Strongman (politics)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Strongman (political))
Jump to: navigation, search

A strongman is a political leader who rules by force and runs an authoritarian regime or totalitarian regime. The term is often used interchangeably with "dictator" in the western world, but differs from a "warlord" and commonly lacks the negative connotations especially in some Eastern European and Central Asian countries.

A strongman is not necessarily always a formal head of state or head of government; sometimes journalists use the term to describe a military or political figure who exercises far more influence over the government than a local constitution allows. General Manuel Noriega, for example, was often dubbed the "Strongman of Panama" for the enormous amount of political power he exercised over Panama, despite the fact that he was not the formal president or prime minister of the state. In practice, his role was that of a dictator.

Similarly, not every discussion of "strong leadership"[1] (or every promise to provide such[2]) envisages rule by a strongman.


Political figures referred to as strongmen[edit]

Country Leader
 Afghanistan Mohammed Daoud Khan[3]
 Afghanistan Nur Muhammad Taraki[4]
 Afghanistan Hafizullah Amin[5]
 Afghanistan Babrak Karmal[6]
 Afghanistan Mohammad Najibullah[7]
 Afghanistan Mohammed Omar[8]
 Afghanistan Gulbuddin Hekmatyar[9]
 Afghanistan Hamid Karzai[10]
 Albania Enver Hoxha[11]
 Algeria Ahmed Ben Bella[12]
 Algeria Houari Boumediene[13]
 Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika[14]
 Angola José Eduardo dos Santos[15]
 Argentina Juan Perón[16]
 Argentina Jorge Rafael Videla[17]
 Argentina Leopoldo Galtieri[18]
 Armenia Garegin Nzhdeh[19]
 Armenia Vazgen Sargsyan[20]
 Australia John Howard[21]
 Austria Engelbert Dollfuss[22]
 Austria Kurt Schuschnigg[23]
 Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev[24]
 Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev[25]
 Bangladesh Ziaur Rahman[26]
 Bangladesh Hussain Muhammad Ershad[27]
 Belarus Alexander Lukashenko[28]
 Belgium Elio Di Rupo[29]
 Benin Mathieu Kérékou[30]
 Bolivia Hugo Banzer[31]
 Bolivia Evo Morales[32]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegović[33]
 Brazil Getúlio Vargas[34]
 Brazil Eduardo Cunha[35]
 Bulgaria Georgi Dimitrov[36]
 Bulgaria Todor Zhivkov[37]
 Bulgaria Boyko Borisov[38]
 Burkina Faso Blaise Compaoré[39]
 Burma Ne Win[40]
 Burma Saw Maung[41]
 Burma Than Shwe[42]
 Burundi Michel Micombero[43]
 Burundi Jean-Baptiste Bagaza[44]
 Burundi Pierre Buyoya[45]
 Burundi Pierre Nkurunziza[46]
 Cambodia Lon Nol[47]
 Cambodia Pol Pot[48]
 Cambodia Hun Sen[49]
 Cameroon Ahmadou Ahidjo[50]
 Cameroon Paul Biya[51]
Canada Canada John A. Macdonald[52]
Canada Canada Robert Borden[53]
Canada Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King[54]
Canada Canada R. B. Bennett[55]
 Canada Pierre Trudeau[56]
 Canada Brian Mulroney[57]
 Canada Jean Chrétien[58]
 Canada Stephen Harper[59]
 Central African Republic Jean-Bedel Bokassa[60]
 Central African Republic Francois Bozize[61]
 Central African Republic Michel Djotodia[60]
 Chad Hissène Habré[62]
 Chad Idriss Deby[63]
 Chechnya Ramzan Kadyrov[64]
 Chile Augusto Pinochet[65]
 China Yuan Shikai[66]
 People's Republic of China Mao Zedong[67]
 People's Republic of China Deng Xiaoping[68]
 People's Republic of China Jiang Zemin[69]
 People's Republic of China Xi Jinping[70]
 Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek[71]
 Republic of China Chiang Ching-kuo[72]
 Colombia Gustavo Rojas Pinilla[73]
 Republic of the Congo Denis Sassou-Nguesso[74]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Laurent-Désiré Kabila[75]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Joseph Kabila[76]
 Croatia Ante Pavelić[77]
 Croatia Franjo Tudjman[78]
 Cuba Gerardo Machado[79]
 Cuba Fulgencio Batista[80]
 Cuba Fidel Castro[81]
 Cuba Raúl Castro[82]
 Czechoslovakia Klement Gottwald[83]
 Czechoslovakia Antonín Novotný[84]
 Czechoslovakia Gustáv Husák[85]
 Czech Republic Vaclav Klaus[86]
 Czech Republic Miloš Zeman[87]
 Czech Republic Andrej Babis[88]
 Denmark Jens Christian Christensen[89]
 Djibouti Hassan Gouled Aptidon[90]
 Djibouti Ismaïl Omar Guelleh[91]
 Dominican Republic Rafael Trujillo[92]
 Dominican Republic Joaquín Balaguer[93]
 East Timor Taur Matan Ruak[94]
 Ecuador Eloy Alfaro[95]
 Ecuador Leónidas Plaza[96]
 Ecuador José María Velasco Ibarra[97]
 Kingdom of Egypt Mahmoud El Nokrashy Pasha[98]
 Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser[99]
 Egypt Anwar Sadat[100]
 Egypt Hosni Mubarak[101]
 Egypt Abdel Fattah el-Sisi[102]
 El Salvador Maximiliano Hernández Martínez[103]
 England Oliver Cromwell[104]
 Equatorial Guinea Francisco Macías Nguema[105]
 Equatorial Guinea Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo[106]
 Eritrea Isaias Afewerki[107]
 Estonia Konstantin Päts[108]
 Ethiopia Mengistu Haile Mariam[109]
 Ethiopia Meles Zenawi[110]
 Fiji Frank Bainimarama[111]
 Finland Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim[112]
 Finland Urho Kekkonen[113]
 France Maximilien Robespierre[114]
 France Napoleon Bonaparte[115]
 France Georges Clemenceau[116]
 France Philippe Pétain[117]
 France Charles de Gaulle[118]
 Gabon Omar Bongo[119]
 Gabon Ali Bongo[120]
 Gambia Dawda Jawara[121]
 Gambia Yahya Jammeh[122]
 Georgia Eduard Shevardnadze[123]
 German Empire Otto von Bismarck[124]
 German Empire Erich Ludendorff[125]
 Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler[126]
 East Germany Walter Ulbricht[127]
 East Germany Erich Honecker[128]
 West Germany Konrad Adenauer[129]
 Germany Helmut Kohl[130]
 Ghana Kwame Nkrumah[131]
 Ghana Jerry John Rawlings[132]
 Greece Eleftherios Venizelos[133]
 Greece Ioannis Metaxas[134]
 Greece Georgios Papadopoulos[135]
 Greece Dimitrios Ioannidis[136]
 Guatemala Jorge Ubico[137]
 Guatemala Manuel Estrada Cabrera[138]
 Guatemala Efraín Ríos Montt[139]
 Guinea Ahmed Sékou Touré[140]
 Guinea Lansana Conté[141]
 Guinea Moussa Dadis Camara[142]
 Guinea-Bissau João Bernardo Vieira[143]
 Guinea-Bissau Ansumane Mané[144]
 Guyana Forbes Burnham[145]
 Haiti Vilbrun Guillaume Sam[146]
 Haiti Paul Magloire[147]
 Haiti Francois Duvalier[148]
 Haiti Jean-Claude Duvalier[149]
 Honduras Tiburcio Carías Andino[150]
 Hungary Miklós Horthy[151]
 Hungary Ferenc Szálasi[108]
 Hungary Mátyás Rákosi[152]
 Hungary János Kádár[153]
 Hungary Viktor Orbán[154]
 Iceland Davíð Oddsson[155]
 India Jawaharlal Nehru[156]
 India Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel[156]
 India Indira Gandhi[157]
 India Narendra Modi[158]
 Indonesia Sukarno[159]
 Indonesia Suharto[160]
 Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi[161]
 Iran Ruhollah Khomeini[162]
 Iran Ali Khamenei[163]
 Kingdom of Iraq Nuri al-Said[164]
 Iraq Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr[165]
 Iraq Saddam Hussein[166]
 Israel David Ben-Gurion[167]
 Israel Yitzhak Rabin[168]
 Israel Ariel Sharon[169]
 Israel Benjamin Netanyahu[170]
 Italy Francesco Crispi[171]
 Italy Giovanni Giolitti[172]
 Italy Benito Mussolini[173]
 Italy Bettino Craxi[174]
 Italy Silvio Berlusconi[175]
 Ivory Coast Félix Houphouët-Boigny[176]
 Ivory Coast Laurent Gbagbo[177]
 Japan Hideki Tojo[178]
 Japan Shigeru Yoshida[179]
 Japan Nobusuke Kishi[180]
 Japan Eisaku Satō[181]
 Japan Kakuei Tanaka[182]
 Japan Shinzō Abe[183]
 Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev[184]
 Kenya Jomo Kenyatta[185]
 Kenya Daniel Arap Moi[186]
 Kenya Uhuru Kenyatta[187]
 Kyrgyzstan Askar Akayev[188]
 Kyrgyzstan Kurmanbek Bakiyev[189]
 Kyrgyzstan Almazbek Atambayev[190]
 Laos Phoumi Nosavan[191]
 Laos Kaysone Phomvihan[192]
 Laos Bounnhang Vorachith[193]
 Latvia Kārlis Ulmanis[194]
 Lebanon Bachir Gemayel[195]
 Lebanon Amin Gemayel[196]
 Lebanon Hassan Nasrallah[197]
 Lesotho Justin Lekhanya[198]
 Lesotho Pakalitha Mosisili[199]
 Liberia William Tubman[200]
 Liberia Samuel Doe[201]
 Liberia Charles Taylor[202]
 Libya Muammar Gaddafi[203]
 Libya Khalifa Haftar[204]
 Lithuania Antanas Smetona[108]
 Macedonia Nikola Gruevski[205]
 Madagascar Didier Ratsiraka[206]
 Malawi Hastings Banda[207]
 Malawi Bingu wa Mutharika[208]
 Malaysia Mahathir bin Mohamad[209]
 Malaysia Najib Tun Razak[210]
 Maldives Maumoon Abdul Gayoom[211]
 Mali Moussa Traoré[212]
 Mauritania Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya[213]
 Mauritania Ely Ould Mohamed Vall[214]
 Mauritania Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz[215]
 Mexico Antonio López de Santa Anna[216]
 Mexico Porfirio Díaz[217]
 Mexico Plutarco Elías Calles[218]
 Moldova Vladimir Voronin[219]
 Mongolia Khorloogiin Choibalsan[220]
 Mongolia Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal[221]
 Montenegro Milo Đukanović[222]
 Morocco Driss Basri[223]
 Netherlands Hendrikus Colijn[224]
 New Zealand John Key[225]
 Nicaragua Anastasio Somoza García[226]
 Nicaragua Anastasio Somoza Debayle[227]
 Nicaragua Daniel Ortega[228]
 Niger Hamani Diori[229]
 Niger Seyni Kountché[230]
 Nigeria Yakubu Gowon[231]
 Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo[232]
 Nigeria Ibrahim Babangida[233]
 Nigeria Sani Abacha[234]
 Nigeria Muhammadu Buhari[235]
 North Korea Kim Il-sung[236]
 North Korea Kim Jong-il[237]
 North Korea Kim Jong-un[238]
 North Vietnam Ho Chi Minh[239]
 North Vietnam Lê Duẩn[240]
 Norway Vidkun Quisling[241]
 Ottoman Empire Ismail Enver Pasha[242]
 Pakistan Ayub Khan[243]
 Pakistan Yahya Khan[244]
 Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto[245]
 Pakistan Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq[246]
 Pakistan Pervez Musharraf[247]
 Palestine Yasser Arafat[248]
 Panama Omar Torrijos[249]
 Panama Manuel Noriega[250]
 Papua New Guinea Michael Somare[251]
 Papua New Guinea Julius Chan[251]
 Papua New Guinea Peter O'Neill[252][251]
 Paraguay Francisco Solano López[253]
 Paraguay Alfredo Stroessner[254]
 Peru Juan Velasco Alvarado[255]
 Peru Alberto Fujimori[256]
 Philippines Emilio Aguinaldo[257]
 Philippines Ferdinand Marcos[258]
 Philippines Rodrigo Duterte[259][260]
 Poland Józef Piłsudski[261]
 Poland Bolesław Bierut[262]
 Poland Władysław Gomułka[263]
 Poland Edward Gierek[264]
 Poland Wojciech Jaruzelski[265]
 Poland Jarosław Kaczyński[266]
 Portugal António de Oliveira Salazar[267]
 Rhodesia Ian Smith[268]
 Romania Ion Antonescu[269]
 Romania Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej[270]
 Romania Nicolae Ceaușescu[271]
 Romania Liviu Dragnea[272]
 Russia Vladimir Putin[273]
Flag of Rwanda (1962-2001).svg Rwanda Juvénal Habyarimana[274]
Flag of Rwanda (1962-2001).svg Rwanda Théoneste Bagosora[275]
 Rwanda Paul Kagame[276]
 São Tomé and Príncipe Manuel Pinto da Costa[277]
 Saudi Arabia Muhammad bin Nayef[278]
 Senegal Léopold Sédar Senghor[279]
 Serbia Slobodan Milošević[280]
 Serbia Aleksandar Vučić[281]
 Seychelles France-Albert René[282]
 Sierra Leone Siaka Stevens[283]
 Sierra Leone Foday Sankoh[284]
 Sierra Leone Johnny Paul Koroma[285]
 Singapore Lee Kuan Yew[286]
 Singapore Lee Hsien Loong[287]
Slovakia Jozef Tiso[108]
 Slovakia Vladimír Mečiar[288]
 Slovakia Robert Fico[289]
 Somalia Siad Barre[290]
 Somalia Mohamed Farrah Aidid[291]
South Africa Hendrik Verwoerd[292]
South Africa Balthazar Johannes Vorster[293]
South Africa Pieter Willem Botha[294]
 South Africa Jacob Zuma[295]
South African Republic Paul Kruger[296]
 South Korea Syngman Rhee[297]
 South Korea Park Chung-Hee[298]
 South Korea Chun Doo-Hwan[299]
 South Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem[300]
 South Vietnam Dương Văn Minh[301]
 South Vietnam Nguyen Khanh[302]
 South Sudan Salva Kiir Mayardit[303]
 Soviet Union Vladimir Lenin[304]
 Soviet Union Leon Trotsky[305]
 Soviet Union Joseph Stalin[306]
 Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev[307]
 Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev[308]
Spain Spain Ramón María Narváez[309]
Spain Spain Juan Prim[310]
Spain Spain Práxedes Mateo Sagasta[311]
Spain Spain Antonio Cánovas del Castillo[312]
Spain Spain Miguel Primo de Rivera[313]
 Spain Francisco Franco[314]
 Sri Lanka Mahinda Rajapaksa[315]
 Sudan Gaafar Nimeiry[316]
 Sudan Omar al-Bashir[317]
 Sudan Hassan Al-Turabi[318]
 Suriname Dési Bouterse[319]
 Sweden Per Albin Hansson[320]
 Syria Salah Jadid[321]
 Syria Hafez al-Assad[322]
 Syria Bashar al-Assad[323]
 Tajikistan Emomali Rakhmon[324]
 Tanzania John Magufuli[325]
 Thailand Phin Choonhavan[326]
 Thailand Plaek Phibunsongkhram[327]
 Thailand Phao Sriyanond[328]
 Thailand Sarit Thanarat[329]
 Thailand Thanom Kittikachorn[330]
 Thailand Kriangsak Chamanan[331]
 Thailand Prem Tinsulanonda[332]
 Thailand Thaksin Shinawatra[333]
 Thailand Sonthi Boonyaratglin[334]
 Thailand Prayuth Chan-ocha[335]
 Togo Gnassingbé Eyadema[336]
 Turkey Mustafa Kemal Atatürk[337]
 Turkey İsmet İnönü[338]
 Turkey Cemal Gürsel[339]
 Turkey Kenan Evren[340]
 Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan[341]
 Turkmenistan Saparmyrat Nyýazow[342]
 Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow[343]
 Tunisia Habib Bourguiba[344]
 Tunisia Zine El Abidine Ben Ali[345]
 Uganda Idi Amin Dada[346]
 Uganda Milton Obote[347]
 Uganda Yoweri Museveni[348]
 Ukraine Leonid Kuchma[349]
 Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych[350]
 Uruguay Juan María Bordaberry[351]
 United Kingdom David Lloyd George[352]
 United Kingdom Winston Churchill[353]
 United Kingdom David Cameron[354]
 United States Andrew Jackson[355]
 United States James K. Polk[356]
 United States Abraham Lincoln[357]
 United States Theodore Roosevelt[358]
 United States Franklin D. Roosevelt[359]
 United States Lyndon B. Johnson[360]
 United States Richard Nixon[361]
 United States Dick Cheney[362]
 United States Donald Trump[175][363][364]
 Uzbekistan Islam Karimov[365]
 Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev[366]
 Venezuela José Antonio Páez[367]
 Venezuela Antonio Guzmán Blanco[367]
 Venezuela Juan Vincente Gomez[367]
 Venezuela Marcos Pérez Jiménez[367]
 Venezuela Hugo Chávez[368]
 Venezuela Nicolás Maduro[369]
 Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh[370]
 FR Yugoslavia Slobodan Milošević[371]
 SFR Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito[372]
 Zaire Mobutu Sese Seko[373]
 Zambia Kenneth Kaunda[374]
 Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe[375]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ For example: Sinclair, Barbara (1992). "The Emergence of Strong Leadership in the 1980s House of Representatives". The Journal of Politics. 54 (3): 657–684. doi:10.2307/2132306. Retrieved 27 October 2013. An explanation for the emergence of strong leadership is offered and tested. I argue that, during the period under study, the costs and benefits to majority party members of strong leadership changed significantly. 
  2. ^ See for example:Rao, Mumtaz Hamid, ed. (May 2010). "David Cameron takes the reins in UK; Vows strong leadership". Pakistan Times. Islamabad. Pakistan Times UK Bureau. ISSN 1729-7915. Retrieved 27 October 2013. Prime Minister David Cameron has said the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition will be united to give Britain a strong and stable leadership for the long term. [...] 'And it will be an administration united behind one key purpose and that is to give our country the strong and stable and determined leadership that we need for the long term.' [...] New Prime Minister David Cameron unveiled more details of his historic coalition on Wednesday, vowing "strong" government after ending 13 years of Labour rule. [...] New Foreign Secretary William Hague insisted the coalition agreement [...] would stand the test of time. [...] 'It will be a strong government,' said Hague. 
  3. ^ Afghanland.com Afghanistan Mohammad Daud Khan
  4. ^ Iran: From Religious Dispute to Revolution
  5. ^ Sinno, Abdulkader H. (2008). Organizations at War in Afghanistan and Beyond. Cornell University Press. pp. 108. ISBN 0-8014-4618-X. 
  6. ^ World: Moscow's New Stand-in
  7. ^ The United States and South Asia: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Asia
  8. ^ Foreign Correspondent: Fifty Years of Reporting South Asia
  9. ^ Afghanistan's Strongmen . - Google News
  10. ^ Us Issues Veiled Warning To Afghan Warlords After Karzai Drops Militia
  11. ^ "Yugoslavia accused Albanian strongman Enver Hoxha Tuesday of trying... - UPI Archives". United Press International. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  12. ^ Algeria: The Nationalization Craze
  13. ^ "1962 Press Photo Col. Houari Boumedienne, Algeria's military strongman". 
  14. ^ Charlotte Florance Charlotte Florance is a writer and policy advisor based in Amman, Jordan She focuses on entrepreneurship (16 April 2014). "Bouteflika for Now -- But What's Next?". 
  15. ^ "Dos Santos: Angola's shy strongman". Africa Review. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  16. ^ "Admiral Emilio Massera obituary". The Guardian. 10 November 2010. 
  17. ^ Koch, Marc (18 May 2013). "Argentina′s ′dirty war′ dictator dies in prison". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  18. ^ "Argentina's former strongman Galtieri dies". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 12 January 2003. 
  19. ^ "ARMENIA AND KARABAGH" (PDF). 1991. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  20. ^ Corley, Felix (29 October 1999). "Vazgen Sarkissian". The Independent. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  21. ^ John Howard did not slay the One Nation dragon, and Turnbull should be careful in following his example, medium.com (6 September 2016)
  22. ^ Domenico, R.P. (2002). Remaking Italy in the Twentieth Century. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 66. ISBN 9781461666134. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  23. ^ "Times Daily - Google News Archive Search". Google News. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  24. ^ Antelava, Natalia (1 November 2005). "Dead leader still influences Azeris". BBC News. 
  25. ^ "Azerbaijan's Aliyev Set to Cement Power in Widely Boycotted Vote". Voice of America. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  26. ^ John Pike. "Ziaur Rahman, 1975-81". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  27. ^ Was Hussain Muhammad Ershad the greatest Head of State Bangladesh ever had?
  28. ^ Christopher Harress (31 January 2015). "Scared By Ukraine War, Belarus Strongman Lukashenko Mulls Ditching Russia". International Business Times. 
  29. ^ Parti Socialiste (Belgium), infogalactic.com
  30. ^ Comeback for strongman
  31. ^ "Paz Wins Presidency in Bolivia". Los Angeles Times. 5 August 1985. 
  32. ^ The Rise of Ethnic Politics in Latin America
  33. ^ Alija Izetbegovic, the soul of the Bosnian resistance, worldbulletin.net (19 October 2016)
  34. ^ Penn, J.R. (2001). Rivers of the World: A Social, Geographical, and Environmental Sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. p. 9. ISBN 9781576070420. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  35. ^ Former Right-Wing Brazilian Strongman Eduardo Cunha Seeks Revenge, www.coha.org (23 September 2016)
  36. ^ Segel, Harold B. (2012). The Walls Behind the Curtain: East European Prison Literature, 1945-1990. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 78. ISBN 0822978024. 
  37. ^ "Bulgarian Strongman Todor Zhivkov Dies". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  38. ^ Deflated Bulgarian Strongman vows to form government, www.standartnews.com (6 October 2014)
  39. ^ "Exiled strongman: The tricky legacy of Blaise Compaoré". 
  40. ^ "General Ne Win". Obituaries. The Guardian. 6 December 2002. 
  41. ^ Portrait of Burmese military strongman General Saw Maung
  42. ^ Cotterell, Arthur (2014). A History of South East Asia. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte. p. 304. ISBN 978-981-4634-70-0. 
  43. ^ Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (21 September 2010). "Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition [6 volumes]: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices". ABC-CLIO – via Google Books. 
  44. ^ "Despite Strongman's Vow, Burundi Strife Grows". The New York Times. 19 September 1996. 
  45. ^ McKinley Jr, James C. (19 September 1996). "Despite Strongman's Vow, Burundi Strife Grows". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  46. ^ "EU set to invite Burundi for peace talks in Brussels - The London Evening Post". 
  47. ^ Dictionary of Genocide
  48. ^ "Pol Pot". Los Angeles Times. 30 October 1997. 
  49. ^ "Cambodia strongman gives election pledge". BBC News. 29 April 1998. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  50. ^ Ahmadou Ahidjo strongman
  51. ^ Tumanjong, Emmanuel (8 October 2011). "Cameroon's longtime strongman seeks another term". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  52. ^ Ged Martin (2013). John A. Macdonald: Canada's First Prime Minister. pp. 57. 
  53. ^ Mike Duffy: Robert Borden, Canada’s forgotten giant, National Post (21 September 2011)
  54. ^ lian goodall (2003). William Lyon Mackenzie King: Dreams and Shadows. pp. 67. 
  55. ^ P.B. Waite (2012). In Search of R.B. Bennett. pp. 170. 
  56. ^ Andrew Cohen, J.L. Granatstein (2011). Trudeau's Shadow: The Life and Legacy of Pierre Elliott Trudeau. pp. 40. Retrieved 11 January 2017. 
  57. ^ Mulroney jokingly calls himself 'former dictator', cnews.canoe.com (25 September 2007)
  58. ^ Canada's lost decade, rabble.ca (28 December 2009)
  59. ^ Stephen Harper's political tactics are nothing new, www.straight.com (13 June 2012)
  60. ^ a b "C.Africa strongman vows to hand over in 3years - Capital News". capitalfm.co.ke. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  61. ^ Todd Pitman. "Central African Republic strongman faces vote". Deseret News. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  62. ^ "Africa's trial: Former Chadian strongman Hissène Habré in the dock (part 1)". France 24. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  63. ^ chad-votes-as-strongman-deby-seeks-fifth-term-in-office
  64. ^ Parfitt, Tom (21 May 2013). "Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov welcomes Gerard Depardieu and Elizabeth Hurley to Grozny". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  65. ^ "People's Daily Online – Pinochet, long-time strongman in Chile, dies at 91". People's Daily. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  66. ^ Yuan Shikai Alpha History (2015)
  67. ^ China's Xi anointed 'core' leader, on par with Mao, Deng
  68. ^ Chinese strongman Deng Xiaoping ignored the nation's protracted power...
  69. ^ [http://www.phayul.com/news/article.aspx?id=4410&t=1 Vajpayee meets Chinese strongman Jiang Zemin, progress on Tibet ]
  70. ^ "China's new strongman Xi has a dream". The Japan Times. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  71. ^ "Taiwan tosses Chiang Kai-shek statues to shed authoritarian past". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  72. ^ Cao, L.; Huang, L.; Sun, I.Y. (2014). Policing in Taiwan: From Authoritarianism to Democracy. Taylor & Francis. p. 20. ISBN 9781135916497. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  73. ^ "Gen. Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, former leader of Colombia". Google News. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  74. ^ "As Zimbabwe Goes...". The Nation. 8 April 2002. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  75. ^ "Practical work in the Congo". 1 September 2000. 
  76. ^ Obama welcomes Congo strongman to Africa summit who led 'child army' Dailymail.co.uk (4 August 2014)
  77. ^ Wachtel, A.B. (2008). The Balkans in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199882731. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  78. ^ Jelacic, Nerma (14 November 1999). "Croat Strongman Nears Death". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 6 May 2013. 
  79. ^ Figueredo, D.H.; Argote-Freyre, F. (2008). A Brief History of the Caribbean. Facts On File, Incorporated. p. 139. ISBN 9781438108315. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  80. ^ U.S. GETS A LOOK AT FULGENCIO BATISTA, STRONG MAN OF CUBA. Life magazine. 5. Time Inc. 21 November 1938. p. 20. ISSN 0024-3019. 
  81. ^ "Castro: Clinton-Obama ticket 'invincible'". CNN. 28 August 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  82. ^ "Obama Meets With Cuban Strongman Raul Castro, Launches New Era of US-Cuba Ties". algemeiner.com. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  83. ^ "Communist Becomes New Strong Man In Czechoslovakia". Google News. Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  84. ^ "The Montreal Gazette - Google News Archive Search". Google News. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  85. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Google News Archive Search". Google News. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  86. ^ A new Czech president: Prickly Vaclav Klaus, The Economist (6 March 2003)
  87. ^ Nostalgia for a strongman, libertyunyielding.com (17 October 2016)
  88. ^ http://country.eiu.com/article.aspx?articleid=845126868&Country=Czech%20Republic&topic=Politics
  89. ^ Bo Lidegaard (2014). A Short History of Denmark in the 20th Century. p. 62. 
  90. ^ FRUD MISADVENTURES - DJIBOUTI - The Indian Ocean Newsletter 10/05/1997
  91. ^ Djibouti’s strongman president faces strongest cross-examination of his career
  92. ^ "DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Strongman's Whimsy". Time. 19 January 1953. 
  93. ^ Joaquin Balaguer Ricardo, poet and strongman, died on July 14th, aged 95, The Economist (1 August 2002)
  94. ^ Independence "hero" Ruak, new president of East Timor, www.asianews.it (17 April 2012)
  95. ^ Garcia Moreno, President of Ecuador 1821 – 1875 librivox.org (6 December 2012)
  96. ^ History of Ecuador (1895–1925) en.m.wikipedia.org
  97. ^ Military Government and the Movement Toward Democracy in South America
  98. ^ NEW PREMIER IN EGYPT Trove (27 February 1945)
  99. ^ "EGYPT: The Big Lie". Time. 18 November 1957. 
  100. ^ "List of books and articles about Anwar Sadat". questia.com. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  101. ^ Hardy, Roger (11 February 2011). "Middle East after Hosni Mubarak: impact of a revolution". BBC. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  102. ^ "Gen. Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi: Egypt's new strongman". theweek.com. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  103. ^ Novels of Testimony and Resistance from Central America
  104. ^ "Members 1604-1629= History of Parliament Online". 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  105. ^ 2015-01-20-afcon-festivities-belie-equatorial-guineas-tyrannical-history
  106. ^ "Equatorial Guinea's strongman lambasts Libya intervention, then attends NTC celebration". Foreign Policy. 21 September 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  107. ^ "wadanka - The bad boy of the Horn of Africa: How Eritrea's strongman uses Kenya as a terror finance hub". wadanka.com. 
  108. ^ a b c d Aarebrot, F.H. (2014). The handbook of political change in Eastern Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. p. 26. ISBN 9781781954294. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  109. ^ "Ethiopia's military strongman Mengistu Haile Mariam steps down and flies to exile in Zimbabwe after fourteen years of brutal rule". South African History Online. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  110. ^ "Ethiopians mourn strongman ruler Meles, dead at 57". Reuters. 21 August 2012. 
  111. ^ Cocktails and Kava - how some New York diplomacy bought Key to Fiji strongman's table
  112. ^ Breuer, William B. (2002). Deceptions of World War II. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-09590-7. 
  113. ^ "Retrospective: Short-term govts a regular feature of the 50s and 70s". yle.fi. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  114. ^ [1]
  115. ^ Claus Telp (2005). The Evolution Of Operational Art, 1740–1813: From Frederick The Great To Napoleon. Frank Cass. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7146-5722-6. 
  116. ^ Papers Past — Dominion — 18 January 1918 — FRANCE'S STRONG MAN
  117. ^ Stratigakos, Despina (2015). Hitler at Home. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-18381-8. 
  118. ^ "Putin's Strongman Model Is Charles de Gaulle". connection.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  119. ^ "'Gabon weeps' for strongman despite lost riches". 
  120. ^ http://www.enca.com/africa/gabons-strongman-ali-bongo-sworn-in
  121. ^ The Postcolonial State in Africa
  122. ^ "Gambia's President Yahya Jammeh orders end of English as official language". South China Morning Post. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  123. ^ "Prison abuse videos dominate Georgia poll". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  124. ^ "Blood and iron; origin of German empire as revealed by character of its founder, Bismarck : Greusel, John Hubert, b. 1868 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". archive.org. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  125. ^ Taylor, F. (2013). The Downfall of Money: Germany's Hyperinflation and the Destruction of the Middle Class. Bloomsbury. p. 311. ISBN 9781408839911. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  126. ^ Smaldone, William (2010). Confronting Hitler: German Social Democrats in Defense of the Weimar Republic, 1929–1933. Lexington Books. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-7391-3211-1. 
  127. ^ Gilman, S.L. (2003). Jurek Becker: A Life in Five Worlds. University of Chicago Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780226293936. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  128. ^ Caldwell, Peter C.; Shandley, Robert R. (2011). German Unification: Expectations and Outcomes. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-230-33795-4. 
  129. ^ "Adenauer Gains Strong Man Role". Toledo Blade. 13 September 1949. Retrieved 27 August 2016. 
  130. ^ Chancellor Helmut Kohl of Germany, the strongman of Europe
  131. ^ Nkrumah Out Of Country Ghana Strongman Ousted Bodyguard Fighting Rebels
  132. ^ Mawuko-Yevugah, Lord (1 June 2013). "African Time: Essays on Contemporary Politics and Governance". AuthorHouse – via Google Books. 
  133. ^ "GREECE: Land of Invasion". Time (Subscription required.). Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  134. ^ "Profile: Greece's far-right Golden Dawn party - BBC News". BBC. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  135. ^ Steen, Gonda A.H. Van (2000). Venom in Verse: Aristophanes in Modern Greece. Princeton University Press. p. 181. ISBN 1-4008-2375-7. 
  136. ^ R. Craig Nation (edited by Stephen J.Blank) (1999). Venom in Verse: Aristophanes in Modern Greece. DIANE Publishing. p. 295. ISBN 1428912320. 
  137. ^ On the Trail of the Maya Explorer
  138. ^ The Intelligence War in Latin America, 1914-1922
  139. ^ Ex-Guatemala strongman's genocide trial begins after 30 years Efrain Rios Montt accused of genocide, crimes against humanity
  140. ^ [2]
  141. ^ A bad sequel plays out in Guinea
  142. ^ Moussa Dadis Camara | Getty Images
  143. ^ Guinea Bissau: Cashew nuts a new hope for exports?
  144. ^ Former military strongman surrenders
  145. ^ George K. Danns (1 January 1982). Domination and Power in Guyana: A Study of the Police in a Third World Context. Transaction Publishers. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-4128-2190-2. 
  146. ^ Mark Robert Schneider (2002). "We Return Fighting": The Civil Rights Movement in the Jazz Age. pp. 79. 
  147. ^ Trouillot, M.R. (1990). Haiti: State Against Nation. Monthly Review Press. p. 135. ISBN 9780853457565. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  148. ^ Senauth, F. (2011). The Making and the Destruction of Haiti. AuthorHouse. p. 32. ISBN 9781456753832. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  149. ^ "COLUMN ONE : The Sorry Exile of Baby Doc : Haiti's previous dictator, Jean-Claude Duvalier, fled to France in 1986, supposedly with $120 million. Now he lives in near-poverty--a cautionary figure for his nation's military leaders.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  150. ^ Honduras Country Study Guide. International Business Publications. 2003. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-7397-9525-5. 
  151. ^ Tucker, S.C. (2014). World War I: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection. ABC-CLIO. p. 863. ISBN 9781851099658. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  152. ^ "The Milwaukee Journal - Google News Archive Search". Google News. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  153. ^ "Fall of the wall". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  154. ^ Stephan Faris (22 January 2015). "Power Hungary: Viktor Orban, Europe's New Strongman - Bloomberg Business". Bloomberg L.P. 
  155. ^ Terrified Politicians - The Reykjavik Grapevine, grapevine.is (27 May 2010)
  156. ^ a b [3]
  157. ^ Linda Charlton (1 November 1984). "Assassination in India: A Leader of Will and Force; Indira Gandhi, Born to Politics, Left Her Own Imprint on India". The New York Times. 
  158. ^ "India's strongman". The Economist. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  159. ^ Inc, Time (1965). Life. Time. p. 76. ISSN 0024-3019. 
  160. ^ Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan (2014). Explaining Collective Violence in Contemporary Indonesia: From Conflict to Cooperation. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-137-27064-1. 
  161. ^ Lawrence A. Peskin, Edmund F. Wehrle (2011). America and the World: Culture, Commerce, Conflict. JHU Press. p. 236. ISBN 9781421402963. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  162. ^ name="google17">Rhode, H. (2010). The Sources of Iranian Negotiating Behavior. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Institute for Contemporary Affairs. p. 7. ISBN 9789652180896. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  163. ^ http://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-worlds-enduring-dictators-sayyid-ali-khamenei-iran-19-06-2011/
  164. ^ Nuri Nuri on the wall..., aliveinbaghdad.org (26 April 2006)
  165. ^ Reviews Of Jawad Hashim's Book
  166. ^ Anderson, Dale (2004). Saddam Hussein. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8225-5005-1. 
  167. ^ Shindler, C. (2013). A History of Modern Israel. Cambridge University Press. p. 22. ISBN 9781107311213. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  168. ^ Karsh, Efraim (5 November 2013). "From Rabin to Netanyahu: Israel's Troubled Agenda". Routledge – via Google Books. 
  169. ^ "Ariel Sharon: Israel's Soldier and Strongman, 1928-2014". Time. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  170. ^ Jeffrey Heller. "Netanyahu's strongman image boosts ratings, countering U.S. rift". Reuters. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  171. ^ "IL PRIMO GOVERNO CRISPI (1887-1891)". homolaicus.com. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  172. ^ "La dittatura parlamentare di Giolitti". Tesi online. Retrieved 16 February 2017. 
  173. ^ Fleischman, Stephen (2007). Short Jabs to the Head: Snapshots of History 2005–2007. iUniverse. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-595-46445-6. 
  174. ^ "Ecco le cinque ragioni per cui Bettino Craxi piacque ai missini". Il Secolo d'Italia. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  175. ^ a b "Donald Trump is America’s Silvio Berlusconi". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 August 2016. 
  176. ^ Ph.D, Toyin Falola; Jean-Jacques, Daniel (14 December 2015). "Africa: An Encyclopedia of Culture and Society [3 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Culture and Society". ABC-CLIO – via Google Books. 
  177. ^ "Former Ivory Coast strongman Laurent Gbagbo makes history at ICC". 
  178. ^ Henderson, H.E. (2001). The Greatest Blunders of World War II. AuthorHouse. p. 634. ISBN 9780595162673. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  179. ^ Traditional Power In Japan Slipping From Hidden Men . - Google News
  180. ^ Year Zero: A History of 1945
  181. ^ Sato Dead At .Age .74 .
  182. ^ Japan in the 21st Century: Environment, Economy, and Society
  183. ^ THE ASIAN VOICE An era of the strongman: The Daily Star columnist
  184. ^ "75th birthday of Kazakhstan strongman raises questions on country's future". Reuters. 4 July 2015. 
  185. ^ "Economic Freedom: Country Studies - Kenya - Democracy Web". 
  186. ^ Phombeah, Gray (5 August 2002). "Moi's legacy to Kenya". BBC News. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  187. ^ "Uhuru Kenyatta: East Africa’s Next Strongman?". Retrieved 10 December 2016. 
  188. ^ Another domino for the pope
  189. ^ "Kyrgyzstan votes in historic national election". arkansasonline.com. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  190. ^ http://www.newsweek.com/kyrgyz-president-signs-new-constitutions-after-old-one-vanishes-mysteriously-549155
  191. ^ Phoumi Nosavan, Former Laotian Military Leader, latimes.com (7 November 1985)
  192. ^ The lowdown on Laos thestar.com.my (27 March 2016)
  193. ^ Asian club replete with strongmen welcomes ‘Duterte Harry’, businessmirror.com.ph (7 September 2016)
  194. ^ "Soviet Russia's Persecution of Latvia, 1918 to the Present". ihr.org. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  195. ^ Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947
  196. ^ Amin Gemayel Says His Family's History 'Runs Parallel To Lebanon's' | WRMEA
  197. ^ "Hassan Nasrallah". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  198. ^ Lesoto strongman is threat to Mandela's ANC, www.upi.com (26 January 1986)
  199. ^ Lesotho: LCD Strongmen Goes Up, allafrica.com (16 June 1998)
  200. ^ "Africa's First President for Life Turns 120: The bequests of Liberia's William Tubman - Daily Maverick". 
  201. ^ "1990: Samuel K. Doe". 9 September 2008. 
  202. ^ "US lifts sanctions against jailed Liberian strongman Taylor". 
  203. ^ "The Wall Street Journal Online – Featured Article". Opinionjournal.com. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  204. ^ {{http://www.dw.com/en/libya-military-strongman-claims-control-of-key-eastern-oil-terminals/a-37933720%7CLibya military strongman claims control of key eastern oil terminals]
  205. ^ "Strongman Nikola Gruevski blamed for Macedonia's ills". 
  206. ^ The Rough Guide to Madagascar
  207. ^ "Hastings Banda". 
  208. ^ Malawi President Joyce Banda: When Madonna met her match
  209. ^ "Malaysia crisis | Profile: Malaysia's strongman Mahathir". BBC News. 10 November 1999. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  210. ^ Malaysian 1MDB scandal: Najib Razak the suave strongman of south east Asia ibtimes.co.uk (18 February 2016)
  211. ^ Maumoon Abdul Gayoom - Web - Search the Now: Waazon
  212. ^ "Moussa Traoré". 
  213. ^ Ould Taya wins election, but still faces growing discontent
  214. ^ Mauritania's military strong man Ely Ould Mohamed Vall, now in control of the country poses in the 'Palais de la Republique' during an audience.
  215. ^ Mauritania's President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz: The strongman who took on Al-Qaeda
  216. ^ Rosales, F.A. Chicano! The History of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement. Arte Publico Press. p. 3. ISBN 9781611920949. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  217. ^ Mexican strongman's descendants want to bring his body home
  218. ^ Deutsch Talks with ‘strong Man’ Calles
  219. ^ "Moldova strongman Voronin resigns". 11 September 2009. 
  220. ^ "WHKMLA : History of Mongolia, 1924-1945". 
  221. ^ The Middlemen: Niche Diplomacy in Asia – Mongolia, Natoassociation.ca (12 July 2013)
  222. ^ "Djukanovic Named 'Criminal of the Year' in Poll :: Balkan Insight". 
  223. ^ Morocco's strongman dies in Paris, news.bbc.co.uk (27 August 2007)
  224. ^ THE NETHERLANDS: Democratic and Royal, TIME (14 August 1939)
  225. ^ New Zealand's Prime Minister: I'll stay in TPP's economic suicide-pact even if the USA pulls out, boingboing.net (26 Feb 2016)
  226. ^ "Daughter of former Nicaraguan strongman dies in Washington". The Miami Herald. 17 May 2003. 
  227. ^ Fleming, T. (2003). A Bat Man in the Tropics: Chasing El Duende. University of California Press. p. 133. ISBN 9780520929487. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  228. ^ "Nicaraguan junta strongman Daniel Ortega announced a massive confiscation... - UPI Archives". United Press International. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  229. ^ Helped found the PPN with future Niger strongman and President Hamani Diori
  230. ^ Dictionary of Niger
  231. ^ "Gowon: Indiscretions of a leader". 
  232. ^ "Former Nigerian president Olosegun Obasa Pictures - Getty Images". 
  233. ^ "Nigeria: Ambassador Cohen's Take on Babangida, Corruption, Oil Money". 
  234. ^ "Abacha dies at 54". 8 June 1998 – via bbc.co.uk. 
  235. ^ AFP, Reuters,. "'Strongman' for Nigeria". 
  236. ^ Perret, Geoffrey (2008). Commander in Chief: How Truman, Johnson, and Bush Turned a Presidential Power into a Threat to America's Future. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4299-2308-8. 
  237. ^ "Is North Korean dictator Kim Jong Il ready to trade away his growing nuclear arsenal, or is he just playing for time?". US News and World Report. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  238. ^ "Kim Jong Un Crowned As Party Leader At North Korean Congress". 
  239. ^ Gann, Lewis H.; Duignan, Peter. World War II and the beginning of the Cold War. Hoover Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-8179-3773-7. 
  240. ^ Nui An Song Tra - DỊCH CHUYỂN QUYỀN LỰC TRONG
  241. ^ The Dictators: Vidkun Quisling, ramblingsofahistorynerd.wordpress.com (7 March 2015)
  242. ^ Demant, P.R. (2006). Islam Vs. Islamism: The Dilemma of the Muslim World. Praeger. p. 25. ISBN 9780275990787. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  243. ^ "The Virgin Islands Daily News - Google News Archive Search | Discontent Seen Erupting Against Strongman Ayub". Google News. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  244. ^ Wang, J.C.F. (1994). Comparative Asian Politics: Power, Policy, and Change. Prentice Hall. ISBN 9780131554580. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  245. ^ [4]
  246. ^ Mills, N. (2007). Karzai: The Failing American Intervention and the Struggle for Afghanistan. Wiley. p. 62. ISBN 9780470134009. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  247. ^ William Mervin Gumede (2007). Thabo Mbeki and the Battle for the Soul of the ANC. Zebra. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-77007-099-8. 
  248. ^ Ajagu, A. (2013). Building A Virile Nation: ...The Private Sector Perspective. AuthorHouse UK. p. 467. ISBN 9781481780674. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  249. ^ "Panama Leader Killed in Crash in Bad Weather". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  250. ^ "Manuel Noriega Biography". Notablebiographies.com. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  251. ^ a b c THE GERMINATION AND SPREAD OF CORRUPTION IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA: AN UNFORTUNATE COMBINATION OF THREE PRIME MINISTERS, www.pngblogs.com (17 September 2015)
  252. ^ High stakes as PNG's new strongman bets on asylum, www.smh.com.au (17 August 2013)
  253. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (23 December 2009). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. p. 1442. ISBN 9781851096725. Retrieved 24 September 2016. 
  254. ^ "Obituary: Alfredo Stroessner". BBC News. 16 August 2006. 
  255. ^ Buckman, R.T. (2013). Latin America 2013. Stryker Post. p. 354. ISBN 9781475804812. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  256. ^ "An elected strongman brought to book". The Economist. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  257. ^ Hedman, Eva-Lotta; Sidel, John (2005). Philippine Politics and Society in the Twentieth Century: Colonial Legacies, Post-Colonial Trajectories. Routledge. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-134-75421-2. 
  258. ^ "Ferdinand Marcos". multied.com. 
  259. ^ Richard Javad Heydarian (26 May 2016). "Duterte, the Filipino Strongman". Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  260. ^ David Iaconangelo (23 August 2016). "What’s behind Filipino strongman Duterte’s popularity?". The Christian Science Monitor. Boston. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  261. ^ Elster, Jon (1996). The Roundtable Talks and the Breakdown of Communism. University of Chicago Press. p. 13. ISBN 0226206289. 
  262. ^ Cold War Europe: The Politics of a Contested Continent
  263. ^ https://www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/polands-peculiar-dictatorshipgomulka-between-popular-feeling-and-soviet-power/
  264. ^ http://www.polskieradio.pl/8/3869/Artykul/1459682,Edward-Gierek-Dyktator-ktory-rozmawial-z-ludzmi
  265. ^ Lutz, Ellen L.; Reiger, Caitlin (2009). Prosecuting Heads of State. Cambridge University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-521-49109-9. 
  266. ^ "‘Vindictive’ Polish leaders using new war museum to rewrite history, says academic". The Guardian. 24 April 2016. 
  267. ^ Bilefsky, Dan (23 July 2007). "Nostalgia for António de Oliveira Salazar divides the Portuguese". The New York Times. 
  268. ^ Ian Smith Under Fire For Criticizing
  269. ^ Ford, Franklin L. (1985). Political Murder: From Tyrannicide to Terrorism. Harvard University Press. p. 274. ISBN 0674686365. 
  270. ^ LIFE. Time. p. 125. ISSN 0024-3019. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  271. ^ "Europe - Twenty years after fall, ghost of Ceausescu's gov't still haunts Romanians". France 24. 
  272. ^ "Romanian Socialists dump Ponta, Dragnea emerges as new ‘strongman’". euractiv. 
  273. ^ Angus Roxburgh (2012). The Strongman: Vladimir Putin and the Struggle for Russia. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78076-016-2. 
  274. ^ Encyclopedia of Human Rights
  275. ^ Conflict and Peacebuilding in the African Great Lakes Region
  276. ^ "Profile: Rwanda's strongman". BBC News. 25 January 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  277. ^ Former strongman Manuel Pinto da Costa returned to power in elections in 2011, two decades after losing office.
  278. ^ [5]
  279. ^ The Mind Of The African Strongman
  280. ^ "Milosevic: Serbia's fallen strongman". BBC News. 30 March 2001. 
  281. ^ "Serbia champions new pro-European strongman". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  282. ^ Albert Rene's Legacy: President Albert Rene, the Left-Leaning Strong Man Who Has Ruled the Indian Ocean Island State of Seychelles for 27 Years Is about to Step Down. What Has Been His Economic and Social Legacy. Fletcher Erwood and Sassi Latrach Report from the 'Paradise Islands'
  283. ^ "Late President Siaka Stevens's Aid blasts APC for ungratefulness - Standard Times Press". 
  284. ^ Asuzu, Okechukwu Jones (1 August 2005). "The Politics of Being Nigerian". Lulu.com – via Google Books. 
  285. ^ Photo: Former APC strongman and military junta leader – Johnny Paul Koroma still wanted by the ICC
  286. ^ "The Strongman of Singapore". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  287. ^ LEE HSIEN LOONG THE STRONGMAN
  288. ^ Krushelnycky, Askold (20 September 2002). "Slovak strongman stares election defeat in the face". The Daily Telegraph. London. 
  289. ^ "Slovakia's Strongman Heading for a Defeat? | Cato @ Liberty". cato.org. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  290. ^ "Mohamed Siad Barre, Schema-Root news". 
  291. ^ "Articles about Mohammed Farah Aidid - latimes". 
  292. ^ "Jewish Post 1 November 1963 — Hoosier State Chronicles: Indiana's Digital Historic Newspaper Program". newspapers.library.in.gov. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  293. ^ "Sarasota Journal - Google News Archive Search | South Africa Selects New Strong Man". Google News. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  294. ^ "SOUTH AFRICA: FORMER APARTHEID STRONGMAN P.W. BOTHA FOUND GUILTY OF CONTEMPT FOR FLOUTING SOUTH AFRICA'S TRUTH COMMISSION". itnsource.com. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  295. ^ ANC's new strongman Jacob Zuma to reassure nervous South Africans, article.wn.com (19 December 2007)
  296. ^ "Orania leader true racists love to hate". iol.za. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2016. 
  297. ^ "Strongman Syngman". Time. 30 June 1952. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  298. ^ Sang-Hun, Choe (20 August 2012). "Ex-Dictator's Daughter Nominated for South Korean Presidency". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 December 2012. 
  299. ^ "South Korea goes after the fortune of Chun Doo-hwan, its last military strongman". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  300. ^ Gunn, Geoffrey C. (2014). Rice Wars in Colonial Vietnam: The Great Famine and the Viet Minh Road to Power. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-4422-2303-5. 
  301. ^ Henry R. Luce, Time, and the American Crusade in Asia
  302. ^ 1964 Press Photo Viet Nam's Strongman Major General Nguyen Khanh Takes A Dip
  303. ^ http://www.southsudannewsagency.com/index.php/2015/04/24/salva-kiir-mayardit-a-dictator-of-21st-century/
  304. ^ [6]
  305. ^ [7]
  306. ^ "Russia: The Quick & the Dead". Time. 2 April 1956. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  307. ^ "Amazon.com: Russian Legends: The Life and Legacy of Nikita Khrushchev eBook: Charles River Editors: Kindle Store". Archived from the original on 2016-02-02. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  308. ^ Bakshi, G.D. (2002). Afghanistan: The First Faultline War. Lancer. p. 50. ISBN 9788170622208. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  309. ^ Fortunata and Jacinta: Two Stories of Married Women, www.encyclopedia.org
  310. ^ Marc Gotlieb (2016). The Deaths of Henri Regnault. pp. 23. 
  311. ^ Raymond Carr (2001). Modern Spain, 1875-1980. pp. 8. 
  312. ^ Walter Aaron Clark (2006). Enrique Granados: Poet of the Piano. pp. 5. 
  313. ^ Tucker, S.C. (2013). Encyclopedia of Insurgency and Counterinsurgency: A New Era of Modern Warfare: A New Era of Modern Warfare. ABC-CLIO. p. 43. ISBN 9781610692809. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  314. ^ Joy Hakim (2002). War, Peace, and All That Jazz. Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-19-515335-4. 
  315. ^ "Former Sri Lankan strongman Rajapaksa aims for a political comeback - LA Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  316. ^ Strongman of the Sudan Gaafar al‐Nimeiry
  317. ^ http://www.freedomhouse.org/article/freedom-house-condemns-sudanese-government%E2%80%99s-killing-12-during-protests
  318. ^ Gilani & Sudan: The Turabi Connection
  319. ^ "Suriname: The Dictator Who Came In From The Cold". Time. 12 August 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2013. 
  320. ^ Franklin Daniel Scott (1988). Sweden, the Nation's History. p. 485. 
  321. ^ Moubayed, Sami M. (2006). Steel and Silk. Cune Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-885942-41-8. 
  322. ^ Tucker, Spencer C.; Roberts, Priscilla (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-85109-842-2. 
  323. ^ Totten, Michael J. (2013). The Road to Fatima Gate: The Beirut Spring, the Rise of Hezbollah, and the Iranian War Against Israel. Encounter Books. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-59403-655-2. 
  324. ^ "Strongmen standing together". The Economist. 11 November 2013. 
  325. ^ http://nairobiwire.com/2016/09/poll-has-tanzanian-president-john-magufuli-turned-into-a-dictator.html
  326. ^ Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia
  327. ^ Fineman, D. (1997). A Special Relationship: The United States and Military Government in Thailand, 1947-1958. University of Hawaii Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780824818180. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  328. ^ Moon Phuket & Ko Samui
  329. ^ Warr, P.G.; Nidhiprabha, B. (1996). Thailand's Macroeconomic Miracle: Stable Adjustment and Sustained Growth. World Bank. p. 13. ISBN 9780821326541. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  330. ^ "Former Thai strongman, booted out in 1973, dies". Taipei Times. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  331. ^ The Desktop Digest of Despots and Dictators: An A to Z of Tyranny
  332. ^ Stamatopoulos, S. (2015). The Ultimate Travel Guide to Thailand: The Most Exotic Destination in South-East Asia. Stamatis Stamatopoulos. ISBN 9781628902839. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  333. ^ Crime and Corruption in New Democracies: The Politics of (In)Security
  334. ^ The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism
  335. ^ "The Strongman of Siam". Foreign Policy. 21 May 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  336. ^ "Togo holds state funeral for strongman Gnassingbe Eyadema". 13 March 2005. 
  337. ^ "Quezon and Ataturk: a study of strongman rule". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  338. ^ "Daytona Beach Sunday News-Journal - Google News Archive Search". Google. 
  339. ^ Turkey: Message to a Son, TIME (29 September 1961)
  340. ^ Frail Turkish ex-president appears in landmark coup trial, reuters.com (20 November 2012)
  341. ^ Editorial Board (3 June 2013). "Prime Minister Erdogan's strongman response to Turkey's protests". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  342. ^ "Turkmenistan ex-leader Niyazov's golden statue toppled". BBC News. 26 August 2010. 
  343. ^ "Turkmenistan Strongman Erects First Gold Statue to Himself". EurasiaNet.org. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  344. ^ Tunisia Struggles With Militants, www.stratfor.com (29 June 2015)
  345. ^ "Ousted Tunisian strongman convicted of corruption charges - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  346. ^ "Idi Amin seeks kidney donor". BBC News. 14 August 2003. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  347. ^ "Milton Obote Dies at 80; Strongman in Uganda, Twice Overthrown". The New York Times. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  348. ^ Lorch, Donatella (29 January 1995). "Uganda Strongman a Favorite of World Lenders". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  349. ^ "Two Viktors, only one victor". The Economist. Archived from the original on 2016-04-17. Retrieved 14 May 2016 – via web.archive.org. 
  350. ^ "Viktor Yanukovych: can the great survivor of Ukraine politics hang on?". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  351. ^ "Uruguay High Court Declares Amnesty Law Unconstitutional". Latin American Herald Tribune. n.d. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  352. ^ John Milton Cooper, Jr. (2009). Woodrow Wilson. pp. 316. 
  353. ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-30934629
  354. ^ DAVID CAMERON STANDS AS THE STRONG MAN OF EUROPE, www.modernghana.com (15 December 2011)
  355. ^ Strongmen in America’s political culture, sgreffenius.com (10 December 2016)
  356. ^ James K. Polk, www.azquotes.com
  357. ^ Opponents and Friends – Mr. Lincoln and Friends www.mrlincolnandfriends.org
  358. ^ Strongmen in America’s political culture, sgreffenius.com (10 December 2016)
  359. ^ Hollywood, propaganda, and liberal politics, AEI.org (28 January 2014)
  360. ^ LBJ | CareyRowland's Blog, careyrowland.wordpress.com (15 November 2015)
  361. ^ [8]
  362. ^ [9]
  363. ^ "The Resurgence of ‘Strongmen’ Like Trump Threatens Our Liberal World Order". Huffington Post. 2016-04-14. 
  364. ^ "Donald Trump and Rodrigo Duterte, BFFs: Murderous Philippine strongman is who Trump would love to be". 2016-12-08. Retrieved 10 December 2016. 
  365. ^ "Uzbek strongman re-elected in landslide victory". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  366. ^ Uzbekistan replaces one strongman with another The Economist (10 December 2016)
  367. ^ a b c d Davis, Charles L. (2015). Working-Class Mobilization and Political Control: Venezuela and Mexico. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 42. ISBN 978-0-8131-6280-5. 
  368. ^ The "Resilient" Left-Wing Strongman Hugo Chavez
  369. ^ Washington, Richard (15 July 2016). "Venezuela strongman Maduro 'will go to all lengths to survive'". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved 31 December 2016. 
  370. ^ "Yemen ex-strongman Saleh amassed up to $60 billion: UN". 
  371. ^ Judah, Tim (30 March 2001). "Milosevic: Serbia's fallen strongman". BBC News. 
  372. ^ Leonard, Thomas M. (2013). Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Taylor & Francis. p. 1418. ISBN 978-1-135-20515-7. 
  373. ^ Daniszewski, John; Simmons, Ann M. (8 September 1997). "Ex-Dictator Mobutu Dies In Exile -- Brutal Strongman Became Rich As Zaire Descended Into Poverty". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  374. ^ "TM-EX Newsletter: TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION EX-MEMBERS SUPPORT GROUP". Meditation Information Network. Fall 1991. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  375. ^ Graham K. Brown; Arnim Langer (2013). Elgar Handbook of Civil War and Fragile States. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 387. ISBN 978-1-84844-842-1.