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Examples of phragmoplastophytes: top left, "Cycas circinalis"; top right, "Chara globularis"; bottom left, various mosses; bottom right, "Polypodium virginianum"
Examples of phragmoplastophytes: top left, Cycas circinalis; top right, Chara globularis; bottom left, various mosses; bottom right, Polypodium virginianum
Scientific classification e
(unranked): Diaphoretickes
(unranked): Archaeplastida
(unranked): Viridiplantae
(unranked): Charophyta
Clade: Phragmoplastophyta
Lecointre & Guyader 2006

The Phragmoplastophyta (Lecointre & Guyader 2006) or Streptophytina (Lewis & McCourt 2004, incl. Coleochaetophyceae, Zygnematophyceae and Mesotaeniaceae) are a proposed sister clade of the Klebsormidiaceae, with which they form the Streptophyte/Charophyte clade.[1][2][3][4] The Phragmoplastophyta consist of the Charophycaea and another unnamed clade which contains the Coleochaetophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, Mesotaeniaceae, and Embryophytes (land plants). It is an important step in the emergence of land plants within the green algae. It is equivalent to the ZCC clade/grade, cladistically granting the Embryophyta.[5]

The mitosis of Phragmoplastophyta takes place via a phragmoplast.

Phragmoplast and cell plate formation in a plant cell during cytokinesis. Left side: Phragmoplast forms and cell plate starts to assemble in the center of the cell. Towards the right: Phragmoplast enlarges in a donut-shape towards the outside of the cell, leaving behind mature cell plate in the center. The cell plate will transform into the new cell wall once cytokinesis is complete.[6]

Another synapomorphy of this clade is the synthesis of cellulose microfibrils by a complex of octameric cellulose synthetases. This complex crosses the plasma membrane and polymerizes molecules from the cytoplasm into cellulose microfibrils, which, together with each other, form fibrils, necessary in the formation of the wall. The Phragmoplastophyte wall is also formed of phenolic compounds.

Below is a consensus reconstruction of green algal relationships, mainly based on molecular data.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][2][14][15][16][17]













Embryophytes (land plants)

green algae


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  2. ^ a b Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matthew W.; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah (2012-09-01). "The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–514. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. ISSN 1550-7408. PMC 3483872. PMID 23020233.
  3. ^ Silar, Philippe (2016), "Protistes Eucaryotes: Origine, Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes", HAL Archives-ouvertes: 1–462
  4. ^ "Streptophyta - NCBI Taxonomy - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2017-09-10.
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  6. ^ P.H. Raven, R.F. Evert, S.E. Eichhorn (2005): Biology of Plants, 7th Edition, W.H. Freeman and Company Publishers, New York, ISBN 0-7167-1007-2
  7. ^ Leliaert, Frederik; Smith, David R.; Moreau, Hervé; Herron, Matthew D.; Verbruggen, Heroen; Delwiche, Charles F.; De Clerck, Olivier (2012). "Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution of the Green Algae" (PDF). Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 31: 1–46. doi:10.1080/07352689.2011.615705.
  8. ^ Marin, Birger (2012). "Nested in the Chlorellales or Independent Class? Phylogeny and Classification of the Pedinophyceae (Viridiplantae) Revealed by Molecular Phylogenetic Analyses of Complete Nuclear and Plastid-encoded rRNA Operons". Protist. 163 (5): 778–805. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2011.11.004. PMID 22192529.
  9. ^ Laurin-Lemay, Simon; Brinkmann, Henner; Philippe, Hervé (2012). "Origin of land plants revisited in the light of sequence contamination and missing data". Current Biology. 22 (15): R593–R594. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.06.013. PMID 22877776.
  10. ^ Leliaert, Frederik; Tronholm, Ana; Lemieux, Claude; Turmel, Monique; DePriest, Michael S.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Karol, Kenneth G.; Fredericq, Suzanne; Zechman, Frederick W. (2016-05-09). "Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses reveal the deepest-branching lineage of the Chlorophyta, Palmophyllophyceae class. nov". Scientific Reports. 6: 25367. Bibcode:2016NatSR...625367L. doi:10.1038/srep25367. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4860620. PMID 27157793.
  11. ^ Cook, Martha E.; Graham, Linda E. (2017). Archibald, John M.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Slamovits, Claudio H. (eds.). Handbook of the Protists. Springer International Publishing. pp. 185–204. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-28149-0_36. ISBN 9783319281476.
  12. ^ Lewis, Louise A.; Richard M. McCourt (2004). "Green algae and the origin of land plants" (abstract). American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1535–1556. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535. PMID 21652308.
  13. ^ Ruhfel, Brad R.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Burleigh, J. Gordon (2014-02-17). "From algae to angiosperms–inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14: 23. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-23. ISSN 1471-2148. PMC 3933183. PMID 24533922.
  14. ^ Umen, James G. (2014-11-01). "Green Algae and the Origins of Multicellularity in the Plant Kingdom". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (11): a016170. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016170. ISSN 1943-0264. PMC 4413236. PMID 25324214.
  15. ^ de Vries, Jan; Archibald, John M.; Gould, Sven B. (2017-02-01). "The Carboxy Terminus of YCF1 Contains a Motif Conserved throughout >500 Myr of Streptophyte Evolution". Genome Biology and Evolution. 9 (2): 473–479. doi:10.1093/gbe/evx013. PMC 5381667. PMID 28164224.
  16. ^ Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Raven, John A.; Pisani, Davide; Knoll, Andrew H. (2017-09-12). "Early photosynthetic eukaryotes inhabited low-salinity habitats". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (37): E7737–E7745. doi:10.1073/pnas.1620089114. PMC 5603991. PMID 28808007.
  17. ^ Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Wong, Gane K.-S.; Ruhfel, Brad R.; Soltis, Douglas E. (2018). "Plastid phylogenomic analysis of green plants: A billion years of evolutionary history". American Journal of Botany. 105 (3): 291–301. doi:10.1002/ajb2.1048. ISSN 0002-9122. PMID 29603143.