Stygobromus

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Stygobromus
Kenk's amphipod.jpg
Stygobromus kenki
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Amphipoda
Family: Crangonyctidae
Genus: Stygobromus
Cope, 1872 [1]
Type species
Stygobromus vitreus
Cope, 1872 [2]

Stygobromus is a genus of amphipod crustaceans that live in subterranean habitats. As well as a large number of species in North America,[3] a smaller number of species are also known from Eurasia.[4] Most of the North American species live in areas which were not covered by the Laurentide ice sheet, although a few species seem to have survived under the ice.[5] A number of species are on the IUCN Red List as endangered species (EN) or vulnerable species (VU); all the listed species are endemic to the United States. One species, S. lucifugus, is extinct. Stygobromus includes the following species:[6]

  • Stygobromus abditus Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus ackerlyi Holsinger, 1978 (Georgia)
  • Stygobromus alabamensis (Stout, 1911)
  • Stygobromus albapinus Taylor & Holsinger, 2011 (Nevada)[7]
  • Stygobromus allegheniensis (Holsinger, 1967) (New York to West Virginia)
  • Stygobromus ambulans (F. Müller, 1846)
  • Stygobromus anastasiae Sidorov, Holsinger et Takhteev, 2010 (Russia)
  • Stygobromus apscheronia (Derzhavin, 1945) (Azerbaijan)
  • Stygobromus araeus (Holsinger, 1969) VU[8] (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus arizonensis Holsinger, 1974 VU[9]
  • Stygobromus balconis (Hubricht, 1943) VU[10]
  • Stygobromus baroodyi Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus barri (Holsinger, 1967) VU[11]
  • Stygobromus barryi Holsinger, 1978 (Tennessee)
  • Stygobromus behningi (Birstein, 1948)
  • Stygobromus bifurcatus (Holsinger, 1967) VU[12]
  • Stygobromus biggersi Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia to Pennsylvania)
  • Stygobromus blinni Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus borealis Holsinger, 1978 (Vermont, New York)
  • Stygobromus boultoni Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus bowmani (Holsinger, 1967) VU[13]
  • Stygobromus canadensis Holsinger, 1980
  • Stygobromus carolinensis Holsinger, 1978 (North Carolina)
  • Stygobromus chamberlaini Ellis, 1941
  • Stygobromus cherylae Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus clantoni (Creaser, 1934) VU[14]
  • Stygobromus coeca (Dobraenu & Manolache, 1951)
  • Stygobromus coloradensis Ward, 1977
  • Stygobromus conradi (Holsinger, 1967) VU[15] (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus cooperi (Holsinger, 1967) VU[16] (West Virginia)
  • Stygobromus cowani Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus culveri Holsinger, 1978 (West Virginia)
  • Stygobromus cumberlandus Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus curroae Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus dejectus (Holsinger, 1967) VU[17]
  • Stygobromus dentata (Hubricht, 1943)
  • Stygobromus dershavini (Behning, 1928)
  • Stygobromus dicksoni Holsinger, 1978 (Alabama, Georgia)
  • Stygobromus donensis (Martynov, 1919)
  • Stygobromus duplus Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus elatus (Holsinger, 1967) VU[18]
  • Stygobromus elliotti Holsinger, 1974
  • Stygobromus emarginatus (Hubricht, 1943) VU[19] (Maryland, West Virginia)
  • Stygobromus ephemerus (Holsinger, 1969) VU[20] (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus estesi Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus exilis Hubricht, 1943
  • Stygobromus fecundus Holsinger, 1978 (Tennessee)
  • Stygobromus fergusoni Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus finleyi Holsinger, 1978 (Tennessee)
  • Stygobromus flagellatus (J. E. Benedict, 1896) VU[21]
  • Stygobromus fontinalis Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus franzi Holsinger, 1978 (Maryland)
  • Stygobromus gallawayae Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus glacialis Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus gracilipes (Holsinger, 1967) (Virginia to Pennsylvania)
  • Stygobromus gradyi Holsinger, 1974 VU[22]
  • Stygobromus grahami Holsinger, 1974
  • Stygobromus grandis Holsinger, 1978 (Georgia)
  • Stygobromus hadenoecus (Holsinger, 1966) VU[23]
  • Stygobromus harai Holsinger, 1974 VU[24]
  • Stygobromus hayi (Hubricht & Mackin, 1940) EN[25] (District of Columbia)
  • Stygobromus herbsti Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus heteropodus Hubricht, 1943 VU[26]
  • Stygobromus hoffmani Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus holsingeri Ward, 1977
  • Stygobromus hubbsi Shoemaker, 1942 VU[27]
  • Stygobromus hyporheicus Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus hyrcana (Dershavin, 1939)
  • Stygobromus idahoensis Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus imperialis Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus indentatus (Holsinger, 1967) VU[28] (North Carolina, Virginia)
  • Stygobromus inexpectatus Holsinger, 1978 (Alabama)
  • Stygobromus interitus Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus intermedia (Dobreanu, Manolache & Piascariu, 1952)
  • Stygobromus interstitialis Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus iowae Hubricht, 1943
  • Stygobromus jakutana (Martynov, 1931)
  • Stygobromus jemezensis Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus johanseni (Shoemaker, 1920)
  • Stygobromus kazakhstanica Kulkina, 1992
  • Stygobromus kenki Holsinger, 1978 (District of Columbia, Virginia)
  • Stygobromus lacicolus Holsinger, 1974
  • Stygobromus lanensis Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus latus Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus leensis Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus lepida (Mateus & Mateus, 1991)
  • Stygobromus levanidovae (G. Karaman, 1991)
  • Stygobromus limbus Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus longidactylus (S. Karaman, 1929)
  • Stygobromus longipes (Holsinger, 1966) VU[29]
  • Stygobromus lucifugus (Hay, 1882) EX[30]
  • Stygobromus mackenziei Holsinger, 1974 VU[31]
  • Stygobromus mackini Hubricht, 1943 (Tennessee to West Virginia)
  • Stygobromus meschtscherica (Borutsky, 1929)
  • Stygobromus mikhaili Sidorov, Holsinger et Takhteev, 2010 (Russia)
  • Stygobromus minutus Holsinger, 1978 (Georgia)
  • Stygobromus montanensis Holsinger, 1974
  • Stygobromus montanus (Holsinger, 1967) VU[32]
  • Stygobromus morrisoni (Holsinger, 1967) VU[33] (Virginia, West Virginia)
  • Stygobromus mundus (Holsinger, 1967) VU[34] (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus myersae Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus mysticus Holsinger, 1974
  • Stygobromus nanus Holsinger, 1978 (West Virginia)
  • Stygobromus nortoni (Holsinger, 1969) VU[35]
  • Stygobromus obrutus Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus obscurus Holsinger, 1974
  • Stygobromus onondagaensis (Hubricht & Mackin, 1940) VU[36]
  • Stygobromus oregonensis Holsinger, 1974
  • Stygobromus ozarkensis (Holsinger, 1967) VU[37]
  • Stygobromus parvus (Holsinger, 1969) VU[38] (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus pecki (Holsinger, 1967) EN[39]
  • Stygobromus pennaki Ward, 1977
  • Stygobromus philareti (Birstein, 1948)
  • Stygobromus phreaticus Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus pizzinii (Shoemaker, 1938) VU[40] (Virginia to Pennsylvania)
  • Stygobromus pollostus Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus pseudospinosus Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus pusillus (Martynov, 1930) (Russia)
  • Stygobromus putealis (Holmes, 1909) VU[41]
  • Stygobromus puteanus Holsinger, 1974
  • Stygobromus quatsinensis Holsinger & Shaw, 1987
  • Stygobromus rallus Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus redactus Holsinger, 1978 (West Virginia)
  • Stygobromus reddelli (Holsinger, 1966) VU[42]
  • Stygobromus rudolphi Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus russelli (Holsinger, 1967)
  • Stygobromus saltuaris Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus secundus Bousfield & Holsinger, 1981
  • Stygobromus sheldoni Holsinger, 1974
  • Stygobromus sierrensis Holsinger, 1974
  • Stygobromus simplex Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus smithi Hubricht, 1943 VU[43]
  • Stygobromus sparsus Holsinger, 1978 (Tennessee)
  • Stygobromus spinatus (Holsinger, 1967) VU[44] (West Virginia)
  • Stygobromus spinosus (Hubricht & Mackin, 1940) (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus stadukhini (Derzhavin, 1930)
  • Stygobromus stegerorum Holsinger, 1978 (Virginia)
  • Stygobromus stellmacki (Holsinger, 1967) VU[45] (Pennsylvania)
  • Stygobromus subtilis (Hubricht, 1943) VU[46]
  • Stygobromus tahoensis Holsinger, 1974
  • Stygobromus tenuis (S. I. Smith, 1874) (Connecticut to Maryland)
  • Stygobromus trinus Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus tritus Holsinger, 1974
  • Stygobromus urospinatus Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus utahensis Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus vitreus Cope, 1872
  • Stygobromus wachuschtii (Behning, 1940)
  • Stygobromus wahkeenensis Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus wardi Wang & Holsinger, 2001
  • Stygobromus wengerorum Holsinger, 1974 VU[47]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Stygobromus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  2. ^ John R. Holsinger (1978). "Systematics of the subterranean amphipod genus Stygobromus (Gammaridae). Part II: Species of the Eastern United States" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 266: 1–144. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.266. 
  3. ^ David C. Culver; John R. Holsinger; Mary C. Christman & Tanja Pipan (2010). "Morphological differences among eyeless amphipods in the genus Stygobromus dwelling in different subterranean habitats". Journal of Crustacean Biology. 30 (1): 68–74. doi:10.1651/09-3156.1. 
  4. ^ John R. Holsinger (1987). "Redescription of the stygobiont amphipod crustacean Stygobromus pusillus (Crangonyctidae) from the Soviet Union, with comments on taxonomic and zoogeographic relationships". Journal of Crustacean Biology. 7 (2): 249–257. doi:10.2307/1548605. JSTOR 1548605. 
  5. ^ John R. Holsinger. "Stygobromus – Distribution Map". Old Dominion University. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  6. ^ Jim Lowry (2009). "Stygobromus Cope, 1872". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved June 25, 2010. 
  7. ^ Steven Taylor & John Holsinger (2011). "A new species of the subterranean amphipod crustacean genus Stygobromus (Crangonyctidae) from a cave in Nevada, USA". Subterranean Biology. 8: 39–48. doi:10.3897/subtbiol.8.1230. 
  8. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus araeus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  9. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus arizonensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  10. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus balconis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  11. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus barri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  12. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus bifurcatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  13. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus bowmani". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  14. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus clantoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  15. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus conradi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  16. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus cooperi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  17. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus dejectus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  18. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus elatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  19. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus emarginatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  20. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus ephemerus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  21. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus flagellatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  22. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus gradyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  23. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus hadenoecus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  24. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus harai". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  25. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus araeus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  26. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus heteropodus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  27. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus hubbsi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  28. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus indentatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  29. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus longipes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  30. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus lucifugus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  31. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus mackenziei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  32. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus montanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  33. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus morrisoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  34. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus mundus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  35. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus nortoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  36. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus onondagaensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  37. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus ozarkensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  38. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus parvus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  39. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus pecki". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  40. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus pizzinii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  41. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus putealis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  42. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus reddelli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  43. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus smithi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  44. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus spinatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  45. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus stellmacki". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  46. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus subtilis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010. 
  47. ^ Inland Water Crustacean Specialist Group (1996). "Stygobromus wengerorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 24, 2010.