|Names||strontium-90, 90Sr, Sr-90|
|Half-life (t1/2)||28.79 years|
|Isotope mass||89.9077279(16) Da|
|Decay mode||Decay energy (MeV)|
|Isotopes of strontium |
Complete table of nuclides
) is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 28.8 years. It undergoes β− decay into yttrium-90, with a decay energy of 0.546 MeV. Strontium-90 has applications in medicine and industry and is an isotope of concern in fallout from nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear accidents.
Naturally occurring strontium is nonradioactive and nontoxic at levels normally found in the environment, but 90Sr is a radiation hazard. 90Sr undergoes β− decay with a half-life of 28.79 years and a decay energy of 0.546 MeV distributed to an electron, an antineutrino, and the yttrium isotope 90Y, which in turn undergoes β− decay with a half-life of 64 hours and a decay energy of 2.28 MeV distributed to an electron, an antineutrino, and 90Zr (zirconium), which is stable. Note that 90Sr/Y is almost a pure beta particle source; the gamma photon emission from the decay of 90Y is so infrequent that it can normally be ignored.
90Sr is a product of nuclear fission. It is present in significant amount in spent nuclear fuel, in radioactive waste from nuclear reactors and in nuclear fallout from nuclear tests. For thermal neutron fission as in today's nuclear power plants, the fission product yield from uranium-235 is 5.7%, from uranium-233 6.6%, but from plutonium-239 only 2.0%.
Strontium-90 is classified as high-level waste. Its 29-year half-life means that it can take hundreds of years to decay to negligible levels. Exposure from contaminated water and food may increase the risk of leukemia and bone cancer.
Algae has shown selectivity for strontium in studies, where most plants used in bioremediation have not shown selectivity between calcium and strontium, often becoming saturated with calcium, which is greater in quantity and also present in nuclear waste.
Researchers have looked at the bioaccumulation of strontium by Scenedesmus spinosus (algae) in simulated wastewater. The study claims a highly selective biosorption capacity for strontium of S. spinosus, suggesting that it may be appropriate for use of nuclear wastewater.
Strontium-90 is a "bone seeker" that exhibits biochemical behavior similar to calcium, the next lighter group 2 element. After entering the organism, most often by ingestion with contaminated food or water, about 70–80% of the dose gets excreted. Virtually all remaining strontium-90 is deposited in bones and bone marrow, with the remaining 1% remaining in blood and soft tissues. Its presence in bones can cause bone cancer, cancer of nearby tissues, and leukemia. Exposure to 90Sr can be tested by a bioassay, most commonly by urinalysis.
The biological half-life of strontium-90 in humans has variously been reported as from 14 to 600 days, 1000 days, 18 years, 30 years and, at an upper limit, 49 years. The wide-ranging published biological half life figures are explained by strontium's complex metabolism within the body. However, by averaging all excretion paths, the overall biological half life is estimated to be about 18 years.
Together with the caesium isotopes 134Cs and 137Cs, and the iodine isotope 131I, it was among the most important isotopes regarding health impacts after the Chernobyl disaster. As strontium has an affinity to the calcium-sensing receptor of parathyroid cells that is similar to that of calcium, the increased risk of liquidators of the Chernobyl power plant to suffer from primary hyperparathyroidism could be explained by binding of strontium-90.
Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs)
The radioactive decay of strontium-90 generates a significant amount of heat, 0.95 W/g in the form of pure strontium metal or approximately 0.460 W/g as strontium titanate and is cheaper than the alternative 238Pu. It is used as a heat source in many Russian/Soviet radioisotope thermoelectric generators, usually in the form of strontium titanate. It was also used in the US "Sentinel" series of RTGs.
90Sr finds use in industry as a radioactive source for thickness gauges.
90Sr finds extensive use in medicine as a radioactive source for superficial radiotherapy of some cancers. Controlled amounts of 90Sr and 89Sr can be used in treatment of bone cancer, and to treat coronary restenosis via vascular brachytherapy. It is also used as a radioactive tracer in medicine and agriculture.
In April 1943, Enrico Fermi suggested to Robert Oppenheimer the possibility of using the radioactive byproducts from enrichment to contaminate the German food supply. The background was fear that the German atomic bomb project was already at an advanced stage, and Fermi was also skeptical at the time that an atomic bomb could be developed quickly enough. Oppenheimer discussed the proposal with Edward Teller, who suggested the use of strontium-90. James Bryant Conant and Leslie R. Groves were also briefed, but Oppenheimer wanted to proceed with the plan only if enough food could be contaminated with the weapon to kill half a million people.
90Sr contamination in the environment
Strontium-90 is not quite as likely as caesium-137 to be released as a part of a nuclear reactor accident because it is much less volatile, but is probably the most dangerous component of the radioactive fallout from a nuclear weapon.
A study of hundreds of thousands of deciduous teeth, collected by Dr. Louise Reiss and her colleagues as part of the Baby Tooth Survey, found a large increase in 90Sr levels through the 1950s and early 1960s. The study's final results showed that children born in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1963 had levels of 90Sr in their deciduous teeth that was 50 times higher than that found in children born in 1950, before the advent of large-scale atomic testing. Reviewers of the study predicted that the fallout would cause increased incidence of disease in those who absorbed strontium-90 into their bones. However, no follow up studies of the subjects have been performed, so the claim is untested.
An article with the study's initial findings was circulated to U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1961, and helped convince him to sign the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty with the United Kingdom and Soviet Union, ending the above-ground nuclear weapons testing that placed the greatest amounts of nuclear fallout into the atmosphere.
The Chernobyl disaster released roughly 10 PBq, or about 5% of the core inventory, of strontium-90 into the environment. The Fukushima Daiichi disaster had from the accident until 2013 released 0.1 to 1 PBq of strontium-90 in the form of contaminated cooling water into the Pacific Ocean.
- Wang, Meng; Huang, W.J.; Kondev, F.G.; Audi, G.; Naimi, S. (2021). "The AME 2020 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs and references". Chinese Physics C. 45 (3): 030003. doi:10.1088/1674-1137/abddaf.
- "Table of Isotopes decay data". Lund University. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- "Strontium | Radiation Protection | US EPA". EPA. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR STRONTIUM (PDF), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, April 2004, retrieved 13 October 2014
- Decay data from National Nuclear Data Center at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the US.
- Delacroix, D.; Guerre, J. P.; Leblanc, P.; Hickman, C. (2002). Radionuclide and Radiation Protection Data Handbook 2002 (2nd ed.). Nuclear Technology Publishing. ISBN 978-1-870965-87-3.
- "Livechart - Table of Nuclides - Nuclear structure and decay data". IAEA. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- Potera, Carol (2011). "HAZARDOUS WASTE: Pond Algae Sequester Strontium-90". Environ Health Perspect. 119 (6): A244. doi:10.1289/ehp.119-a244. PMC 3114833. PMID 21628117.
- Liu, Mingxue; Dong, Faqin; Kang, Wu; Sun, Shiyong; Wei, Hongfu; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Xiaoqin; Guo, Yuting; Huang, Ting; Liu, Yuanyuan (2014). "Biosorption of Strontium from Simulated Nuclear Wastewater by Scenedesmus spinosus under Culture Conditions: Adsorption and Bioaccumulation Processes and Models". Int J Environ Res Public Health. 11 (6): 6099–6118. doi:10.3390/ijerph110606099. PMC 4078568. PMID 24919131.
- "NRC: Glossary -- Bone seeker". US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 7 May 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- https://dhss.delaware.gov/dhss/dph/files/strontiumfaq.pdf[bare URL PDF]
- Tiller, B. L. (2001), "4.5 Fish and Wildlife Surveillance" (PDF), Hanford Site 2001 Environmental Report, DOE, retrieved 14 January 2014
- Driver, C.J. (1994), Ecotoxicity Literature Review of Selected Hanford Site Contaminants (PDF), DOE, doi:10.2172/10136486, retrieved 14 January 2014
- "Freshwater Ecology and Human Influence". Area IV Envirothon. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "Radioisotopes That May Impact Food Resources" (PDF). Epidemiology, Health and Social Services, State of Alaska. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "Human Health Fact Sheet: Strontium" (PDF). Argonne National Laboratory. October 2001. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "Biological Half-life". HyperPhysics. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Glasstone, Samuel; Dolan, Philip J. (1977). "XII: Biological Effects" (PDF). The effects of Nuclear Weapons. p. 605. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Shagina, N B; Bougrov, N G; Degteva, M O; Kozheurov, V P; Tolstykh, E I (2006). "An application of in vivo whole body counting technique for studying strontium metabolism and internal dose reconstruction for the Techa River population". Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 41 (1): 433–440. Bibcode:2006JPhCS..41..433S. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/41/1/048. ISSN 1742-6588.
- Boehm BO, Rosinger S, Belyi D, Dietrich JW (August 2011). "The Parathyroid as a Target for Radiation Damage". New England Journal of Medicine. 365 (7): 676–678. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1104982. PMID 21848480.
- Harris, Dale; Epstein, Joseph (1968). Properties of Selected Radioisotopes. NASA (Report). 19680020487. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
- Standring, WJF; Selnæs, ØG; Sneve, M; Finne, IE; Hosseini, A; Amundsen, I; Strand, P (2005), Assessment of environmental, health and safety consequences of decommissioning radioisotope thermal generators (RTGs) in Northwest Russia (PDF), Østerås: Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority
- "Power Sources for Remote Arctic Applications" (PDF). Washington, DC: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. June 1994. OTA-BP-ETI-129.
- "Wireless blade monitoring system and process".
- Rhodes, Richard (2012). The making of the atomic bomb. Simon & Schuster. pp. 510ff. ISBN 978-1-4711-1123-5. OCLC 1096260191.
- "Nuclear Fission Fragments". HyperPhysics. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
- Schneir, Walter (25 April 1959). "Strontium-90 in U.S. Children". The Nation. 188 (17): 355–357.
- Hevesi, Dennis. "Dr. Louise Reiss, Who Helped Ban Atomic Testing, Dies at 90", The New York Times, January 10, 2011. Accessed January 10, 2011.
- "II: The release, dispersion and deposition of radionuclides", Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impacts (PDF), NEA, 2002
- Povinec, P. P.; Aoyama, M.; Biddulph, D.; et al. (2013). "Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters – a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout". Biogeosciences. 10 (8): 5481–5496. Bibcode:2013BGeo...10.5481P. doi:10.5194/bg-10-5481-2013. ISSN 1726-4189.
- "Strontium, Radioactive". Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 15 May 2023.