Market (place)

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The Moorish Bazaar
Souk Jara in 2008
Farmers' market in Lhasa, Tibet, China
The Old Market building in Bratislava, Slovakia
Tianguis a model of the Aztec tianguis (marketplace)

A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods.[1] In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a souk (from the Arabic), bazaar (from the Persian), a fixed mercado (Spanish), or itinerant tianguis (Mexico), or palengke (Philippines). Some markets operate daily and are said to be permanent markets while others are held once a week or on less frequent specified days such as festival days and are said to be periodic markets.


The term, 'market' comes from the Latin 'mercatus' (market place). The earliest recorded use of the term, 'market' in English is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 963, a work that was created during the reign of Alfred the Great (r. 871-899) and subsequently distributed, copied throughout English monasteries. The exact phrase was “Ic wille þæt markete beo in þe selue tun,” which roughly translates as “I want to be at that market in the good town.” [2]


The Bazaar of Athens by Edward Dodwell

Markets have existed since ancient times. [3] Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia, Assyria and Egypt. These markets were typically situated in the town's centre where they were surrounded by alleyways occupied by skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but also prepared goods for sale on market days. [4] In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora (open space), and in ancient Rome the forum.

In the Graeco-Roman world, the central market primarily served the local peasantry. In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, an open space where, on market days, goods were displayed on mats or temporary stalls. In ancient Rome, trade took place in the forum. Rome had two forums; the Forum Romanum and Trajan's Forum. The latter was a vast expanse, comprising multiple buildings with shops on four levels. The Roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shopfront. [5] In antiquity, exchange involved direct selling via merchants or peddlers and bartering systems were commonplace.

Pompeii's Forum was encircled by market places

The market stall holders were primarily local primary producers who sold small surpluses from their individual farming activities and also artisans who sold leather-goods, metal-ware and pottery. Consumers were also farmers who purchased minor farm equipment and a few luxuries for their homes and urban dwellers who purchased basic necessities. Major producers such as the great estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates, obviating the producers' need to attend local markets. The very wealthy landowners managed their own distribution, which may have involved exporting. The nature of export markets in antiquity is well documented in ancient sources and archaeological case studies. [6]

At Pompeii multiple markets served the population of approximately 12,000. Produce markets were located in the vicinity of the Forum, while livestock markets were situated on the city's perimeter, near the amphitheatre. A long narrow building at the north-west corner of the Forum was some type of market, possibly a cereal market. On the opposite corner stood the macellum, thought to have been a meat and fish market. Market stall-holders paid a market tax for the right to trade on market days. Some archaeological evidence suggests that markets and street vendors were controlled by local government. A graffito on the outside of a large shop documents a seven-day cycle of markets; "Saturn’s day at Pompeii and Nuceria, Sun’s day at Atella and Nola, Moon’s day at Cumae ... etc." The presence of an official commercial calendar suggests something of the market's importance to community life and trade. [7] Markets were also important centres of social life. [8]

Medieval market scene by Joachim Beuckelaer, c. 1560

In early Western Europe, markets developed close to monasteries, castles or royal residences. Priories and aristocratic manorial households created considerable demand for goods and services - both luxuries and necessities. These centres of trade attracted sellers and would stimulate the growth of the town. A charter would protect trading privileges in return for an annual fee. From the 11th and 12th century, the number of markets and fairs burgeoned. Fairs, which were usually held annually, traded in high value goods while regular weekly or bi-weekly markets primarily traded in necessities. [9] As the number of markets increased, market towns situated themselves sufficiently far apart so as to avoid competition, but close enough to permit local producers a round trip within one day (about 10 Km). [10]

Braudel and Reynold have made a systematic study of these European market towns between the thirteenth and fifteenth century. Their investigation shows that in regional districts markets were held once or twice a week while daily markets were common in larger cities. Gradually over time, permanent shops that opened daily began to supplant the periodic markets and peddlers or itinerant sellers filled in the gaps in distribution. The physical market was characterised by transactional exchange. Shops had higher overhead costs, but were able to offer regular trading hours and a relationship with customers. The economy was characterised by local trading in which goods were traded across relatively short distances. Braudel reports that, in 1600, grain moved just 5-10 miles; cattle 40-70 miles; wool and wollen cloth 20-40 miles. However, following the European age of discovery, goods were imported from afar - calico cloth from India, porcelain, silk and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World. [11]

Northampton market, established in 1255, is one of the oldest of the English chartered markets that is still operating

English market towns were regulated from a relatively early period by a system of charters. The English monarchs awarded a charter to local Lords to create markets and fairs for a town or village. This charter would grant the lords the right to take tolls and also afford some protection from rival markets. For example, once a chartered market was granted for specific market days, a nearby rival market could not open on the same days. [12] Across the boroughs of England, a network of chartered markets sprang up between the 12th and 16th centuries, giving consumers reasonable choice in the markets they preferred to patronise. [13] However, as the number of charters granted increased, competition between market towns also increased. In response to competitive pressures, towns invested in a reputation for quality produce, efficient market regulation and good amenities for visitors such as covered accommodation. By the thirteenth century, counties with important textile industries were investing in purpose built halls for the sale of cloth. A study on the purchasing habits of the monks and other individuals in medieval England, suggests that consumers of the period were relatively discerning. Purchase decisions were based on purchase criteria such as consumers' perceptions of the range, quality, and price of goods. This informed decisions about where to make their purchases. [14]

The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is thought to be the oldest continuously operating market buildings in existence and houses some 3600 retail shops

A sixteenth century commentator, John Leland, described particular markets as “celebrate,” “very good and quik,” and, conversely, as “poore,” “meane,” and “of no price." Gradually, over time, some products became associated with particular places, providing customers with valuable information about the types of goods, their quality and their region of origin. In this way, markets helped to provide an early form of product branding. [15] Gradually, individual market towns earned a reputation for providing quality produce. Today, traders and showmen jealously guard the reputation of these historic chartered markets. A 18th century commentator, Daniel Defoe visited Sturbridge fair in 1723 and wrote a lengthy description which paints a picture of a highly organised, vibrant operation which attracted large number of visitors from some distance away. "As for the people in the fair, they all universally eat, drink and sleep in their booths, and tents; and the said booths are so intermingled with taverns, coffee-houses, drinking-houses, eating-houses, cookshops &c, and all tents too, and so many butchers and higglers from all the neighbouring counties come in to the fair every morning, with beef, mutton, fowls, bread, cheese, eggs and such things; and go with them from tent to tent and from door to door, that there is no want of provision of any kind, either dress'd or undress'd." [16]

The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is often cited as the world's oldest continuously-operating, purpose-built market; its construction began in 1455. In the 15th century the Mexica (Aztec) market of Tlatelolco was the largest in all the Americas.[17] However, some British open-air markets have been operating continuously since the 12th century.

Types of markets[edit]

There are many different ways to classify markets. One way is to consider the nature of the buyer and the market's place within the distribution system. This leads to two broad classes of market, namely retail market or wholesale markets. The economist, Alfred Marshall classified markets according to time period. In this classification, there are three types o of market; the very short period market where the supply of a commodity remains fixed. Perishables, such as fruit, vegetables, meat and fish fall into this group since goods must be sold within a few days and the quantity supplied is relatively inelastic. The second group is the short period market where the time in which the quantity supplied can be increased by improving the scale of production (adding labor and other inputs but not by adding capital). Many non-perishable goods fall into this category. The third category is the the long-period market where the length of time can be improved by capital investment. [18]

Other ways to classify markets include its trading area (local, national or international); its physical format or its produce.

Major physical formats of markets are:

  • Indoor market of any sort
  • Marketplace, an open space where a market is or was formerly held in a town[19]
  • Market square, in Europe, with stalls selling goods in a public square
  • Public market, in the United States, an indoor, fixed market in a building and selling a variety of goods
  • Street market, with stalls along one or more public streets
  • Floating markets, where goods are sold from boats, chiefly found in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam
  • Night markets, popular in many countries in Asia, opening at night and featuring much street food and a more leisurely shopping experience. In Indonesia and Malaysia they are known as pasar malam.
  • Wet markets, in Greater China and Asia, where traditionally live animals were sold; in Indonesia and Malaysia, pasar pagi is a type of wet market.

Markets may feature a range of merchandise for sale, or they may be one of many specialist markets, such as:

Around the world[edit]



The sale of agricultural produce to the formal market is largely controlled by large corporations. Most small, local farmers sell their produce to the informal market, local communities and street vendors. [22] The main wholesale market is the Horticultural market in Gabarone. The government made some attempts to build markets in the north of the country, but that was largely unsucessful and most commercial buyers travel to Johannesburg or Tshwane for supplies. [23]



The capital, Nairobi, has several major markets. Wakaluma market is one of the region's largest markets, situated on Haile Selassie Road in central Mvita. Other markets in Nairobi are: Kariakor Market Gikomba Market and Muthurwa market[24] In Mombassa, Kongowea market is also a very large market with over 1500 stalls and covering 4.5 ha.


In Morocco, markets are known as souks, and are normally found in a city's Medina (old city or old quarter). Shopping at a produce market is a standard feature of daily life in Morocco. [25] In the larger cities, Medinas are typically made up of a collection of souks built amid a maze of narrow streets and laneways where independent vendors and artisans tend to cluster in sections which subsequently become known for a particular type of produce - such as the silvermiths street or the textile district. In Tangiers, a sprawling market fills the many streets of the medina and this area is divided into two sections, known as the Grand Socco and the Petit Socco. The term 'socco' is a Spanish corruption of the Arabic word for souk, meaning marketplace. [26] These markets sell a large variety of goods; fresh produce, cooking equipment, pottery, silverware, rugs and carpets, leather goods, clothing, accessories, electronics alongside cafes, restaurants and take-away food stalls. The Medina at Fez is the oldest, having been founded in the 9th century. [27]. The Medina at Fez has been named a World Heritage site. Today it is the main fresh produce market and is noted for its narrow laneways and for a total ban on motorized traffic. All produce is brought in and out of the marketplace by donkey or hand-cart. In Marrakesh, the main produce markets are also to be found in the Medina and a colourful market is also held daily in the Jemaa el-Fnaa (main square) where roaming performers and musicians entertain the large crowds that gather there. Marrakesh has the largest traditional Berber market in Morocco.


Namibia has been almost entirely dependent on South Africa for its fresh produce. Dominated by rolling plains and long sand dunes and an unpredictable rainfall, many parts of Namibia are unsuited to growing fruit and vegetables. A government sponsored initiatives have encouraged producers to grow fresh fruit, vegetables, legumes and grains[28] The Namibian Ministry of Agriculture has recently launched a system of fresh produce hubs to serve as a platform for producers to market and distribute their produce. It is anticipated that these hubs will assit in curbing the number of sellers who take their produce to South Africa where it is placed on cold storage, only to be imported back into the country at a later date. [29]

South Africa[edit]

Fresh produce markets have traditionally dominated the South African food chain, handling more than half of all fresh produce. Although large, vertically integrated food retailers, such as supermarkets, are beginning to make inroads into the supply chain, traditional hawkers and produce markets have shown remarkable resilience. [30] The main markets in Johannesburg are: Jozi Real Food Market, Bryanston Organic Market, Pretoria Boeremark specialising in South African delicacies, Hazel Food Market, Panorama Flea Market, Rosebank Sunday Market, Market on Main - a periodic arts market and Neighbourhood Markets.

The Gambia[edit]

The "Gambia is Good" initiative was established in 2004 with a view to encouraging a market for locally grown fresh produce rather than imported ones. The plan was designed to "stimulate local livelihoods, inspire entrepreneurship and reduce the environmental and social cost of imported produce." [31]

Asia and South Asia[edit]

South East Asia is noted for its night markets, floating markets and pirate markets (markets that specialise in selling "knock off" copies of designer brands). Some Asian countries have developed unique distribution systems and highly specialised types of market place. Throughout Asia, a wet market refers to a place where fruit, vegetables and meat products are sold. [32]


Bangkok's markets are popular with both locals and visitors. Bangkok boasts the world's largest weekend market in Chatuchak. Floating markets are also typical in Bangkok. Vendors not only sell fresh produce from barges, but will also cook meals and snacks on board their vessels.


The existence of street and wet markets has been known for centuries, however, many of these were restricted in the 1950s and 60s and only permitted to re-open in 1978.[33] The distinction between wholesale and retail markets is somewhat ambiguous in China, since many markets serve both as distribution centres and retail shopping venues. To assist in the distribution of food, more than 9,000 wholesale produce markets operate in China. [34] Some of these markets operate on a very large scale. For example, Beijing's Xinfadi Wholesale market, currently under renovation, is expected to have a footprint of 112 hectares when complete. [35] The Beijing Zoo Market (retail market) is a collection of 12 different markets, comprising some 20,000 tenant stall-holders, 30,000 employees and more than 100,000 customers daily. [36]

China is both a major importer and exporter of fruit and vegetables and is now the world's largest exporter of apples. [37] In addition to produce markets, China has many specialised markets such as a silk market, clothing markets and an antiques market. China's fresh produce market is undergoing major change. In the larger cities, purchasing is gradually moving to online with door-to-door deliveries.

Some of the more important markets in China include:

Wholesale produce market: Xinfadi (wholesale produce market, Beijing) - with an annual turnover volume of 14 million tonnes of meat, fruit and vegetables, it supplies 70 percent of Beijing's vegetables [38] and Nanzhan (Shenyang, Liaoning) which supplies the northern provinces.
Retail produce markets: The Fresh Produce Market at Hutong (Beijing); Xiabu Xiabu (Beijing), Panjiayuan market (Beijing); Dazhongsi Market (Beijing), Tianyi market (Beijing), Beijing Zoo market, Dahongmen market (Fengtai District, Beijing), Sanyuanli Market (Beijing), Shengfu Xiaoguan Morning Market (Beijing), Lishuiqiao Seafood Farmers’ Market (Beijing), Wangjing Zonghe Market (Beijing), Chaowai Market (Beijing), Sanyuanli Market (Beijing), Zhenbai Market (Shanghai's largest produce market)


Phnom Penh[edit]

Hong Kong[edit]

See: markets in Hong Kong

Street markets in Hong Kong are held every day except on a few traditional Chinese holidays like Chinese New Year. Stalls opened at two sides of a street are required to have licenses issued by the Hong Kong Government. The various types of street markets include fresh foods, clothing, cooked foods, flowers and electronics. The earliest form of market was a Gaa si (wet market). Some traditional markets have been replaced by shopping centres, markets in municipal service buildings and supermarkets, while others have become tourist attractions such as Tung Choi Street and Apliu Street.


In India, there are many different types of market: [39]

(1) Wholesale markets

  • Primary wholesale markets: held once or twice per week, these sell produce from local villages
  • Secondary wholesale markets (also known as mandis): smaller merchants purchase from primary markets and sell at secondary markets. A small number of primary producers may sell direct to mandis.
  • Terminal markets: Markets that sell directly to the end-user, whether it be the consumer, food processor or shipping agent for export to foreign countries e.g. Bombay Terminal Market

(2) Retail markets

  • Retail markets: spread across villages, towns and cities
  • Fairs: held on religious days and deal in livestock and agricultural produce

In India (and also Bangladesh and Pakistan), a Landa bazaar is a type of a bazaar or a marketplace with lowest prices where only secondhand general goods are exchanged or sold.


Indonesia and Malaysia[edit]

In Malaysia and Indonesia, the term, Pasar pagi, is used to describe a particular type of wet market, also known as a morning market which typically operates in the mornings, often opening at dawn and closing around midday. The term, Pasar malam refers to a night market which operates from around 5 pm through to approximately 11 pm. [40]

The main markets in Kuala Lumpur include: Pudu market - rated as KL's largest wet market by the Lonely Planet Guide; [41] Central Market, Kuala Lumpur; Chow Kit Wet Market; Kampong Bahru Pasar Minggu; China Town; Petaling Jaya SS2; Bangsar Baru and Lorong Tuanka Abdul Rahman.

Notable markets in Yogyakarta, Indonesia's capital include: Pasar Beringharjo - a traditional market; Kranggan Market- a flea market; Pasar Organik Milas - organic and flea market; Malioboro Road - a street market and Yogyakarta Bird Market. .


South Korea[edit]



The Queen Victoria Market, Melbourne's central market, opened in 1878. Markets had been operating on the same site prior to the official opening of the "Queen Vic." The Queen Victoria Market site has been listed as an historic place by Heritage Victoria and a number of its buildings are listed as notable buildings on the Historic Building Register of Victoria.[42] The site is currently undergoing a site renewal project. It is a Melbourne landmark, popular with both locals and visitors. Major suburban markets include the Prahran Market and Footscray Market. Periodic farmers' markets are also very popular in Melbourne.


Sydney boasts a number of popular markets. The Rocks market, situated in the Rocks district, near the Sydney Opera House, focuses on crafts, jewellery and leather goods and operates at weekends. Paddy's Market, near Chinatown, is the produce market and operates Wednesday through to Sunday. Haymarket is one of the main produce markets and is located in Flemington. The Sydney Fish Market, in Pyrmont opens from 7am Wednesday through Saturday. Paddington Markets on Oxford Street sells a range of goods from fresh produce through to clothing.




Street markets in Greece are called laikes agores (λαϊκές αγορές) in plural, or λαϊκή αγορά (laiki agora) in singular, meaning "people's market". They are very common all over Greece, including the capital, Athens, and its suburbs. Regular (weekly) morning markets sell mostly fresh produce from farming cooperatives – fruit, vegetables, fish and flowers/plants. Some household items and prepared foods are often available.

Annual street markets (panigyri(a)) occur around churches on the day of their patron saint. These take place in the evenings and have a more festive character, often involving attractions and food stalls. The goods sold range from clothing and accessories to household items, furniture, toys and trinkets. Athens also has several bazaars/enclosed markets.


In Spain, two types of retail market can be identified; permanent markets and periodic markets. Permanent markets are typically housed in a building dedicated to the use of stallholders and vendors. Periodic markets appear in the streets and plazas on specific days, such as weekends or festival days and most often sell products made by local artisans including leather goods, fashion accessories, especially scarves and costume jewellery. Vendors at periodic markets typically erect tents or canvas awnings to provide some type of temporary cover for themselves and shoppers. Produce markets, farmers' markets and flea markets are all commonplace. In addition, street vendors are a relatively common sight across most parts of Spain. Street vendors roam around in search of a suitable venue such as a plaza, entrance to a railway station or beach front where they lay their goods out on mats. Products sold by street vendors are of highly variable quality.


Barcelona residents are well served by numerous markets. Almost every barrio (suburb) has at least one fresh produce market and many also have weekend craft markets. Some of the larger markets include: La Boqueria; Mercat del Born, Mercat de San Antoni located in the barrio, San Antoni; Mercat de San Andreu in San Andreu; Mercat de Santa Caterina in L'Eixample, Mercat de Ninot, in L'Eixample; Mercat de la Concepció also in L'Eixample; Mercat de la Llibertat in Gràcia; Mercat de Sants in Sants-Montjuich and Mercat de Galvany in Sarrià-Sant Gervasi.


The main markets in central Madrid are San Anton Market, San Miguel Market - a gourmet tapas market, Cámera Agraria (Madrid Farmers' Market) and El Rastro - the largest open air flea market.


The Mercat or Mercado Central is the main public market in Valencia. Built at the turn of the twentieth century, the building combines Gothic and Art Noveau architectual features. Popular with both locals and visitors, a distinctive feature is the quality of fresh fish and seafood, which once purchased can be taken to the street stalls around the perimeter of the market who will cook it to order. The Mercado de Colón in Eixample, Valencia is also a very popular fresh produce market.


Popular markets in Seville include the Triana market and the Central market housed within the Metropol Parasol complex. In addition, Seville offers many smaller neighbourhood markets such as Mercado de la Calle Feria and Mercado de la Encarnación.

United Kingdom[edit]


Traders can be licensed to trade on a single pitch but not at a national level or when trading on private land. This has led to declining confidence in the reputation of markets. A voluntary scheme has been set up by The Market People, backed by the National Association of British Market Authorities (NABMA) to address this. It provides consumers with traceability of traders and goods as well as the ability to rate and contact the traders. A MarketPASS is issued to an operator or Trader once they have provided proof of identity, insurance and, where required, a hygiene certificate.

England's chartered markets and fairs[edit]

During the 11th and 12th centuries, the English monarchs awarded a charter to local lords to create markets and fairs for a town or village. A charter granted the lords the right to take tolls from vendors and also afforded some protection to a town from rival markets. Once a chartered market was granted for specific market days, a nearby rival market could not open on the same days.[43] Across the boroughs of England, a network of chartered markets sprang up between the 12th and 16th centuries, giving consumers reasonable choice in the markets they preferred to patronise.[44] Gradually these market towns developed a reputation for quality or for trade in specific types of goods. Today, traders and showmen jealously guard these historic charters.

See: markets in London

Some examples of street markets include Berwick Street Market, Broadway Market, Camden Market, East Street Market, Petticoat Lane and Portobello Road Market. The most popular for food is Borough Market which sell most fresh produce as well as having a bakery.

Former Yugoslavia[edit]

In Serbo-Croatian, a farmer's market is formally known as tržnica, and colloquially as pijaca, plac or pazar depending on region and dialect. The markets in large cities are open daily, including Sunday, from around 5 or 6 AM to mid-afternoon. Well-known examples are Dolac in Zagreb and Kalenić in Belgrade. In smaller towns there is often a market that opens once a week, on a specific day known as pazarni dan.


Street markets such as this one in Rue Mouffetard, Paris are common in France. Resellers and farmers sell fruit, vegetables, meat, fish, and other produce.

Wholesale fashion marketplace in France, principal locations: Paris 75011 and Aubervilliers 93001. 99% of owner are Chinese of around 2000 wholesale company. Product sell in this marketplace: clothing, shoes, accessories, jewelry. Import product from China, Vietnam, Turkey, Bangladesh, India. Export product to all countries of Europe.

Latin America[edit]




Since 2014, gourmet food halls have also sprung up in Mexico City, starting with Mercado Roma. Some traditional markets include:

Puerto Rico[edit]


Middle East[edit]


The Hebrew word for market is shuk (plural: shvakim), and food markets are found in every major city. Famous markets include the Carmel Market in Tel Aviv and Mahane Yehuda Market in Jerusalem.


Street markets are called pazar in Turkish and usually named after the name of the day since they are only installed at around 05:00 on that specific day and ended on same day around 18:00, in every week. Every district in Turkey has its own open market where people can choose and buy from a very wide range of products, from fresh fruits and vegetables to clothing, from traditional white cheese (which some people may consider feta-like) to household items. In Istanbul area Wednesday Pazar of Fatih district, Tuesday Pazar of Kadıköy and Friday Pazar of Ortaköy are the most famous and crowded open markets of the city.

A market with shops or permanent stalls is called "çarşı" and may include covered streets that are closed at night. Famous examples include the Kapalıçarşı (Grand Bazaar) and Spice Bazaar in Istanbul.

United States and Canada[edit]


Public market at place Jacques-Cartier in Montreal, Quebec in 1940

Historic markets that have been converted to other uses include:

Pike Place Market in Seattle, Washington, looking west on Pike Street from First Avenue
Corridor of fruit and vegetable sellers at the West Side Market in Cleveland, Ohio
Postcard showing city market in Grand Rapids, Michigan, about 1910

Public markets in the United States[edit]

In the United States, the term public market is often used for a place where vendors or merchants meet at the same location on a regular basis. A public market has a sponsoring entity that has legal and financial responsibility to oversee operations and, sometimes, provides facilities to house the market activity. Public markets may incorporate the traditional market activity – the sale of fresh food from open stalls – and may also offer a wide range of different products. Public markets may incorporate elements of specialized markets such as farmers markets, craft markets, and antique markets. Traditionally public markets in the US were owned and operated by city governments, but this is no longer the case.[45]

According to the Ford Foundation, what distinguishes public markets from other types of related retail activity are three characteristics. Public markets:[45]

  1. have public goals, a defined civic purpose. Typically, these goals include: attracting shoppers to a central business district, providing affordable retailing opportunities to small businesses, preserving farming in the region, and activating or repurposing public space
  2. are located in and/or create a public space in the community, where a wide range of people mix, and are, or aim to be, a heart of the community
  3. are made up of locally owned, independent businesses operated by their owners, not franchises. This gives public markets a local flavor and unique experience.

List of public markets in the United States[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "market". Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  2. ^ VandeWaa, D., "LaFleur Legal Marketing – An Etymological History," 11 June, 2015, <Online:
  3. ^ Bintliff, J., "Going to Market in Antiquity," In Stuttgarter Kolloquium zur Historischen Geographie des Altertums, Eckart Olshausen and Holger Sonnabend (eds), Stuttgart, Franz Steiner, 2002, pp 209-250
  4. ^ Bintliff, J., "Going to Market in Antiquity," In Stuttgarter Kolloquium zur Historischen Geographie des Altertums, Eckart Olshausen and Holger Sonnabend (eds), Stuttgart, Franz Steiner, 2002, pp 209-250
  5. ^ Coleman, P., Shopping Environments, Elsevier, Oxford, 2006, p. 28
  6. ^ Bintliff, J., "Going to Market in Antiquity," In Stuttgarter Kolloquium zur Historischen Geographie des Altertums, Eckart Olshausen and Holger Sonnabend (eds), Stuttgart, Franz Steiner, 2002, p. 229
  7. ^ Beard, M., The Fires of Vesuvius: Pompeii Lost and Found, Harvard University Press, 2008; See Chapter 5, "Earning a Living: Baker, Banker and Garum Maker"
  8. ^ Millar, F., "The World of the Golden Ass," Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 71, 1981, pp. 63-7
  9. ^ Casson, M. and Lee, J., "The Origin and Development of Markets: A Business History Perspective," Business History Review, Vol 85, Spring, 2011, pp 9–37. doi:10.1017/S0007680511000018
  10. ^ Nicholas, D.M., The Growth of the Medieval City: From Late Antiquity to the Early Fourteenth Century, Oxon, Routledge, 2014, p. 182
  11. ^ Braudel, F. and Reynold, S., The Wheels of Commerce: Civilization and Capitalism, 15th to 18th Century, Berkely, CA, University of California Press, 1992
  12. ^ Dyer, C., Everyday Life in Medieval England, London, Hambledon and London, 1994, pp 283-303
  13. ^ Borsay, P. and Proudfoot, L., Provincial Towns in Early Modern England and Ireland: Change, Convergence and Divergence, [The British Academy], Oxford University Press, 2002, pp 65-66
  14. ^ Casson, M. and Lee, J., "The Origin and Development of Markets: A Business History Perspective," Business History Review, Vol 85, Spring, 2011, doi:10.1017/S0007680511000018, p. 27
  15. ^ Casson, M. and Lee, J., "The Origin and Development of Markets: A Business History Perspective," Business History Review, Vol 85, Spring, 2011, doi:10.1017/S0007680511000018, p. 28
  16. ^ Daniel Defoe, Ultimate Collection: 50+ Adventure Classics, Pirate Tales & Historical Novels- including Biographies, Historical Sketches, Poems and Essays, [E-book] 2016
  17. ^ Rebecca M. Seaman (ed.). Conflict in the Early Americas: An Encyclopedia of the Spanish Empire's ... p. 375. 
  18. ^ Marshall, A., Principles of Economics, Vol. 1. London, Macmillan, 1890; Principles of Economics, 8th ed.,1920, London, Macmillan
  19. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary, <Online:>
  20. ^ Farmer's Market Organisation, <Online:>
  21. ^ a b "The 5 Best Food Halls in America", Bon Appétit magazine
  22. ^ Madisa, M.E., Obopile, M. and Assefa, Y., "Analysis of Horticultural Production Trends in Botswana," Journal of Plant Studies, Vol 1, No. 1, 2012, pp 25-32
  23. ^ Cordes, M., "SADC markets?" Farmer's Weekly, 26 May, 2016
  24. ^
  25. ^ Habegger, L. and O`Reilly, J., "Morocco`s Mysterious Souks Lure Visitors Into History - And Danger," Chicago Tribune, 30 August, 1987, <Online:
  26. ^ Dane, R., Lost on the Way: Adventures in 40,000 Miles of Hitchhiking, Bloomington, 2011, p. 140
  27. ^ UNESCO, Medina of Fez,
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