Sturgis Motorcycle Rally
|Sturgis Motorcycle Rally|
Motorcycles lined up on Main Street during the 2006 event
|Dates||Starts first Friday in August (for 10 days)|
|Location(s)||Sturgis, South Dakota, U.S.|
|Founded||August 14, 1938|
|Most recent||August 7–16, 2020|
|Next event||August 6–15, 2021|
|Attendance||highest: 739,000 (2015)|
The Sturgis Motorcycle Rally is a motorcycle rally held annually in Sturgis, South Dakota, and the surrounding Black Hills region of the United States. It was begun in 1938 by a group of Indian Motorcycle riders and was originally held for stunts and races. Since then, the rally has become a pluralistic endeavor that consists of events put on by many different groups. Attendance has historically been around 500,000 people, reaching a high of over 700,000 in 2015. The event takes place over 10 days and generates around $800 million in annual revenue.
The first rally was held by Indian Motorcycle riders on August 14, 1938, by the Jackpine Gypsies motorcycle club. The club still owns and operates the tracks, hillclimb, and field areas where the rally is centered. The first event was called the "Black Hills Classic" and consisted of a single race with nine participants and a small audience. The founder was Clarence "Pappy" Hoel. He purchased an Indian motorcycle franchise in Sturgis in 1936 and formed the Jackpine Gypsies that same year. The Jackpine Gypsies were inducted to the Motorcycle Hall of Fame in 1997. Hoel was inducted into the AMA Hall of Fame the following year.
The focus of a motorcycle rally was originally racing and stunts. In 1961, the rally was expanded to include the Hillclimb and Motocross races. This could include half-mile track racing (the first year in Sturgis, there were 19 participants), intentional board wall crashes, ramp jumps and head-on collisions with automobiles.
The Sturgis Rally has been held every year, with exceptions during World War II. For instance, from 1942 to 1944, the event was not held due to gasoline rationing.
Originally the rally was a two-day event.
Through the 1970s and early 1980s, many attendees camped in City Park. When a record 40,000 visitors arrived in Sturgis in 1980, local residents became concerned with the behavior of these attendees. In 1982, a referendum was presented to the city asking them to no longer provide municipal services such as parking on Main Street, law enforcement and allowing camping in City Park. City attorney Dale Hansen advised that any vote would be non-binding and could not stop the rally because the motorcycle rally is sponsored by private groups. Although the referendum was defeated 1,454 to 826, the City of Sturgis followed the mayor’s committee recommendation to prohibit camping in City Park and eliminate downtown street vendors.
To serve the needs of future rally attendees, the Buffalo Chip Campground was established outside of town. The Sturgis Motorcycle Rally venue first hosted campers in 1982. Over the years, the venue evolved to include vendors, campsites, cabins and stages, becoming one of the biggest entertainment hubs of the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally.
In 1987 the Buffalo Chip expanded its Sturgis Motorcycle Rally entertainment to the current 10-day and nine-night format. Bands that performed July 31 through August 9th included Black Oak Arkansas, Country Joe McDonald, Canned Heat, Mitch Ryder, among others.
In October 2016, the city of Sturgis expanded the city’s dates to match the 10-day format and have the rally start on the Friday before the first full week of August and end on the second Sunday. In 2017, the Rally became a 10-day event starting on the first Friday in August.
The South Dakota Department of Transportation provides official traffic counts, which sometimes differ from official attendance figures. Attendance is higher on major anniversaries (e.g. 75th in 2015) and one or two years prior to the anniversary, and falls off the following year or two. “Attendance” is defined as vehicle crossings at about a dozen roads around Sturgis for 10 days, not the actual number of people attending the Rally. Most attendees are counted multiple times, so the actual number of people attending is much lower than the listed “attendance.”
|Year||SDDOT traffic count||Official attendance|
|2016||c.360,000||448,000 – 463,412|
Trademarks and Ownership
There is no official owner of the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally, as it is not organized by a single entity. For many years, the Sturgis Chamber of Commerce falsely claimed ownership of the words “Sturgis,” “Sturgis Motorcycle Rally” and “Sturgis Rally & Races” through an attempted trademark claim. Those false trademark claims were later transferred to Sturgis Motorcycle Rally Inc., who made efforts to enforce the claims.
In 2018, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit Court ruled the trademark invalid in a dispute between Sturgis Motorcycle Rally Inc. (SMRI) and Rushmore Photo and Gifts. In their ruling, the Court stated that the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally is a pluralistic endeavor promoted by multiple organizations. They further stated that the City’s involvement does not extend beyond the provision of municipal services.
The record stated, “We agree and hold that the jury could not infer from the onerous planning that the City undertakes to provide infrastructure for the rally that the City was the organizer or sponsor of the rally. To allow such an inference would be tantamount to saying that it would be reasonable to infer that the City of New York organizes the sessions of the United Nations General Assembly because of everything it does to assist their occurrence. One cannot infer from the fact that a city augments its municipal services to accommodate those who attend an event-e.g., a funeral or political protest-that it organizes, promotes, or sponsors the event in a way that would permit it to acquire ownership over the event or its intellectual property."
For many years the city has been in an agreement with SMRI, and its predecessor-in-interest, the Sturgis Area Chamber of Commerce, to license use of the words “Sturgis,” “Sturgis Motorcycle Rally” and “Sturgis Rally & Races.” That agreement involving invalid trademark enforcement generated millions of dollars in royalties and sponsorship dollars. On December 11, 2019, Federal Judge Jeffery Viken ordered that SMRI may no longer attempt to claim ownership of “Sturgis,” Sturgis Motorcycle Rally” or “Sturgis Rally & Races.” The court order called for trademark cancellations to be sent to the United States Patent and Trademark Office.
Rally impact on community and nationwide
The City of Sturgis has calculated that the Rally brings over $800 million to South Dakota annually. The City of Sturgis earned almost $270,000 in 2011 from selling event guides and sponsorships. The rally makes up 95% of the city's annual revenue.
There were 405 individuals jailed at the 2004 rally, and approximately $250,000 worth of motorcycles are stolen annually. Rally-goers are a mix of white-collar and blue-collar workers and are generally welcomed as an important source of income for Sturgis and surrounding areas. The rally turns local roads into "parking lots", and draws local law enforcement away from routine patrols. Furthermore, the large numbers of people visiting the town and region served as a model for the state of Oregon in preparation for the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, given the expected impact on emergency services.
The Lakota Indian tribe in coalition with other tribes has protested the large amount of alcohol distributed at the event so close to the sacred Bear Butte, but also acknowledged that income from the event was important to the region and also benefits some members of the tribes.
There have been a few deaths at the Rally.
2020 rally and COVID-19
Concerns about the possible spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and travel restrictions were expected to lead to lower attendance in 2020. While some health officials and local leaders wanted to cancel the rally, that proved impossible since many events take place beyond the city limits. The 250,000 participants were recommended but not required to wear face masks in a state that had seen 9,371 confirmed cases, and 144 deaths due to the coronavirus (0.016% of the population). Several checkpoints to stop outsiders were put up on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation, an action that state and federal officials consider illegal. The 2020 final traffic count was about 462,000, with many attendees not wearing masks or observing social distancing.
Cell phone data showed that by August 25, 61% of US counties had been visited by a Sturgis attendee.
As of August 20, seven COVID-19 cases in the Nebraska Panhandle had been traced to the Rally, and 22 cases had been reported among out-of-state attendees. As of August 21, Minnesota had 15 cases traced to the rally, with more cases expected, and a few cases had been reported in Wyoming. Public health notices were issued for One-Eyed Jack's Saloon, The Knuckle Saloon, The Broken Spoke, and Asylum Tattoo in Sturgis, and for the Bumpin’ Buffalo Bar and Grill in Hill City. Some exposures in Minnesota could not be traced to specific locations. A Minnesota public health official urged all rallygoers to monitor for symptoms for 14 days, adding that "if you are feeling ill after returning from the event, please get tested and self-isolate while you wait for the test results."
By August 24, there were a total of 76 cases linked to the rally, in four states, South Dakota, Minnesota, Nebraska and Wyoming, with additional reports of cases in North Dakota and Washington State. The number rose to 103 on August 24, in at least eight states, including 37 cases in South Dakota, and cases in Wisconsin, Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, Washington and North Dakota. On August 26, 6 cases were reported in New Hampshire. On August 27, over 20 cases were reported in Colorado. Two of the cases reported in Minnesota were people who had been Sturgis event employees or volunteers.
On August 27, the results of mass testing in Sturgis became available. Out of 650 tests there were 26 positive results, all asymptomatic.
As of August 28, 46 cases in Minnesota had been linked to the rally, including two hospitalizations, with one person in intensive care. An additional cluster of secondary transmission from the rally was identified at a wedding. The number of infections increased substantially although health authorities suspected the real number could be far higher because many attendees refused to cooperate with contact tracers. On September 2, the first COVID-19 death related to the Sturgis rally was reported in Minnesota. A paper by economist Dhaval Dave and colleagues at IZA Institute of Labor Economics estimated the number of cases that could have been caused by the rally, at which few attendees wore masks, could have infected 267,000. A partnership between Slate magazine, New America, and Arizona State University, questioned the methodology and thereby contested the findings of the study. The Slate analysis did find the IZA estimates for Meade County, South Dakota, between 177 and 195 cases, to be consistent with the raw data.
South Dakota governor Kristi Noem said the study was "fiction," and an "attack on those who exercised their personal freedom to attend Sturgis...Predictably, some in the media breathlessly report on this non-peer-reviewed model, built on incredibly faulty assumptions that do not reflect the actual facts and data here in South Dakota." State epidemiologist Joshua Clayton stated, "From what we know the results do not align with what we know." By September 8, South Dakota reported 124 residents had become ill after attending the rally.
On November 20, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identified 51 people from Minnesota who were infected at the rally and another 35 who got secondary infections from attendees; four of the 86 were hospitalized and one died. Researchers noted that the actual figures were probably higher since many people who attended the rally refused to speak to them. They also pointed out that the study only involved one state, although rally attendees came from across the country.
Transportation to Sturgis
Most who attend Sturgis with families drive campers towing motorcycle trailers to the rally, and ride their motorcycles the last few miles. The director of the rally estimated in 2005 that fewer than half the attendees actually rode there. Shipping companies transport thousands of motorcycles to Sturgis for attendees who arrive via airline.
Black Hills Run
The Black Hills Run is a route favored by motorcycle riders, across the Black Hills from Deadwood to Custer State Park, South Dakota. It reached the height of its popularity between 1939 and 1941. The popularity of the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally attracted additional attention to the route in recent years. The pine forested mountains of the Black Hills make for a unique scenic motorcycle ride.
Print and online
Television coverage of the festival by the VH1 Classic network includes interviews and performances as well as rock music videos from the Buffalo Chip Campground. The rally was featured in 2005 as part of the ESPN SportsCenter promotion 50 States in 50 Days.
Starting in 2009 an American reality television series began airing on the truTV network: Full Throttle Saloon, showing the inner operations at the world's largest biker bar just prior to the rally opening and for the duration of the rally each year.
Sturgis was also featured on American Pickers Season 4, Episode 6, "What Happens In Sturgis ...". Originally aired January 2, 2012, on the History Channel. "... When Mike tells Frank let's pack up for a trip to South Dakota, Frank says he can't. He's secretly going to his 30th annual trip to the legendary Sturgis motorcycle rally, but says he'll cover the shop ...". Sturgis has also been featured in the TV Show Pawn Stars in which Richard and Corey Harrison visit Sturgis with Chumlee Russell on his birthday.
- Attendance at 75th Sturgis Motorcycle Rally estimated at 739,000 people, beating 2000 record, Associated Press, September 22, 2015, archived from the original on September 23, 2015 – via Daily Journal (Franklin, Indiana)
- "Sturgis Motorcycle Rally, Inc. v. Rushmore Photo & Gifts, Inc., No. 17-1762 (8th Cir. 2018)". Justia Law. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
- KOTA. "Can you handle 10 official days of the Sturgis Rally?". Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- Fleming, Charles (August 5, 2014). "Sturgis Motorcycle Rally by the numbers". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 20, 2018. Retrieved August 12, 2020.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- "Timeline of History of the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally". sturgismotorcyclerally.com.
- Jackpine Gypsies at the Motorcycle Hall of Fame
- J.C. Hoel at the Motorcycle Hall of Fame
- "Cyclists Gather for Races at Sturgis". Rapid City Journal. August 12, 1938.
Cyclists from all over the middle west were gathering here today in preparation for the annual two-day race meet slated to get underway here tomorrow.
- staff, Journal. "70 years of the rally: Two wheels, seven decades, countless stories". Rapid City Journal Media Group. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
- staff, Journal. "The Story of Sturgis: Part 6, the 1980s and 1990s". Rapid City Journal Media Group. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
- "Sturgis voters want to keep Black Hills Motorcycle Classic". Rapid City Journal. November 3, 1982.
In September, petitions were presented to the city asking the council to tell rally sponsors that it will no longer block off Main street for parking, provide law enforcement or allow camping in City Park during the rally--strong restrictions on an event that drew an estimated 45,000 bikers one day last summer.
- "Disgruntled Sturgis citizens rally support for end to biker classic". Rapid City Journal. August 24, 1982.
City Attorney Dale Hansen said last week that any vote would be non-binding because the motorcycle classic is sponsored by private groups.
- Imrie, Bob (November 3, 1982). "Sturgis Voters want to keep Black Hills Motor Classic". Rapid City Journal.
The resolution was defeated 1,454 to 826.
- Imrie, Bob (October 14, 1982). "Committee's proposal on motorcycle rally includes closing city park". Rapid City Journal.
City park, the heart of the Sturgis motorcycle rally revelry, should be closed to such activity next year, according to a recommendation by a mayor's committee.
- "Sturgis Camping Prohibited". Rapid City Journal. January 2, 1983.
The city followed a committee's recommendations to cool down the classic by prohibiting camping in city park and eliminating downtown street vendors.
- Blistein, Jon (August 12, 2020). "'Freedom-Loving People': Behind the Scenes at That Controversial Smash Mouth Show in South Dakota". Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
- Edeburn, Carl (2003). Sturgis: The Story of the Rally. 421 Seventeenth Avenue South, Brookings, SD, 57006: Dimensions Press. p. 234. ISBN 1-893490-07-6.
The rally was extended to its present seven-day format in 1975, and Youth Night, an event for 9 to 11 year-old racers was introduced.CS1 maint: location (link)
- staff, Jim Holland Journal. "2020 Sturgis rally schedule has some bikers scrambling". Rapid City Journal Media Group. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
- "Top names from past to play at Sturgis". Rapid City Journal. July 31, 1987.
A major outdoor concert is being held in conjunction with the Black Hills Motor Classic this year. From dusk Friday until daylight August 9, the Sixth Annual Bare Butte Rendezvous will bring in top names from rock's past. The concert will take place at the buffalo Chip Campground, 3 1/2 miles east of Sturgis on Highway 34. Opening the Rendezvous will be the local groups, Group W, the Foggy Notion Band, or Kenny Miller. Beginning Monday, Baltimore motorcycle troubadour Biker Joe Warren and Ohio's Burnt River will play. Tuesday and Wednesday, classic southern rockers, Black Oak Arkansas, featuring Jim 'Dandy' Mangrum will play. Canned Heat and Spirit will rock the crowd on Thursday. And on Friday, the Canned Heat and Spirit will be joined by Country Joe McDonald for a mini-reunion of Woodstock performers. Finally on Saturday, Mitch Ryder will take the stage with his legendary white rhythm and blues power.
- staff, Jim Holland Journal. "2020 Sturgis rally schedule has some bikers scrambling". Rapid City Journal Media Group. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
- Rally statistics, Sturgis City Rally Department, archived from the original on February 12, 2007, retrieved May 21, 2015
- Deb Holland (August 15, 2018), "2018 Rally attendance up 8 percent over 2017", Black Hills Pioneer, Spearfish, South Dakota
- Woody Gottburg (August 10, 2015), Sturgis Rally Sets Records, KSCJ
- South Dakota Completes 77th Sturgis Motorcycle Rally, Associated Press, August 14, 2017
- Barry Amundson (October 12, 2017), "Official attendance at Sturgis Motorcycle Rally set at 480,000", News-Tribune, Duluth
- "Sturgis rally attendance down nearly 40 percent", Rapid City Journal, October 28, 2016
- "2017 rally is quiet, cool, calm", Rapid City Journal, August 14, 2017
- Todd Epp (August 13, 2019), "SDDOT says 2019 Sturgis Rally traffic down slightly", KELO-AM, Sioux Falls, South Dakota
- Deb Holland (October 4, 2019), "Sturgis estimates Rally attendance at 490,000", Black Hills Pioneer, Spearfish, South Dakota
- "2020 Sturgis Rally Final Vehicle Counts". South Dakota State News Home. August 18, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
- 70th Sturgis motorcycle rally statistics compiled by the city of Sturgis and the rally department, Black Hills State University, February 8, 2011, retrieved January 25, 2013
- "Sturgis Motorcycle Rally, Inc. v. Rushmore Photo & Gifts, Inc., CIV. 11-5052-JLV | Casetext Search + Citator". casetext.com. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
- "Sturgis area businesses make 95% of their annual revenue from the 7 days of the rally".
- Dalton, Aaron (August 1, 2005), "Biggest thing on two wheels.(TECHWATCH: This Month)", Popular Mechanics, Hearst Magazines via HighBeam Research., archived from the original on March 24, 2016, retrieved January 25, 2013
- "Profile: Thousands of Harley riders converge on small South Dakota town every year for a rally", Morning Edition, National Public Radio via HighBeam Research., August 9, 2000, archived from the original on February 16, 2013, retrieved January 25, 2013
- Vellani, Karim (May 1, 2000), "Security + Service = Satisfaction.", Journal of Property Management, via Questia Online Library, retrieved January 25, 2013
- Lynne, Terry (August 10, 2017). "Eclipse 2017: Hospitals stock up on blood, rattlesnake bite antidote". The Oregonian. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- "In Sturgis, a Clash Over Motorcycle Rally", All Things Considered, National Public Radio via HighBeam Research., August 2, 2006, archived from the original on March 25, 2016, retrieved January 25, 2013
- "Statistics" (PDF). www.sturgismotorcyclerally.com. 2015. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- Daly, Michael. "Even the Official Motorcycle Brand of the Sturgis Rally Thinks the Mass Gathering Is Too Risky". news.yahoo.com. The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- Orecchio-Egresitz, Haven. "'It's literally impossible to stop': Sturgis, South Dakota, braces for hundreds of thousands of bikers to arrive for an event in the middle of a pandemic". news.yahoo.com. Business Insider. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- Burke, Minyvonne. "Sturgis motorcycle rally draws thousands of bikers despite coronavirus fears". news.yahoo.com. NBC News. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- Helmore, Edward. "Thousands of bikers heading to South Dakota rally to be blocked at tribal land checkpoints". news.yahoo.com. The Guardian. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- "Revved by Sturgis Rally, COVID-19 infections move fast, far". AP NEWS. August 24, 2020. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- Loeks, Maunette. "Seven cases of COVID-19 tied to Sturgis rally; three possible exposure sites announced". Scottsbluff Star Herald. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
- Matzen, Morgan (August 20, 2020). "'Less than 25' COVID-19 cases tie back to Sturgis rally so far, DOH reports". Rapid City Journal Media Group. Retrieved August 21, 2020.
- Kaur, Harmeet (August 21, 2020). "Covid-19 cases tied to the Sturgis motorcycle rally in South Dakota have reached across state lines". CNN. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
- "COVID-19 tied to Sturgis rally: What other states have seen". KELOLAND.com. August 22, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
- "Employee at tattoo shop in Sturgis tests positive for coronavirus". KELOLAND.com. August 20, 2020. Retrieved August 21, 2020.
- "DOH: COVID-19 potential exposure at Bumpin' Buffalo Bar and Grill in Hill City". KELOLAND.com. August 14, 2020. Retrieved August 21, 2020.
- "DOH says potential COVID-19 exposure at three businesses in Sturgis". KELOLAND.com. August 21, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
- Karnowski, Steve (August 21, 2020). "15 Minnesotans catch coronavirus at Sturgis Motorcycle Rally". Washington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
- Skluzacek, Josh (August 24, 2020). "Minnesota COVID-19 briefing: 27 cases linked to Sturgis, Mask Mandate impact after 30 days". KSTP-TV. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
- Groves, Stephen; Associated Press (August 24, 2020). "Revved by Sturgis Rally, COVID-19 infections move fast, far". Casper Star-Tribune. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
- O'Kane, Caitlin (August 26, 2020). "More than 100 coronavirus cases in 8 states linked to massive Sturgis Motorcycle Rally in South Dakota". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
- Kreps, Daniel (August 26, 2020). "Covid-19 Cases Connected to Sturgis Rally Rise After Event that Featured Smash Mouth, Lit, More". Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- Lopez, Siobhan (August 26, 2020). "6 NH residents among 100+ confirmed cases associated with Sturgis rally". WMUR 9 ABC.
- "Colorado Reports 20+ Coronavirus Cases Linked To Sturgis Motorcycle Rally". CBS Denver via MSN. August 7, 2020. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- Todisco, Eric. "At Least 103 New Coronavirus Cases in 8 States Linked to South Dakota Motorcycle Rally". www.msn.com. People. Retrieved August 26, 2020.
- "Mass testing results following Sturgis Rally". KELOLAND.com. August 27, 2020. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- Wiese, Charlie (August 28, 2020). "MDH COVID-19 briefing: 46 Minnesota infections linked to Sturgis rally, cluster outbreaks on the rise". KSTP-TV. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- "MN Department of Health announces 7 more COVID-19 cases connected to Sturgis Rally". KELO. August 23, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
- Coleman, Justine (September 2, 2020). "First coronavirus death occurs linked to Sturgis Motorcycle Rally in South Dakota". The Hill. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
- Scott, Paul John (September 2, 2020). "Minnesota reports first Sturgis-related COVID-19 death". Grand Forks Herald. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- "Sturgis biker rally adds 267,000 COVID cases and $12.2B in health costs, report says". Kansas City Star, Katie Camero, September 8, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
- Friedson, Andrew. "The Contagion Externality of a Superspreading Event: The Sturgis Motorcycle Rally and COVID-19" (PDF). IZA Institute of Labour Economics. IZA Institute of Labour Economics. Retrieved September 11, 2020.. On p. 32 (35/73 in the PDF), the text reads, "We are further able to document national spread due to the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally, although that spread also appears to have been successfully mitigated by states with strict infection mitigation policies. ... Adding the number of new cases due to the Rally in South Dakota estimated by synthetic control ... 266,796".
- Dowd, Jennifer Beam (September 10, 2020). "Future Tense: The Sturgis Biker Rally Did Not Cause 266,796 Cases of COVID-19". Slate. The Slate Group. Archived from the original on September 12, 2020. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
The original version of the article 'questioned the paper’s estimates for Meade County based on a data error. The Meade County estimates are in fact in a range consistent with raw county data.'CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- Christensen, Jen; Maxouris, Christina (November 21, 2020). "Sturgis motorcycle rally in South Dakota led to a Covid-19 outbreak in Minnesota, new report says". CNN. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- Conner, Tracy (November 20, 2020). "CDC Reveals Wild Spread of COVID-19 Cases From Sturgis Rally". yahoo.com. Daily Beast. Retrieved November 21, 2020.
- Higgins, Michelle (August 5, 2005). "The Really Easy Rider". The New York Times. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
- McKechnie, Gary. Great American Motorcycle Tours Avalon Travel Publishing, 2002. (ISBN 1-56691-448-5)
- "Sturgis Rally Daily", Rapid City Journal, retrieved January 25, 2013
- "Seattle Times", Seattle Times, retrieved August 11, 2008
- "2007 Wrestling Almanac & Book of Facts". Wrestling's Historical Cards. Kappa Publishing. 2007. p. 144.
- "TV NOTES & QUOTES". Greensboro News and Record. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
- August 2004, Multi Channel News Staff 23. "VH1 Classic Revs Up Its Bike". Multichannel News. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
- Blabbermouth (August 4, 2004). "TWISTED SISTER's DEE SNIDER Says 'I Wanna Rock' With VH1 CLASSIC". BLABBERMOUTH.NET. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
- "50 States in 50 Days". ESPN.com. August 10, 2005. Archived from the original on August 10, 2005. Retrieved August 16, 2010.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- List of American Pickers episodes
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sturgis Motorcycle Rally.|