Phragmoplastophyta

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The Phragmoplastophyta (Lecointre & Guyander 2006) or Streptophytina (Lewis & McCourt 2004) are a proposed sister clade of the Klebsormidiaceae, with which they form a basal Streptophyte/Charophyte clade.[1][2][3][4][5] The other basal Streptophyte basal clade contains the Chlorokybophyceae and the Mesostigmatophyceae. The Phragmoplastophyta consist of the Charophycaea and another unnamed clade which contains the Coleochaetophyceae, Zygnematophyceae and Embryophytes (land plants). It is an important step in the emergence of land plants within the green algae.

The mitosis of Phragmoplastophyta takes place via a phragmoplast.

Another synapomorphy of this clade is the synthesis of cellulose microfibrils by a complex of octameric celluloses synthetases. This complex crosses the plasma membrane and polymerizes molecules from the cytoplasm into cellulose microfibrils, which, together with each other, form fibrils, necessary in the formation of the wall. The Phragmoplastophyte wall is also formed of phenolic compounds.

Below is a consensus reconstruction of green algal relationships, mainly based on molecular data. [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]


Viridiplantae = green algae (incl.  Embryophyta)

Chlorophyta


Streptophyta = Charophyta (incl. Embryophyta)


Mesostigmatophyceae



Chlorokybophyceae



'filamentous' streptophytes

Klebsormidiophyceae


Phragmoplastophyta

Charophyceae





Zygnematophyceae



Embryophytes (land plants)




Coleochaetophyceae








References[edit]

  1. ^ Lecointre, Guillaume; Guyader, Hervé Le (2006). The Tree of Life: A Phylogenetic Classification. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674021839. 
  2. ^ Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matthew W.; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah (2012-09-01). "The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–514. ISSN 1550-7408. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. 
  3. ^ Silar, Philippe (2016), "Protistes Eucaryotes: Origine, Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes", HAL archives-ouvertes: 1–462 
  4. ^ "Streptophyta - NCBI Taxonomy - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2017-09-10. 
  5. ^ Lecointre, Guillaume; Guyader, Hervé Le (2006). The Tree of Life: A Phylogenetic Classification. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674021839. 
  6. ^ Leliaert, Frederik; Smith, David R.; Moreau, Hervé; Herron, Matthew D.; Verbruggen, Heroen; Delwiche, Charles F.; De Clerck, Olivier (2012). "Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution of the Green Algae" (PDF). Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 31: 1–46. doi:10.1080/07352689.2011.615705. 
  7. ^ Marin, Birger (2012). "Nested in the Chlorellales or Independent Class? Phylogeny and Classification of the Pedinophyceae (Viridiplantae) Revealed by Molecular Phylogenetic Analyses of Complete Nuclear and Plastid-encoded rRNA Operons". Protist. 163: 778–805. PMID 22192529. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2011.11.004. 
  8. ^ Laurin-Lemay, Simon; Brinkmann, Henner; Philippe, Hervé (2012). "Origin of land plants revisited in the light of sequence contamination and missing data". Current Biology. 22: R593–R594. PMID 22877776. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.06.013. 
  9. ^ Leliaert, Frederik; Tronholm, Ana; Lemieux, Claude; Turmel, Monique; DePriest, Michael S.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Karol, Kenneth G.; Fredericq, Suzanne; Zechman, Frederick W. (2016-05-09). "Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses reveal the deepest-branching lineage of the Chlorophyta, Palmophyllophyceae class. nov.". Scientific Reports. 6: 25367. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4860620Freely accessible. PMID 27157793. doi:10.1038/srep25367. 
  10. ^ Cook, Martha E.; Graham, Linda E. (2017). Archibald, John M.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Slamovits, Claudio H., eds. Handbook of the Protists. Springer International Publishing. pp. 185–204. ISBN 9783319281476. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-28149-0_36. 
  11. ^ Lewis, Louise A.; Richard M. McCourt (2004). "Green algae and the origin of land plants" (abstract). American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1535–1556. PMID 21652308. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535. 
  12. ^ Ruhfel, Brad R.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Burleigh, J. Gordon (2014-02-17). "From algae to angiosperms–inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14: 23. ISSN 1471-2148. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-23. 
  13. ^ Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matthew W.; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah (2012-09-01). "The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–514. ISSN 1550-7408. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. 
  14. ^ Umen, James G. (2014-11-01). "Green Algae and the Origins of Multicellularity in the Plant Kingdom". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (11): a016170. ISSN 1943-0264. PMID 25324214. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016170.