Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a behavioral screening questionnaire for children and adolescents ages 2 through 17 years old, developed by child psychiatrist Robert N. Goodman in the United Kingdom. Versions of it are available for use for no fee. The combination of its brevity and noncommercial distribution have made it popular among clinicians and researchers. There are more than 3000 peer-reviewed articles using it that are indexed in PubMed alone. Overall, the SDQ has proved to have satisfactory construct and concurrent validity across a wide range of settings and samples.[1][2][3] It is considered a good general screening measure for attention problems,[4] although the sensitivity and specificity are not both over .80 at any single cut score, so it should not be used by itself as the basis for a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.[5][6]

There are three versions of the SDQ designed for use in different situations: a short form, a longer form with an impact supplement, and a follow-up form designed for use after a behavioral intervention. The questionnaire takes 3–10 minutes to complete. There are now self-report (completed by the youth), parent-report, and teacher-report versions. A version designed for adults (age 18+ years) to fill out about themselves has also been developed. The SDQ has been translated into more than 80 languages, including Spanish, Chinese, Russian, and Portuguese.[7]

General population norms are available for the US and UK for some of the variations of the SDQ.


  1. ^ Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M. (2010-09-01). "Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Teacher Versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 4- to 12-Year-Olds: A Review". Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 13 (3): 254–274. doi:10.1007/s10567-010-0071-2. ISSN 1096-4037. PMC 2919684. PMID 20589428.
  2. ^ Goodman, R.; Meltzer, H.; Bailey, V. (1998-10-01). "The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A pilot study on the validity of the self-report version". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 7 (3): 125–130. doi:10.1007/s007870050057. ISSN 1018-8827. PMID 9826298. S2CID 30006989.
  3. ^ Warnick, Erin M.; Bracken, Michael B.; Kasl, Stanislav (September 2008). "Screening Efficiency of the Child Behavior Checklist and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Systematic Review". Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 13 (3): 140–147. doi:10.1111/j.1475-3588.2007.00461.x. PMID 32847173.
  4. ^ Owens, J. S., Evans, S. W., & Margherio, S. M. (2020). Assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In E. A. Youngstrom, M. J. Prinstein, E. J. Mash, & R. Barkley (Eds.), Assessment of Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence (5th ed., pp. 93-131). Guilford Press.
  5. ^ Mulraney, Melissa; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Musullulu, Hande; Iturmendi-Sabater, Iciar; Cortese, Samuele; Westwood, Samuel J.; Donno, Federica; Banaschewski, Tobias; Simonoff, Emily; Zuddas, Alessandro; Döpfner, Manfred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Coghill, David (2022). "Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Screening Tools for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 61 (8): 982–996. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2021.11.031. PMID 34958872. S2CID 245486464.
  6. ^ "A systematic review of evidence for the psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire". doi:10.1177/01650254155706. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire". Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Retrieved 10 July 2015.

External links[edit]