Streptomyces clavuligerus

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Streptomyces clavuligerus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Order: Actinomycetales
Family: Streptomycetaceae
Genus: Streptomyces
Species: S. clavuligerus
Binomial name
Streptomyces clavuligerus
Higgens & Kastner 1971

Streptomyces clavuligerus is a species of Gram-positive bacterium notable for producing clavulanic acid.[1]

S. clavuligerus ATCC 27064 (NRRL 3585, DSM 738) was first described by Higgens and Kastner, who isolated it from a South American soil sample.[2] Its name refers to the shape of its spore-bearing hyphal branches: from the Latin, clavula, meaning little club, and igerus, meaning bearing. S. clavuligerus spores are gray to grayish-green.[2]

S. clavuligerus produces over 20 secondary metabolites, including many beta-lactam antibiotics such as clavulanic acid, cephamycin C, deacetoxycephalosporin C, penicillin N (an intermediate in cephamycin C pathway), and at least four other clavams.[3][4] Non-β-lactam antibiotics include holomycin and an antibiotic complex, MM 19290, related to tunicamycin;[5] a beta-lactamase-inhibitory protein (BLIP) has also been described.[6]

Another important characteristic of S. clavuligerus is that it is not able to use glucose as a carbon source because it lacks a glucose transport system.[7][8]

It also possesses all the enzymes of the urea cycle, which is unusual for a prokaryote, although it is not clear whether the urea cycle is functional.[9]


  1. ^ Reading C, Cole M (1977). "Clavulanic Acid: a Beta-Lactamase-Inhibiting Beta-Lactam from Streptomyces clavuligerus". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 11 (5): 852–7. doi:10.1128/aac.11.5.852. PMC 352086Freely accessible. PMID 879738. 
  2. ^ a b Higgens CE, Kastner RE (1971). "Streptomyces clavuligerus sp. nov., a beta-lactam antibiotic producer". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 21 (4): 326–31. doi:10.1099/00207713-21-4-326. 
  3. ^ Nabais AMA, Dafonseca MMR (1995). "The Effect of Solid Medium Composition on Growth and Sporulation of Streptomyces-Clavuligerus - Spore Viability During Storage at +4-Degrees-C". Biotechnology Techniques. 9 (5): 361–4. doi:10.1007/BF00638871. 
  4. ^ Tahlan K, Anders C, Jensen S (2004). "The Paralogous Pairs of Genes Involved in Clavulanic Acid and Clavam Metabolite Biosynthesis Are Differently Regulated in Streptomyces clavuligerus". J Bacteriol. 186 (18): 6286–97. doi:10.1128/JB.186.18.6286-6297.2004. PMC 515150Freely accessible. PMID 15342599. 
  5. ^ Baggaley K, Brown A, Schofield C (1997). "Chemistry and biosynthesis of clavulanic acid and other clavams". Nat Prod Rep. 14 (4): 309–33. doi:10.1039/np9971400309. PMID 9281835. 
  6. ^ Doran J, Leskiw B, Aippersbach S, Jensen S (1990). "Isolation and characterization of a beta-lactamase-inhibitory protein from Streptomyces clavuligerus and cloning and analysis of the corresponding gene". J Bacteriol. 172 (9): 4909–18. PMC 213145Freely accessible. PMID 2203736. 
  7. ^ Aharonowitz Y, Demain A (1 August 1978). "Carbon Catabolite Regulation of Cephalosporin Production in Streptomyces clavuligerus". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 14 (2): 159–64. doi:10.1128/aac.14.2.159. PMC 352426Freely accessible. PMID 697343. 
  8. ^ Garcia-Dominguez M, Martin J, Liras P (1989). "Characterization of sugar uptake in wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, which is impaired in glucose uptake, and in a glucose-utilizing mutant". J Bacteriol. 171 (12): 6808–14. PMC 210580Freely accessible. PMID 2687256. 
  9. ^ Kirk S (2000). "The physiology of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus (PhD thesis)". University of Surrey, UK. 

Further reading[edit]

Alvarez-Alvarez, R.; Rodriguez-Garcia, A.; Santamarta, I.; Perez-Redondo, R.; Prieto-Dominguez, A.; Martinez-Burgo, Y.; Liras, Paloma (May 2014). "Transcriptomic analysis of Streptomyces clavuligerus Delta ccaR:: tsr: effects of the cephamycin C-clavulanic acid cluster regulator CcaR on global regulation". Microbial Biotechnology. 7 (3): 221–231. doi:10.1111/1751-7915.12109. Retrieved 8 November 2014. 

External links[edit]