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Temporal range: Ordovician–Early Jurassic
An Ordovician strophomenid with encrusting inarticulate brachiopods (the craniid Philhedra) and a bryozoan.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Brachiopoda
Class: Strophomenata
Order: Strophomenida
Opik, 1934

Strophomenida is a large, extinct order of articulate brachiopods in the extinct class Strophomenata that existed from the lower Ordovician to the lower Jurassic period. It was the largest known order of brachiopods, encompassing over 400 genera, including the largest and heaviest of known brachiopod shells. The strophomenids lost the ability to attach by the stalk in adult specimens, so they either lay free, attached the ventral valve at the umbo to a firm substrate, or balanced with their spines sunken into a soft substrate. Typically the dorsal valve was either concave or flat, though occasionally it was convex; the ventral valve was convex. Typically, a member of this order was wider than it was long. In juveniles, there was a tiny hole at the animal's umbo for a stalk to emerge from. Tiny bumps cover the interior of the valves.

Subtaxa (superfamilies)[edit]


Thompson, Ida (1982). National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Fossils. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 648. ISBN 0-394-52412-8.