A streamliner is a vehicle incorporating streamlining in a shape providing reduced air resistance. The term is applied to high-speed railway trainsets of the 1930s to 1950s, and to their successor "bullet trains". Less commonly, the term is applied to fully faired recumbent bicycles. As part of the Streamline Moderne trend, the term was applied to passenger cars, trucks, and other types of light-, medium-, or heavy-duty vehicles, but now vehicle streamlining is so prevalent that it is not an outstanding characteristic. In land speed racing, it is a term applied to the long, slender, custom built, high-speed vehicles with enclosed wheels.
- 1 Trains
- 2 Automobiles
- 3 Bicycles
- 4 Buses
- 5 Motorcycles
- 6 Ships
- 7 Trailers
- 8 Sterling Streamliner diners
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Before World War II
The first high-speed streamliner in Germany was the "Schienenzeppelin", an experimental propeller driven single car, built 1930. On 21 June 1931, it set a speed record of 230.2 km/h (143.0 mph) on a run between Berlin and Hamburg. In 1932 the propeller was removed and a hydraulic system installed. The Schienenzeppelin made 180 km/h (112 mph) in 1933.
The Schienenzeppelin led to the construction of the diesel-electric DRG Class SVT 877 "Flying Hamburger". This two-car train set had 98 seats and a top speed of 160 km/h (99 mph). During regular service starting on 15 May 1933, this train ran the 286 kilometres (178 mi) between Hamburg and Berlin in 138 minutes with an average speed of 124.4 km/h (77.3 mph). The SVT 877 was the prototype for the DRG Class SVT 137, first built in 1935 for use in the FDt express train service. During test drives, the SVT 137 "Bauart Leipzig" set a world speed record of 205 km/h (127 mph) in 1936. The fastest regular service with SVT 137 was between Hannover and Hamm with an average speed of 132.2 km/h (82.1 mph). This service lasted until 22 August 1939.
In 1935 Henschel & Son, a major manufacturer of steam locomotives, was able to upgrade its various steam locomotives to a high speed Streamliner type with a maximum speeds of up to 85 km/h (53 mph) by the addition of a removable shell over the old steam locomotive. The type was used on the Frankfurt am Main to Berlin route.
In the United Kingdom, development of streamlined passenger services began in 1934, with the Great Western Railway introducing relatively low-speed streamlined railcars, and the London and North Eastern Railway introducing the "Silver Jubilee" service using streamlined A4 class steam locomotives and full length trains rather than railcars. In 1938 on a test run, the locomotive Mallard built for this service broke the record for the fastest steam locomotive, reaching 126 mph (203 km/h). The London Midland and Scottish Railway introduced streamline locomotives of the Princess Coronation Class shortly before the outbreak of war.
The Ferrovie dello Stato (Italian railways) developed the FS Class ETR 200, a three-unit electric streamliner. The development started in 1934. These trains went into service in 1937. On 6 December 1937, an ETR 200 made a top speed of 201 km/h (125 mph) between Campoleone and Cisterna on the run Rome-Naples. In 1939 the ETR 212 even made 203 km/h (126 mph). The 219-kilometre (136 mi) journeys from Bologna to Milan were made in 77 minutes, meaning an average of 171 km/h (106 mph).
In the Netherlands, Nederlandse Spoorwegen introduced the Materieel 34 (DE3), a three unit 140 km/h (87 mph) streamlined diesel-electric trainset in 1934. An electric version, Materieel 36, went into service in 1936. From 1940 the "Dieselvijf" (DE5), a 160 km/h (99 mph) top speed five unit diesel-electric trainset based on DE3, completed the Dutch streamliner fleet. During test runs, a DE5 ran 175 km/h (109 mph). That year the similar electric Materieel 40 were first built.
In Czechoslovakia in 1934, Czechoslovak State Railways ordered two motor railcars with maximum speed 130 km/h (81 mph). The order was received by Tatra company, which was producing first streamlined mass-produced automobile Tatra 77 in that time. The railcar project was led by Tatra chief designer Hans Ledwinka and received streamlined design. Both ČSD Class M 290.0 were delivered in 1936 with desired 130 km/h (81 mph) maximum speed, although during test runs one car reached 148 km/h (92 mph) mark. They were run on Czechoslovak prominent route Prague-Bratislava under Slovenská strela (Slovak for "Slovak Arrow") brand.
The earliest known streamlined rail equipment in the United States were McKeen motorized railcars built for Union Pacific and Southern Pacific between 1905 and 1917. Most of them sported a pointed "wind splitter" front, a rounded rear, and round porthole style windows in a style that was as much nautically as aerodynamically inspired. Union Pacific would carry the nautical theme, including porthole windows, into the Diesel streamliner era. The McKeen cars were unsuccessful because internal combustion technology for that application was completely unreliable at the time and the lightweight frames dictated by their limited power tended to break. Streamlined rail motorcars would appear again in the early 1930s after rail motorcar propulsion gained its internal combustion-electric technological footing in the 1920s.
The Pullman Company first experimented with lightweight self-propelled railcars in co-operation with the Ford Motor Company in 1925. In 1932 they enlisted the services of William Bushnell Stout, a pioneer in all-metal aircraft construction, to apply airplane fuselage design concepts to railcars. The result was the Railplane (not the Bennie Railplane), a streamlined self-propelled railcar with a tapered cross-section, lightweight tubular aluminum space frame and duralumin skin. During testing with the Gulf, Mobile and Northern Railroad in 1932, it reportedly reached 90 miles per hour. Pullman's customer Union Pacific took notice.
In 1931 the Budd Company reached an agreement with the French tire company Michelin to produce pneumatic-tired rail motorcars in the US. Budd sought to improve upon the clunky and slow "doodlebugs" that shimmied and rattled their way down American tracks with lightweight streamlined rubber-shod rail motorcars. In that endeavor, Budd would produce lightweight rail equipment utilizing unibody construction and the high strength alloy stainless steel, enabled by shot welding, a breakthrough in electrical welding technique. The ultimate products of that venture were articulated power-trailer car sets that left the Budd Company just a (much) more powerful motor away from producing a history-making streamlined trainset.
The Great Depression caused catastrophic loss of business for the rail industry as a whole and for manufacturers of motorized railcars, whose primary markets, branch line services, were among the first to be cut. The interests of lightweight equipment manufacturers and rail operators converged in the development of a new generation of lightweight streamlined trains for mainline service, using internal combustion-electric propulsion rather than steam, with high top speeds. The Burlington and Union Pacific railroads sought to increase the efficiency of their passenger service and looked to the lightweight, petroleum-driven technology offered by Budd and Pullman-Standard for their solutions. Union Pacific's project was named the M-10000 (nicknamed Little Zip and as The City of Salina in revenue service 1934–41) and Burlington's was named the Zephyr. Both were articulated designs and went into service as three car (including power car) sets. The prime mover for the Zephyr's propulsion was a new 600 hp Diesel motor and for the M-10000 a 600 hp spark-ignition engine running on "petroleum distillate", a fuel similar to kerosene. Both motors were developed by Winton Engine Company, after 1930 a subsidiary of General Motors.
Both trains were star attractions at the 1934 World's Fair ("A Century of Progress") in Chicago, Illinois. M-10000 was officially named "The Streamliner" during its demonstration period, the original use of the term with respect to trains. Its publicity tour from February to May 1934 attracted over a million visitors and attention in national media as the herald of a new era in rail transportation. On 26 May 1934, the Zephyr made a record-breaking "Dawn to Dusk" run from Denver, Colorado to Chicago for its grand entry as a Century of Progress exhibit. The train covered the distance in 13 hours, reaching a top speed of 112.5 mph (181.1 km/h) and running an average speed of 77.6 mph (124.9 km/h). The fuel for the run cost US$14.64 (at 4¢ per U.S. gallon). The event was covered live on radio networks and drew large, cheering crowds as the "silver streak" zipped by.
The Zephyr entered revenue service between Kansas City Missouri and Lincoln Nebraska on 11 November 1934 as the Pioneer Zephyr. A total of nine Zephyr trainsets were built for Burlington between 1934 and 1939, serving various midwestern routes. After the introduction of the Pioneer Zephyr, two Twin Cities Zephyrs of the same three car configuration entered service on the link between Chicago and the Twin Cities in April 1935. As a public relations gimmick, the two trains first headed to Minnesota on parallel tracks while carrying twins as passengers. Larger trainsets were built and put into service over longer routes, using Winton's more powerful motors, twin motors, and eventually booster power units to meet the additional power requirements. The four car Mark Twain Zephyr went into service on the Saint Louis Missouri – Burlington Iowa run in October 1935. Two six car trainsets inaugurated Denver Zephyr service between Chicago and Denver in May 1936. They were replaced by a pair of partially-articulated ten car sets in November 1936, in turn replacing the original Twin Cities Zephyr sets which then went to other routes run by Burlington. The last of the classic Zephyrs built was for the Kansas City – Saint Louis General Pershing Zephyr run, entering service in June 1939 with GM's newest 1000 hp motor and conventional coupling.
The Gulf, Mobile and Northern Railroad Rebel trains were similar to the Zephyr in form, but not articulated. Designed by Otto Kuhler, diesel-electrics built by American Car and Foundry Company were placed into service 10 July 1935.
M-10000 went into service between Kansas City, MO and Salina, KS, on 31 January 1935, which earned it the name City of Salina. M-10000 served that route as a three car set until it was retired in 1941 then scrapped in 1942; it provided Duralumin recycled for military aircraft.
Union Pacific commissioned six more trainsets evolved from the initial M-10000 design and inaugurated high speed service out of Chicago with its City of Portland (June 1935), Los Angeles (May 1936), San Francisco (June 1936), and Denver (June 1936) streamliners. The M-10001 set consisted of a single power unit with a 1200 hp Winton Diesel motor pulling six tapered low profile cars in the form of the original M-10000 set. The M-10002 set consisted of a 1200+900 hp cab/booster locomotive pulling nine cars of the same form. The latest were powered by automotive-styled cab/booster locomotive sets with 1200 hp motors. The City of Denver sets started service two cars shorter than the M-10002 and M-10004 sets, with roomier and heavier straight-sided cars. Initial service to the west coast consisted of five runs monthly for each route. Daily overnight service was maintained on the Chicago – Denver run by assigning three locomotive sets for two trains, then augmenting that stable with locomotive equipment pulled from other runs.
Despite the breakthrough schedule times of the long distance M-1000x "City" trains the service record of the fleet reflected the limitations of their technology in meeting the demands of long distance and higher capacity service. M-10001 served for 32 months as City of Portland until it was replaced, re-entered service on the Portland – Seattle run, then was pulled from service for the last time in June 1939. After 18 months of service as City of San Francisco M-10004 spent six months being refurbished, then was assigned to the Los Angeles run from July 1938 until it was pulled from service in March 1939. Power equipment from M-10001 and M-10004 was used for extra booster power units for the City of Denver trains. The M-10004 car set served as City of Portland from 1941 to 1947 powered by an EMC E3 locomotive set. M-10002 spent just over 5 years on the Los Angeles and Portland runs, ten months out of service starting in July 1941, then was retired for good in March 1943 after serving on the Portland – Seattle run. The two City of Denver trainsets stayed in service until 1953, in no small part due to the equipment pulled from other runs.
The Illinois Central 121 trainset was the first of the Green Diamond streamliners running between Chicago and St Louis. It was a five-unit (including power car) articulated trainset for day service. The Pullman-built trainset had the same power format and 1200 hp Winton Diesel motor as M-10001, with some style aspects that resembled the later 1000x trainsets. It ran from May 1936 until it was replaced in 1947. After an overhaul it was placed on the Jackson Mississippi – New Orleans run until it was retired and scrapped in 1950.
The success of the visual styling of the new trainsets did not go unnoticed by the rest of the industry, whose existing fleets of engines and railcars suddenly looked old hat. The Pennsylvania Railroad's GG1 electric locomotives were the first locomotives other than the Diesel trainsets to be built as streamliners, in 1934. Many steam locomotives were streamlined during this time to attract passengers, although the streamlining was less effective in improving efficiency for those engines than it was in making a visual statement. The first steam streamliners evoked the "shovel nose" front-end design of the Zephyr Diesel trains. Later designs such as the Dreyfuss-designed Hudsons featured bulbous fronts evocative of fantasy spacecraft and others strove for uniqueness with some truly eccentric designs. Examples of streamliner steam locomotives include the New York Central's "Super Hudsons" as used on the Twentieth Century Limited and Empire State Express; the Milwaukee Road's purpose-built Atlantics and Hudsons used in Hiawatha service; the Pennsylvania Railroad's duplex-drive 4-4-4-4 type T1 locomotives, and two Union Pacific engines, a 4-6-2 and a 4-8-2, used on the Forty Niner.
Many of the streamliners were older locomotives with added shrouding and varying degrees of mechanical improvement, pulling re-styled heavyweight cars. Nonetheless, the newly designed steam locomotives became very fast; the Milwaukee Road's class F7-powered Hiawatha was known to cruise regularly above 110 mph (177 km/h) and said to exceed 120 mph (193 km/h) on occasion. The first American steam streamliner locomotive was the New York Central's Commodore Vanderbilt, unveiled in December 1934. It was in fact a J-1 Hudson class locomotive built in 1930, with streamlined shrouding added. The Milwaukee Road class A, introduced to service in May 1935, was designed to compete with the Twin Cities Zephyr for speed, making it the first steam streamliner equipped to back up its styled claim to extra speed.
The EMC E series Diesel streamliner locomotives introduced in 1937 incorporated the lightweight carbody construction and raked front end introduced with the Zephyr, the high-mounted, behind-the-nose cab of the M-1000x locomotives, and the twin motor power units developed with their own EMC 1800 hp B-B locomotives. The earliest adopters of these more powerful Diesels were B&O, AT&SF (Santa Fe), and Union Pacific. The E series locomotives were standardized mechanically and in form, with details modified for some customer orders. For example, the E2 was a bulbous-nosed, ornamented version produced for Union Pacific in 1937 to mimic some style aspects of their latest latest M-1000x series locomotives, but otherwise the same as the locomotives produced for EMC's other customers. Standardized production was a departure from previous practice in the locomotive industry, where major design elements were customized to individual orders. EMC was thus able to capitalize on economies of scale in production, reducing the gap in initial costs between Diesel and steam. The carbody construction of the E-units was carried forward for passenger and freight road Diesels through the 1950s.
EMC's new Diesel locomotives brought sufficient power for full-sized trains such as the B&O Capitol Limited, AT&SF Super Chief, and Union Pacific's upgraded City of Los Angeles and City of San Francisco, which challenged steam power in all aspects of passenger service. State-of-the-art steam locomotives won the competition with Diesel in terms of raw power and top speed but lost in terms of service flexibility, downtime, maintenance costs, and economic efficiency for most operators, particularly as the power and reliability of new Diesel units improved with the 2000 hp EMD 567 powered E3 model in 1938. The course of the Diesel-steam competition was shifted by the outbreak of war, with a military premium on Diesel technology that compelled rail operators to get the most they could out of steam. Coal remained in plentiful supply while petroleum distribution was disrupted in the early days of the US war effort, keeping steam power an attractive option.
The trend of streamliners also hit Japan. In 1934, Ministry of Railways (Japanese Government Railways, JGR) decided to convert one of its 3-cylinder steam locomotives class C53 into streamlined style. The selected locomotive was No.43 of class C53. However Hideo Shima, the chief engineer of the conversion, thought streamlining had no practical effect on reducing air resistance, because Japanese trains at that time did not exceed maximum speed of 100 km/h (62 mph). Therefore, he designed the locomotive to create air flow that lifted exhaust smoke away from the locomotive. He had expected no practical effect on reducing air resistance completely, therefore he never tried to test fuel consumption or tractive force of the converted locomotive. The Japanese government planned to use this one converted streamline locomotive on the passenger express route between Osaka and Nagoya.
The converted locomotive gained much popularity from the public. So JGR decided to build 21 new streamlined versions of the class C55 locomotive(Japanese). Also JGR built 3 streamlined class EF55 electric locomotives. Kiha-43000 diesel multiple units and Moha-52 electric multiple units also got streamlined style. South Manchuria Railway under Japanese control at that time also designed Pashina type streamlined locomotive and operated Asia Express, which had total coordinated style with Pashina locomotive.
These streamlined steam locomotives took many man hours to repair due to its casing. After the outbreak of WW2, the lack of an experienced labor force made the problems worse. Finally, the casings were removed and these locomotives were used with a miserable appearance.
Streamliners after World War II
High speed steam service continued after the war ended, but became increasingly uneconomic. New York Central's Super Hudsons went out of service in 1948 as the line converted to Diesel for passenger service. The Milwaukee Road retired its high speed Hiawatha steam locomotives between 1949 and 1951. All of those iconic locomotives were scrapped. The last of Pennsylvania Railroad's short-lived T1 class locomotives went out of service in 1952. The last steam streamliners built were three Norfolk and Western 4-8-4 J1 class locomotives in 1950. They were in revenue service until 1959. In 2015, the Norfolk and Western No. 611 J1 locomotive was restored as the only operating example of a steam streamliner in the United States.
After 26 years of service and traveling over 3,000,000 miles (4,800,000 km), the Pioneer Zephyr went to Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry. The remaining three M-1000x locomotive sets that made it to the postwar era went out of service in 1953 and were scrapped. The Flying Yankee, the third streamliner to enter service, is undergoing restoration to operational condition. The Silver Charger locomotive of the General Pershing Zephyr trainset remained in service with conventional passenger trains until 1966 and is also undergoing restoration. The last prewar streamliner locomotives in regular service were E6 units retired in 1993. Some GG1 electric locomotives remained in service until 1983.
In 1951, the Interstate Commerce Commission, implemented regulations restricting most trains to speeds of 79 mph (127 km/h) or below unless automatic train stop, automatic train control, or cab signalling were installed. The new regulations minimized one of the key advantages of rail travel over the automobile, which became an increasingly attractive alternative for shorter trips as postwar construction of highway systems progressed. Operators of Diesel streamliners marketed their services on the basis of luxurious sightseeing as airlines increasingly competed with rail lines for long distance travel. Unlike air and automotive infrastructure, which were government subsidized, rail infrastructure was entirely supported by operating revenues. Government regulations forced railroads to continue to operate passenger-carrying rail service, even on long routes where, the railroads argued, it was almost impossible to make a profit. By the late 1960s, most operators were seeking to get out of passenger service altogether.
Since 1971, the majority of passenger rail systems in the United States have been operated by Amtrak. The lightweight, aerodynamic carbody construction pioneered with the Zephyr has been reintroduced with Amtrak's GE Genesis Diesel locomotives in their quest for greater fuel efficiency. Faster Acela Express trains have been introduced in the Boston to Washington, D.C. Northeast Corridor. Many areas around the United States have been considering construction of new high-speed lines, but rail travel is much less common in the United States than in Europe or Japan. In 2008, California voters approved bonds to initiate construction of high speed rail lines serving the Central Valley, the Bay Area, and southern California. Construction of the first segment, between Bakersfield and Merced, began in 2015.
In Europe the streamliner tradition gained new life after World War II. In Germany, the DRG Class SVT 137 were used again, but at lower speed. Based on the Kruckenberg SVT 137 the DB Class VT 11.5 (later renamed to DB Class 601) was used as "Trans Europ Express (TEE)" for international high speed trains. In East Germany the DR Class VT 18.16 was built for international express service also. From 1965, DB used more and more streamlined electric locomotives DB Class 103 with regular trains for high speed service, but from 1973 DB used with the DB Class ET 403 (nickname "Donald Duck") a real streamliner again. The ET 403 was a four-unit electric train with tilting technology. Since 1991 the ICE Service with ICE 1 (Class 401) is used for high speed service. However, it needed 60 years to break the record speed of the first "Flying Hamburger" from 1933 on the run Hamburg-Berlin.
The Swiss SBB and the Dutch NS developed the RAm TEE (Dutch: DE) for the routes Zurich-Amsterdam and Amsterdam-Brussels-Paris. These trains were sold in 1977 to the Canadian Ontario Northland Railway (ONR) and served on the line Toronto–Moosonee as the Northlander. From 1961, SBB used the SBB RAe TEE II, a four system electric streamlined trainset for the TEE service.
In the United Kingdom streamline services ended on the outbreak of WWII. During the war the LNER and LMS streamlined locomotives had part of their streamlining removed to aid maintenance. By the late 1940s and early 1950s the state of the railways was improving as track conditions caused by war damage and delayed maintenance work were repaired for more mainline track for high speed running.
The first experiments with diesel streamliner services in the United Kingdom were the Blue Pullman trains introduced in 1960 and withdrawn in 1973. These provided 90 mph (140 km/h) luxury business services, but were marginally successful and ran little faster than mainstream services. The Blue Pullman was followed by research into streamlined trains and tilting trains which led to the iconic Intercity 125 (Class 43) offering 125 mph (201 km/h) train services across the United Kingdom.
After WW2, Japanese railroads favored multiple unit type trains, even on its mainlines. In 1949, Japanese National Railways (JNR) released Series 80 EMUs which were used for long distance trains for the first time as multiple unit trains. The lead coaches of Series 80 EMUs built after 1950 incorporated a streamlined design. In 1957, Odakyu Electric Railway released 3000 series EMUs. The exterior design was developed using a wind tunnel intended for aircraft. Odakyu 3000 marked the world speed record at the time (145 km/h) for a narrow gauge train. Multiple Unit trains were now proven suitable for long distance trains by the JNR Series 80 and for high speed trains by the Odakyu 3000. These experiences led to the development of the first shinkansen, the 0 Series. 0 series were strongly influenced by the Odakyu 3000, and also developed using a wind tunnel. The lead coaches of the 0 series were developed using a Douglas DC-8 for a reference. At a speed of 200 km/h, the aerodynamic style of the 0 series had a substantial effect on reducing air resistance.
High speed train services today
Worldwide many, if not most, high speed passenger trains are now streamlined, and speeds continue to rise as high-speed rail services become the normal long distance rail service.
Streetcars and high-speed interurbans
Early versions of the PCC streetcars were referred to as Streamliners' in North America.
However, aerodynamic research appeared much earlier on the interurban scene, i.e. among the forerunners of the recent light rail. In 1905, the Electric Railway Test Commission started a series of test runs to develop a carbody design that would reduce wind resistance at high speeds. Vestibule sections of different shapes were suspended independent of the carbody, with a dynamometer to measure the resistance of each. Over 200 test runs were made at speeds up to 70 mph (c. 112 km/h) with parabolic, wedge, standard, and flat vestibule ends. The test results indicated that a parabolic-shaped front end reduced wind resistance at high speeds below that of the conventional rounded profile. However, with that time's heavy railcars and moderate speeds, no significant operating economies were realized. Streamlining was discarded for another quarter century. From the 1920s, however, stronger alloys, lightweight metals, and better design were all used to reduce carbody weight – which in turn permitted the use of smaller bogies and motors with corresponding economies in power consumption. In 1922, the G. C. Kuhlman Car Company built ten lightweight cars for the Western Ohio Railway. After an elaborate wind tunnel investigation – the first in the railway industry – J. G. Brill Company in 1931 made their first Bullet railcars, capable to speeds above 90 mph (145 km/h). With 52 seats, they weighed only 26 tons though some of theme were almost 60 years in use.
Many engineers tried to incorporate aerodynamics into the shape of cars in the 1920s, and some entered production. The first such automobile (a prototype) to have a tear-drop shape and have the wheels within the body was the Persu automobile (1922), with a drag coefficient of 0.22, built by Romanian engineer Aurel Persu.
- Chrysler Airflow
- GM Futurliner
- IHC Metro
- Pontiac Streamliner
- Saab 92
- Tatra T77
- Toyota AA
- VW Beetle
Land speed racing
Jet and rocket
Bicycle fairings help to streamline the vehicle and rider. Velomobiles, completely enclosed bicycles or tricycles, take streamlining even further. It is streamliner bicycles that have set many HPV land records.
Outright motorcycle land-speed record-breaking streamliners:
- Ack Attack
- Big Red
- BUB Seven streamliner
- Gyronaut X-1
- Lightning Bolt
- NSU Delphin I and Delphin III
- Silver Bird
Camping (caravan) trailer manufacturers used streamlining to make trailers easier to tow. Current and past manufactures include Airstream, Avalon, Avion, Boles Aero, Bonair Oxygen, Curtis Wright, Silver Streak, Spartan, Streamline, and Vagabond.
Sterling Streamliner diners
Inspired by the streamlined trains, and especially the Burlington Zephyr, Roland Stickney designed a diner in the shape of a streamlined train called the Sterling Streamliner in 1939. Built by J.B. Judkins, a firm that also made custom car bodies, the Sterling and other diner production ceased in 1942 at the beginning on American involvement in World War II.
Two Sterling Streamliners remain in operation: the Salem Diner at its original location in Salem, Massachusetts and the Modern Diner in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Another Sterling Streamliner lies abandoned on Hix Bridge Road in Westport, Massachusetts.
- "Locomotive with Streamline Shell is Designed for Speed". Popular Mechanics. 64 (4): 541. October 1935. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Solomon, Brian (2015). Streamliners: Locomotives and Trains in the Age of Speed and Style, p. 32-33.
- Solomon, Brian (2015). Streamliners: Locomotives and Trains in the Age of Speed and Style, p. 30-32.
- "Streamline Steam Engine Attains High Speed". Popular Mechanics. 63 (2): 122. February 1935. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Shima, Hideo; Takada, Takao; Yoshimura, Mitsuo (January 1984). "Three-way conversation on streamlined era". The Railway Pictorial (in Japanese) (426): 10–15.
- "Fast Express Train in Japan Hauled by Streamline Engine". Popular Mechanics. 65 (4): 551. April 1936. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- "Ask Trains from November 2008". Trains Magazine. 23 December 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2009.[dead link]
- Yoshio Ubukata, "50 years of streamlined EMUs and DMUs in Japan" The Railway Pictorial No.426 (January 1984) pp.16 – 22 Denkisha Kenkyukai (in Japanese)
- Shinichi Tanaka, "Streamlined style of Shinkansen rolling stocks" The Railway Pictorial No.426 (January 1984) pp.29 – 31 Denkisha Kenkyukai (in Japanese)
- Middleton 1961, pp. 65–66
- Middleton 1961, pp. 62–63
- P & W High-Speed Line; http://www.phillytrolley.com/philwest.html
- Middleton 1961, pp. 69–70
- "Streamline power vehicle". European Patent Office.
- International Human Powered Vehicle Association http://ihpva.org/land.htm Retrieved on 31 December 2012
- "Streamline bus is like a dirigible on wheels". Popular Mechanics: 487. April 1935. Retrieved 2010-08-07.
- "Wind-tunnel tests show streamline bus saves fuel". Popular Mechanics: 185. August 1936. Retrieved 2010-08-07.
- Witzel, Michael Karl (2006). The American Diner. MBI Publishing. pp. 76–78. ISBN 978-0-7603-0110-4.
- "1939 Sterling Diner". Antique Car Investments. Retrieved 2010-08-07.
- Streamliners: America's Lost Trains – The American Experience
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Streamliners.|
- Middleton, William D. 1961, Fourth printing 1968: The interurban era, Kalmbach Publishing Co;
- All Aboard the Silver Streak: Pioneer Zephyr exhibit at the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry.
- The Lost Promise of the American Railroad. at the Wayback Machine (archived 14 June 2001) The Wilson Quarterly (on the Internet Archive)
- Streamlined Transportation in the Art Deco Era – Streamlining in the Cars, Trains and Planes of the 1930s.
- Streamlined Locomotives of the Swing Era
- "Driver's Cab is Placed at Front of Streamlined Engine" Popular Mechanics, October 1934 bottom page 560