Stress shielding

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Stress shielding refers to the reduction in bone density (osteopenia) as a result of removal of typical stress from the bone by an implant (for instance, the femoral component of a hip prosthesis).[1] This is because by Wolff's law,[2] bone in a healthy person or animal will remodel in response to the loads it is placed under. Therefore, if the loading on a bone decreases, the bone will become less dense and weaker because there is no stimulus for continued remodeling that is required to maintain bone mass.[citation needed]

The design of porous implant[3][4] is one typical method to alleviate the problem.


  1. ^ Ibrahim, H.; Esfahani, S. N.; Poorganji, B.; Dean, D.; Elahinia, M. (January 2017). "Resorbable bone fixation alloys, forming, and post-fabrication treatments". Materials Science and Engineering: C. 70 (1): 870–888. doi:10.1016/j.msec.2016.09.069. PMID 27770965.
  2. ^ Frost, HM (1994). "Wolff's Law and bone's structural adaptations to mechanical usage: an overview for clinicians". The Angle Orthodontist. 64 (3): 175–188. doi:10.1043/0003-3219(1994)064<0175:WLABSA>2.0.CO;2 (inactive 28 February 2022). PMID 8060014.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of February 2022 (link)
  3. ^ Dhandapani, Ramya; Krishnan, Priya Dharshini; Zennifer, Allen; Kannan, Vishal; Manigandan, Amrutha; Arul, Michael R.; Jaiswal, Devina; Subramanian, Anuradha; Kumbar, Sangamesh Gurappa; Sethuraman, Swaminathan (March 2020). "Additive manufacturing of biodegradable porous orthopaedic screw". Bioactive Materials. 5 (3): 458–467. doi:10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.03.009. PMC 7139166. PMID 32280835.
  4. ^ US patent 5702449, William F. McKay, "Reinforced porous spinal implants", published 1997-12-30, issued 1997-12-30, assigned to Danek Medical,Inc.,Memphis,Tenn. and SDGI Holdings Inc.