Structure of observed learning outcome
The structure of observed learning outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy is a model that describes levels of increasing complexity in students' understanding of subjects. It was proposed by John B. Biggs and Kevin F. Collis.
The model consists of five levels of understanding:
- Pre-structural – The task is not attacked appropriately; the student hasn’t really understood the point and uses too simple a way of going about it.
- Uni-structural – The student's response only focuses on one relevant aspect.
- Multi-structural – The student's response focuses on several relevant aspects but they are treated independently and additively. Assessment of this level is primarily quantitative.
- Relational – The different aspects have become integrated into a coherent whole. This level is what is normally meant by an adequate understanding of some topic.
- Extended abstract – The previous integrated whole may be conceptualised at a higher level of abstraction and generalised to a new topic or area.
- Bloom's taxonomy – Classification system in education
- DIKW pyramid – Data, information, knowledge, wisdom hierarchy
- Educational psychology – Branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning
- Educational technology – Use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching
- Higher-order thinking – A concept of education reform
- In Over Our Heads – Book by Robert Kegan
- Integrative complexity – A research psychometric
- Model of hierarchical complexity – A framework for scoring how complex a behavior is
- Biggs, John B.; Collis, Kevin F. (1982). Evaluating the quality of learning: the SOLO taxonomy (structure of the observed learning outcome). Educational psychology series. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0120975505. OCLC 7813155.
- Biggs, John B.; Tang, Catherine So-kum (2011) . Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does (4th ed.). Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill; Society for Research into Higher Education; Open University Press. ISBN 9780335242757. OCLC 767560793.