. ^ "About Netflix". Netflix Media Center. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  14. ^ "How Apple's iTV Media Strategy Works". www.roughlydrafted.com. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  15. ^ "Inside The Tech Of The Netflix Player With Roku | HotHardware". HotHardware. HotHardware. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  16. ^ Zickuhr, Kathryn (3 February 2011). "Generations and their gadgets". Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech.
  17. ^ Johnson, James (2019-10-10). "OTT TV: What It Is and How It's Shaping The Video Industry". Uscreen. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
  18. ^ Horn, Leslie. "Fire TV: Everything You Need to Know About Amazon's $100 Streaming Box". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  19. ^ Vora, Rutam (26 August 2016). "In 4G era, app, video streaming experience key for brand loyalty: Report". @businessline. Retrieved 2021-11-23.
  20. ^ "Data traffic grew by 60 times in past 5 years – 99% of the data usage came from 4G in 2020". Business Insider. Retrieved 2021-11-23.
  21. ^ "NATAS Hopes to Make 40th Daytime Emmys a Winner". broadcastingcable.com. December 24, 2012. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
  22. ^ Stelter, Brian (2013-07-18). "Netflix Does Well in 2013 Primetime Emmy Nominations". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2013-07-19. Retrieved 2013-07-18.
  23. ^ Joshua Brustein (January 5, 2015). "Dish's New Sling TV Service Could Free You From Cable". Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg LP. Retrieved January 12, 2015.
  24. ^ Spangler, Todd (2016-11-18). "AT&T Sets DirecTV Now Launch Event for Nov. 28". Variety. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  25. ^ "LG to show off webOS 2.0 smart TV at CES 2015". CNET. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  26. ^ Stelter, Brian (2013-07-18). "Netflix Does Well in 2013 Primetime Emmy Nominations". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-07-18.
  27. ^ Spangler, Todd (13 July 2015). "Comcast Aims at 'Cord-Nevers' with $15 HBO, Basic TV Internet-Streaming Bundle". variety.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017.
  28. ^ "YouTube TV - Watch & DVR Live Sports, Shows & News". YouTube TV - Watch & DVR Live Sports, Shows & News. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  29. ^ "About 6 in 10 young adults in U.S. primarily use online streaming to watch TV". Pew Research Center. 2017-09-13. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  30. ^ "Netflix's Growth Is in the Eye of the Beholder". Bloomberg.com. 2018-01-22. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
  31. ^ Balakrishnan, Anita (22 January 2018). "Netflix jumps more than 8% after adding more subscribers than expected". CNBC.
  32. ^ Fosty, Vincent; Houben, Tim (March 2020). "Online media streaming will benefit from the coronavirus pandemic". Deloitte Belgium. ... if it does not last too long!
  33. ^ Dayal, Tanvi (July 23, 2022). "How The Pandemic Boosted Business For Streaming Services". Jumpstart.
  34. ^ "Streaming Consumption Rises In U.S. Markets with Early Stay-at-Home Orders During COVID-19". Nielsen Media Research. April 2020.
  35. ^ Lovejoy, Ben (June 21, 2022). "Video streaming services see end of pandemic boom". 9to5mac.com.
  36. ^ Rajan, Amol (August 5, 2020). "TV watching and online streaming surge during lockdown". BBC News.
  37. ^ Levin, Gary; Lawler, Kelly; Keveney, Bill; Jensen, Erin (March 11, 2021). "How pandemic changed TV, and how much of it will last". USA Today.
  38. ^ "New European Initiative Merges Television with the Power of the Internet" (PDF) (Press release). HbbTV Consortium. August 27, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 7, 2009.
  39. ^ "iPlayer uncovered: What powers the BBC's epic creation?". November 18, 2009. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010. Retrieved December 2, 2009. CNet interview with iPlayer boss Anthony Rose, mostly on iPlayer 3.0
  40. ^ Samsung To Do 3D VOD Streaming, May 24, 2011
  41. ^ Gibbs, Samuel (6 September 2018). "Microsoft Surface Go review: tablet that's better for work than play". the Guardian. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  42. ^ "How do I use the parental guidance lock on the TV app? | iPlayer help". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2022-07-03.
  43. ^ Narang, Nitin. "Concept Series : What is the Difference between OTT and IPTV". Researcher on TV technology. Media Entertainment Info. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  44. ^ "Video Quality on Hulu". Hulu. Disney.
  45. ^ "Connected TVs Reach One in Four Homes". January 3, 2013. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
  46. ^ Vora, Rutam (26 August 2016). "In 4G era, app, video streaming experience key for brand loyalty: Report". @businessline. Retrieved 2021-11-25.
  47. ^ Dominguez, Robert (February 18, 2014). "'House of Cards' season 2 sees surge of Netflix viewers over first season". NY Daily News. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  48. ^ "Watch TV and movies on Xbox, PS3, Apple TV, and more - Hulu". Hulu.
  49. ^ Anthony, Sebastian (23 February 2014). "Why Netflix streaming is getting slower, and probably won't get better any time soon". ExtremeTech.
  50. ^ "Aereo Threatens Broadcasters By Streaming Network TV Online". HuffPost. July 20, 2012.
  51. ^ Stelter, Brian (June 25, 2014). "Supreme Court rules against Aereo". CNNMoney.
  52. ^ White, Abbey (June 21, 2021). "Kids' cartoons have more LGBTQ representation than ever before — but only if you pay for it". Insider. Archived from the original on June 23, 2021.
  53. ^ Internet television platforms around the world International TV Explorer
  54. ^ "Online and catch-up TV added to official ratings". BBC News. 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2024-07-01.
  55. ^ "Parks Associates Announces 2017 Top 10 U.S. Subscription OTT Video Services". www.parksassociates.com. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  56. ^ "Netflix Is Expected to Spend up to $13 Billion on Original Programming This Year". Fortune. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  57. ^ David Bloom (2021-03-17). "Amazon Prime Video: Everything You Need to Know About the Most Powerful Empire in Video Streaming". NextTV. Retrieved 2022-12-09.
  58. ^ "The TV game: how will Apple, Netflix, Hulu and Time Warner play?: Behind the scenes at the most complex show on earth". Strategic Direction. 27 (8): 5–7. 21 June 2011. doi:10.1108/02580541111146795.
  59. ^ "Apple, Disney Enter Streaming Market". NPR.
  60. ^ Nunan, Tom. "5 Reasons Why Disney+ Is Breaking Records While Making History". Forbes. Retrieved December 12, 2020.
  61. ^ "Hulu | Definition, History, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-12-09.
  62. ^ "What is HBO Max? Everything you need to know". Android Authority. 2023-01-13. Retrieved 2023-04-14.
  63. ^ Jenner, Mareike (February 2016). "Is this TVIV? On Netflix, TVIII and binge-watching". New Media & Society. 18 (2): 257–273. doi:10.1177/1461444814541523. S2CID 206728191.
  64. ^ "Netflix | Founders, History, Shows, & Facts". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-12-09.
  65. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (March 15, 2011). "Netflix To Enter Original Programming With Mega Deal For David Fincher-Kevin Spacey Series 'House Of Cards'". Deadline Hollywood.
  66. ^ Broe, Dennis (2020). "Post Corona Film and Television: Stream It, Skip It, or Revolutionize It?". Framework. 61 (2): 202–216. doi:10.13110/framework.61.2.0202. S2CID 229355965. Project MUSE 776051.
  67. ^ Anderson, Hayley (4 March 2021). "Paramount Plus: What shows can you watch on Paramount Plus?". Express. ProQuest 2496746405.
  68. ^ Kweon, Heaji J.; Kweon, Sang Hee (2021). "Pricing Strategy within the U.S. Streaming Services Market: A Focus on Netflix's Price Plans". International Journal of Contents. 17 (2): 1–8. doi:10.5392/IJOC.2021.17.2.001. S2CID 237263555.
  69. ^ Lamare, Amy (31 July 2018). "How streaming started: YouTube, Netflix, and Hulu's quick ascent". The Business of Business.
  70. ^ Horeck, Tanya (September 2021). "'Netflix and Heal': The Shifting Meanings of Binge-Watching during the COVID-19 Crisis". Film Quarterly. 75 (1): 35–40. doi:10.1525/fq.2021.75.1.35. S2CID 239698912.
  71. ^ "Netflix Nabs Post-PVOD Streaming Rights to Sony's Feature Films in Multiyear Deal". The Hollywood Reporter. 8 April 2021.
  72. ^ "Netflix subscribers count (Worldwide)". Statista. Retrieved 2021-12-01.
  73. ^ "BBC iPlayer – Apps op Android Market". Market.android.com. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
  74. ^ "City TV". City TV.
  75. ^ "NBC Apps - NBC.com". NBC.
  76. ^ "CBC GEM". CBC GEM.