Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

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Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a self-report inventory behavioral screening questionnaire for children and adolescents ages 2 through 17 years old, developed by United Kingdom child psychiatrist Robert N. Goodman. The SDQ has been translated into more than 80 languages, including Spanish, Chinese, Russian, and Portuguese.[1] Overall, the SDQ has been proven to have satisfactory construct and concurrent validity.[2][3]

There are three versions of the SDQ: a short form, a longer form with impact supplement, and a follow-up form designed for use after a behavioral intervention. The questionnaire takes 3–10 minutes to complete.


  1. ^ "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire". Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  2. ^ Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M. (2010-09-01). "Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Teacher Versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 4- to 12-Year-Olds: A Review". Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 13 (3): 254–274. doi:10.1007/s10567-010-0071-2. ISSN 1096-4037. PMC 2919684. PMID 20589428.
  3. ^ Goodman, R.; Meltzer, H.; Bailey, V. (1998-10-01). "The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A pilot study on the validity of the self-report version". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 7 (3): 125–130. doi:10.1007/s007870050057. ISSN 1018-8827.

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