The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and Western culture and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (August 2022)
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Campus protest or student protest is a form of student activism that takes the form of protest at university campuses. Such protests encompass a wide range of activities that indicate student dissatisfaction with a given political or academics issue and mobilization to communicate this dissatisfaction to the authorities (university or civil or both) and society in general and hopefully remedy the problem. Protest forms include but are not limited to: sit-ins, occupations of university offices or buildings, strikes etc. More extreme forms include suicide such as the case of Jan Palach's, and Jan Zajíc's protests against the end of the Prague Spring and Kostas Georgakis' protest against the Greek junta of 1967–1974.[dubious ]
In the West, student protests such as strikes date to the early days of universities in the Middle Ages, with some of the earliest being the University of Oxford strike of 1209, and the University of Paris strike of 1229, which lasted two years.
More widespread student demonstrations occurred in 19th century Europe, for example in Imperial Russia. In 1930s, some Polish students protested against anti-Semitic ghetto benches legislation. In the second half of the 20th century, significant demonstrations almost-simultaneously in many countries: the May 68 events in France began as a series of student strikes; Polish political crisis that occurred the same year also saw a major student activism; and the Mexican Movement of 1968 also started with students. The largest student strike in the history of the United States occurred in May and June 1970, in the aftermath of the American invasion of Cambodia and the killings of student protesters at Kent State University in Ohio. An estimated four million students at more than 450 universities, colleges and high schools participated in what became known as the Student strike of 1970.
Participation and issues
Early studies of campus protests conducted in the United States in the mid-1960s suggested that students who were more likely to take part in the protests tended to come from middle class and upper middle class backgrounds, major in social sciences and humanities, and come from families with liberal political views. Later studies from early 1970s, however, suggested that participation in protests was broader, through still more likely for students from social sciences and humanities than more vocational-oriented fields like economy or engineering. Student protesters were also more likely to describe themselves as having liberal or centrist political beliefs, and feeling politically alienated, lacking confidence in the party system and public officials.
Early campus protests in the United States were described as left-leaning and liberal. More recent research[when?] shares a similar view, suggesting that right-leaning, conservative students and faculty are less likely to organize or join campus protests. A study of campus protests in the United States in the early 1990s identified major themes for approximately 60% of over two hundred incidents covered by media as multiculturalism and identity struggle, or in more detail as racial and ethnic struggle, women's concerns, or gay rights activities and represent what recent scholars have described both affectionately and pejoratively as "culture/cultural wars," "campus wars," "multicultural unrest," or "identity politics"... The remaining examples of student protest concerned funding (including tuition concerns), governance, world affairs, and environmental causes".
While less common, protests similar to campus protests can also happen at secondary-level education facilities, like high schools.
Repertoire of contention in campus protests can take various forms, from peaceful sit-ins, marches, teach-ins, to more active forms that can spread off-campus and include violent clashes with the authorities. Campus protests can also involve faculty members participating in them in addition to students, through protests led by or organized by faculty, rather than students, are a minority. Just like students can worry about being expelled for participation in the protests, some faculty members are concerned about their job security if they were to become involved in such incidents.
A common tactic of student protest is to go on strike (sometimes called a boycott of classes), which occurs when students enrolled at a teaching institution such as a school, college or university refuse to go to class. It is meant to resemble strike action by organized labour. Whereas a normal strike is intended to inflict economic damage to an employer, a student strike is more of a logistical threat: the concerned institution or government cannot afford to have a large number of students simultaneously fail to graduate. The term "student strike" has been criticized as inaccurate by some unions and commentators in the news media. These groups have indicated that they believe the term boycott is more accurate.
Student protests can often spread off-campus and grow in scale, mobilizing off campus activists and organizations, for example the 2014 Hong Kong class boycott campaign led to the city-wide 2014 Hong Kong protests.
Response and aftermath
Over time, university tolerance of campus protests have grown; while protests occurred before the 20th century they were more likely to be "crushed... with an iron fist... by university leaders" than by mid-20th century, when they have become much more common and tolerated. By the early 21st century, the university response to campus protest in the United States is much more likely to be negotiations, and willingness to yield at least to some of the student demands. There was a resurgence of student activism in the United States in 2015. (In Germany, tuition in public universities were abolished in response to student protests between 2006-2012.)
University response to student activism and campus protests can still be much harsher in less liberal countries like China or Taiwan. In 1980 student protests in South Korea were violently suppressed by the military (the Gwangju Uprising). As recently as in 1989 a large scale student demonstration in China that moved off-campus, the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, was met with deadly force.
- 2023 University of Brighton protests
- 2023 University of Manchester protests
- 2022 Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro (Querétaro, México) strike and occupation
- 2022 Huntington High School walkout
- 2021 Newport High School Student Demonstration
- 2021 Boğaziçi University protests
- 2021 Columbia University strike
- 2020 Thai protests
- 2019–2020 Iraq student protestsRef.?
- 2019 JNU Protests in New Delhi – IndiaRef.?
- 2018–2020 "Fridays for Future" School strike for climate – global
- 2018 Bangladesh road safety protests
- 2018 "March for Our Lives" student protest – United States
- 2017–18 Mahatma Gandhi Central University protests – India
- 2017–18 Iranian protests
- 2017 Jallikattu protests – India
- 2016 SATs Strike protest against tests for 6 and 7 year olds – UK
- 2016 Boston Public School students walkout in protest of budget cuts – United StatesRef.?
- 2016 Joint Student protests in Central Universities IndiaRef.?
- 2016 JNU Student Protests in New Delhi – IndiaRef.?
- 2015 "Fees Must Fall" – South Africa
- 2015 University of Missouri protests – United States
- 2015 Bangladesh student protests
- 2015 University of Amsterdam Bungehuis and Maagdenhuis Occupations – Netherlands
- 2014 Jadavpur University protests – India
- 2014 Hong Kong student protest for democracy
- 2014 Sunflower Student Movement – Taiwan
- 2014 Iguala mass kidnapping – Mexico
- 2012 Quebec student protests – Canada
- 2012 Valencia student protests
- 2011 student protests in Chile
- 2010 University of Puerto Rico Strike
- 2010 UK student protests
- 2008 Greek riots
- 2007 Dutch pupil strike
- 2006 student protests in Chile
- 2006 student uprising in Iran
- 2005 Quebec student protests – Canada
- July 1999 Iran student protests
- 1996–1997 protests in Serbia
- 1996 Quebec student protests – Canada
- 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre – China
- 1989 Anti-SAP riots – Nigeria
- 1980 student protests in Kabul – Afghanistan
- 1978 "Ali Must Go" protests – Nigeria
- 1976–77 Soweto uprising – South Africa
- November 1973 Athens Polytechnic uprising – Greece
- 1971 Diliman Commune – Philippines
- 1970–1972 Huelga schools, Houston – United States
- 1970 Student Strike – United States
- 1968 Protests
- 1965 Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu – India
- 1964–65 U.C. Berkeley Free Speech Movement – United States
- 1960 Anpo protests – Japan
- 1956 Bucharest student movement – Romania
- 1901–1904 Września children strike – Poland
- 1766 Butter rebellion at Harvard University – United States
- 1229 University of Paris strike – France
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geologia Kostas Georgakis, op- positore greco di cultura laica, esasperato dalle minacce e dalle rappresaglie subite da agenti dei servizi segreti greci in Italia, s'im- molò in piazza Matteotti per protestare contro la giunta dei Co- lonnelli.
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no di questi fu lo studente greco Kostas Georgakis, un ragazzo di 22 anni che il 29 settembre 1970 si bruciò vivo a Genova per protestare contro la soppressione della libertà in Grecia. La sera del suo sacrificio riaccompagnò a casa la ...
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Il caso Kostas Georgakis. Pag.250, L.25000. ISBN 88-8163-217-9. Erga, Genova. Il suicidio del giovane studente greco Kostas Georgakis in sacrificio alla propria patria nel nome di libertà e democrazia apre una finestra su trent'anni di storia ...
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In 1971 at the Piazza Matteotti in Genova, the young student Kostas Georgakis set himself ablaze in protest against the ... a Panteios student and presentday political scientist, recalls how he suffered when Georgakis died, being inspired by his ...
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