Sturgeon Bay

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Sturgeon Bay
ISS011-E-15174 View of Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin.jpg
Taken on May 16, 2005 from the International Space Station
Sturgeon Bay is located in Wisconsin
Sturgeon Bay
Sturgeon Bay
Sturgeon Bay is located in the United States
Sturgeon Bay
Sturgeon Bay
LocationDoor County, Wisconsin
Coordinates44°51′15″N 87°23′40″W / 44.85417°N 87.39444°W / 44.85417; -87.39444Coordinates: 44°51′15″N 87°23′40″W / 44.85417°N 87.39444°W / 44.85417; -87.39444
TypeBay
Surface elevation581 feet (177 m)
SettlementsSturgeon Bay, Nasewaupee, Sevastopol, Idlewild

Sturgeon Bay is an arm of Green Bay extending southeastward approximately 10 miles into the Door Peninsula at the city of Sturgeon Bay, located approximately halfway up the Door Peninsula.[1] The bay is connected to Lake Michigan by the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal. The Potawatomi name for Sturgeon Bay is "Na-ma-we-qui-tong".[2]

Origin[edit]

The bay seems to represent the pre-glacial path of the Menominee River, with the valley deepened by glacial carving and then submerged into rising lakewaters.[3]

Bridges[edit]

Three bridges cross the bay, including the historic Sturgeon Bay Bridge, and the recently finished Oregon Street Bridge.

Fish[edit]

Sturgeon Bay and Little Sturgeon (just to the south of Sturgeon Bay) are considered biodiversity hotspots because they support a large number of different fish species.[4]

Researchers collected viral hemorrhagic septicemia viruses from 184 different fish from 2003 to 2017. Two were found from 2007–2010 infecting smallmouth bass within Sturgeon Bay. Each of them was a different variant of a type not found in the middle or lower Great Lakes.[5]

Mayflies[edit]

In June 2016, an estimated several thousand mayflies hatched in Sawyer Bay (within Sturgeon Bay). This was the result of an experiment to stock millions of eggs from the species Hexagenia limbata and Hexagenia bilineata in the lower Green Bay area in an attempt to reintroduce the species. The last mayfly from the genus Hexagenia had been collected in the lower Green Bay area in 1955. As mayfly populations can be unstable and not all stocking locations appeared to be successful, as of 2017 it was not yet known whether it would be possible for populations of Hexagenia mayflies to become self-sustaining.[6]

Climate[edit]

Dunlap Reef (in the middle of the bay[7])
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
57
 
 
−6
−8
 
 
54
 
 
−8
−15
 
 
60
 
 
1
−4
 
 
129
 
 
9
−2
 
 
93
 
 
13
3
 
 
85
 
 
18
9
 
 
97
 
 
21
12
 
 
78
 
 
20
15
 
 
87
 
 
19
12
 
 
129
 
 
11
3
 
 
85
 
 
7
1
 
 
65
 
 
−2
−2
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [8]
Mixture of ice and open water in the bay, April

Gallery[edit]

Sturgeon Bay, 1:10 AM CDT
Sturgeon Bay, 1:10 AM CDT

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin)". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  2. ^ The Wisconsin Archeologist, Volume 19, No 2, page 50
  3. ^ The Physical Geography of Wisconsin by Lawrence Martin, Bulletin Number XXXVI, Educational Series Number 4, Madison Wisconsin: Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, 1916 Chapter XII: The Wisconsin Coast of Lake Michigan, page 289
  4. ^ Kovalenko, Katya E.; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Brady, Valerie J.; Ciborowski, Jan J. H.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Gathman, Joseph P.; Lamberti, Gary A.; Moerke, Ashley H.; Ruetz, Carl R.; Uzarski, Donald G. (July 2, 2019). "Hotspots and bright spots in functional and taxonomic fish diversity". Freshwater Science. 38 (3): 480–490. doi:10.1086/704713. ISSN 2161-9549.
  5. ^ Evolutionary trajectory of fish Piscine novirhabdovirus (=Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus) across its Laurentian Great Lakes history: Spatial and temporal diversification by Carol A. Stepien and Megan D. Niner, Ecology and Evolution, Volume 10, May 10, 2020, pages 9740–9775
  6. ^ Evaluation of lower Green Bay benthic fauna with emphasis on re-ecesis of Hexagenia mayfly nymphs by Jerry L. Kaster, Christopher M. Groff, J. Val Klump, Danielle L. Rupp, Suneil Iyer, Ashely Hansen, Samantha Barbour, and Louisa Hall, doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2018.06.006, Journal of Great Lakes Research (2018), p. 14
  7. ^ Dunlap Reef, Web-Map of Door County, Wisconsin
  8. ^ "NASA EarthData Search". NASA. Retrieved January 30, 2016.