|Su-34 / Su-32|
|A Russian Air Force Su-34|
|Role||Fighter-bomber, strike fighter|
|First flight||13 April 1990|
|Introduction||20 March 2014|
|Primary user||Russian Air Force|
|Number built||118 (7 test and 111 serial aircraft)|
|Developed from||Sukhoi Su-27|
The Sukhoi Su-34 (Russian: Сухой Су-34; NATO reporting name: Fullback) is a Russian twin-engine, twin-seat, all-weather supersonic medium-range fighter-bomber/strike aircraft. It first flew in 1990 and entered service in 2014 with the Russian Air Force.
Based on the Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker air superiority fighter, the Su-34 has an armored cockpit for side-by-side seating of its two-man crew. The Su-34 is designed primarily for tactical deployment against ground and naval targets (tactical bombing/attack/interdiction roles, including against small and mobile targets) on solo and group missions in daytime and at night, under favourable and adverse weather conditions and in a hostile environment with counter-fire and EW counter-measures deployed, as well as for aerial reconnaissance. The Su-34 will eventually replace the Su-24 tactical strike fighter and the Tu-22M3 long-distance bomber.
The Su-34 had a muddied and protracted beginning. In the mid-1980s, Sukhoi began developing a new tactical multirole combat aircraft to replace the swing-wing Su-24, which would incorporate a host of conflicting requirements. The bureau thus selected the Su-27, which excelled in maneuverability and range, and could carry a large payload, as the basis for the new fighter-bomber. More specifically, the aircraft was developed from T10KM-2, the naval trainer derivative of the Sukhoi Su-27K. The development, known internally as T-10V, was shelved at the end of the 1980s sharing the fate of the aircraft carrier Ulyanovsk; this was the result of the political upheaval in the Soviet Union and its subsequent disintegration.
In August 1990, a photograph taken by a TASS officer showed an aircraft making a dummy approach towards the aircraft carrier Tbilisi. The aircraft, subsequently and erroneously labelled Su-27KU by Western intelligence, made its maiden flight on 13 April 1990 with Anatoliy Ivanov at the controls. Converted from an Su-27UB with the new distinctive nose, while retaining the main undercarriage of previous Su-27s, it was a prototype for the Su-27IB (Istrebitel Bombardirovshchik, or "fighter bomber"). It was developed in parallel with the two-seat naval trainer, the Su-27KUB. However, contrary to earlier reports, the two aircraft are not directly related. Flight tests continued throughout 1990 and into 1991.
In 1992, the Su-27IB was displayed to the public at the MosAeroshow (later renamed "MAKS Airshow"), where it demonstrated aerial refuelling with an Il-78, and performed an aerobatic display. The aircraft was officially unveiled on 13 February 1992 at Machulishi, where Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the CIS leaders were holding a summit. The following year the Su-27IB was again displayed at the MAKS Airshow.
The next prototype, and first pre-production aircraft, T10V-2, first flew on 18 December 1993, with Igor Votintsev and Yevgeniy Revoonov at the controls. Built at Novosibirsk, where Su-24s were constructed, this aircraft was visibly different from the original prototype; it had modified vertical stabilizers, twin tandem main undercarriage and a longer "stinger", which houses a rearward-facing warning radar. The first aircraft built to production standard made its first flight on 28 December 1994. It was fitted with a fire-control system, at the heart of which was the Leninets OKB-designed V004 passive electronically scanned array radar. It was different enough from the earlier versions that it was re-designated the "Su-34". However, at the 1995 Paris Air Show, the aircraft was allocated the "Su-32FN" designation, signalling the aircraft's potential role as a shore-based naval aircraft for the Russian Naval Aviation. Sukhoi also promoted the Su-34 as the "Su-32MF" (MnogoFunksionalniy, "multi-function").
Budget restrictions caused the programme to stall repeatedly. Nevertheless, flight testing continued, albeit at a slow pace. The third pre-production aircraft first flew in late 1996.
Russia's Ministry of Defence plans to modernize the Su-34; according to the deputy head of the military department, Yuriy Borisov, "We are planning to modernize the aircraft: prolong its service life, increase the number of airborne weapons. Plane is in great demand in our armed forces, and it has a great future."
Orders and deliveries
An initial batch of eight aircraft was completed by the Novosibirsk factory in 2004. In March 2006, Russia's Minister of Defence Sergei Ivanov announced the purchase of the first 5 pre-production Su-34s for the Russian Air Force. In late 2008, a second contract was signed for delivery of 32 aircraft by 2015. A total of 70 aircraft were to be purchased by 2015 to replace some 300 Russian Su-24s, which were then undergoing a modernization program. Ivanov claimed that as it is "many times more effective on all critical parameters", fewer of these newer bombers are required than the old Su-24 it replaces. In December 2006, Ivanov revealed that approximately 200 Su-34s were expected to be in service by 2020; and was confirmed by Air Force chief Vladimir Mikhaylov on 6 March 2007. Two Su-34s were delivered in 2006–2007, and three more were delivered by the end of 2009.
The Russian Air Force received another four Su-34s on 28 December 2010, as combat units in airbases first received six Su-34s in 2011. Delivery came in the form of two contracts, the first in 2008 for 32 aircraft and the second in 2012 for a further 92 aircraft, totaling 124 to be delivered by 2020. In December 2012, Sukhoi reportedly delivered five aircraft under the 2012 State Defense Order. In January 2013, Sukhoi delivered a batch of 5 Su-34s, flying directly from the Novosibirsk aircraft plant to an air base in Voronezh, Russia. On 6 May 2013, the first Su-34s under the 2013 defence procurement plan were delivered.
On 9 July 2013, three more Su-34s were delivered in an official acceptance ceremony held at the Novosibirsk Aircraft Plant. These three aircraft were already in the new Russian Air Force camouflage scheme. By the end of 2013, Sukhoi completed the 2008 contract and started deliveries on 2012 contract.
In August 2013, Sukhoi signed a contract with the Kazan-based Radiopribor holding company for 184 "friend-or-foe" transponders for the Su-34 to be delivered by 2020.
On 10 June 2014, Russia1 TV reported a further delivery of Su-34s was made to the 559th Regiment at Morozovsk. Another three aircraft were delivered on 18 July 2014. 18 aircraft were delivered in 2014, and 20 planned to be delivered in 2015. It is intended to replace the Sukhoi Su-24 and the Tupolev Tu-22M3.
Sukhoi has delivered the first batch of Su-34s to the Russian Ministry of Defense under the 2015 order on 21 May 2015. On 16 July 2015, the Sukhoi Company handed over another batch of Su-34 frontline bombers to the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. The transfer took place in the framework of the Unified Military Hardware Acceptance Day in the Sukhoi Company’s branch — V.P.Chkalov Novosibirsk aviation plant.
The Su-34 shares most of its wing structure, tail, and engine nacelles with the Su-27/Su-30, with canards like the Su-30MKI, Su-33, and Su-27M/35 to increase static instability (higher manoeuvrability) and to reduce trim drag.
The Su-34 is powered by a pair of Saturn AL-31FM1 turbofan engines, the same engines used on the Su-27SM; giving the aircraft a maximum speed of Mach 1.8+ when fully loaded. Although having a slower maximum speed than the standard Su-27, the Su-34 can still handle high G-loads and perform aerobatic maneuvers. When equipped with a full weapons load, the Su-34 has a maximum range of 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) without refuelling, this can be extended further via aerial refueling. the airframe is also cleared to perform maneuvers of up to +9G.
The Su-34 is a three-surface design having both a conventional horizontal tailplane at the rear and a canard foreplane in front of the main wings. The foreplane provides both additional lift (force) and greater maneuverability. It has twin tail fins like those of Su-27 from which it is derived. The Su-34 has 12 hardpoints for 8,000–12,000 kg (17,600–26,500 lb) of ordnance, intended to include the latest Russian precision-guided weapons. It retains the Su-27/Su-30's 30 mm GSh-30-1 cannon, and the ability to carry R-77 air-to-air missiles (6 pcs) and R-73 (also 6), with the air-to-air missiles being primarily for defense against pursuers if detected by the rearward facing radar. The maximum weight of any single munition carried is 4000 kg, its stand-off weapons have range up to 250 kilometres (160 mi). A Khibiny Electronic countermeasures (ECM) system is fitted as standard.
Compared to other members of the Su-27 family, the Su-34 has an entirely new nose and forward fuselage with an armored cockpit providing side-by-side seating for a crew of two, and the flattened nosecone earned it the nickname "Duckling" or the "Duckbill". This gives the aircraft its most distinctive feature, the unusually large flight deck. Much of the design work went into crew comfort. The two crew members sit side by side in a large cabin, with the pilot-commander to the left and navigator/operator of weapons to the right in NPP Zvezda K-36dm ejection seats. An advantage of the side by side cockpit is that duplicate instruments are not required for each pilot. Since long missions require comfort, the pressurization system allows operation up to 10,000 metres (32,800 ft) without oxygen masks, which are available for emergencies and combat situations. The crew members have room to stand and move about the cabin during long missions. The space between the seats allows them to lie down in the corridor, if necessary. A galley and toilet are located behind the crew seats. A ladder attached to the nose landing gear and a hatch in the cockpit floor is used to enter the cockpit. The cockpit is a continuous capsule of armour (17 mm). The Helmet Mounted Display System (HMDS) acts as a command center: precision target designation of all onboard weapons is tied to the movement of the pilot's head and eyes.
Maximum detection range for the passive electronically scanned array forward radar is 200–250 km, to cover the rear a second aft-facing radar is mounted. The main radar can simultaneously attack four targets (in the air, on land or on the water). The radius of detection of the fighter is up to 120 km, the range of the survey is +/- 60 degrees. The rear warning radar system can warn of attack from behind and allow it to fire its R-73s against pursuers without needing to turn the aircraft. The rear radar is unofficially called the N-012. The Su-34 reportedly has a frontal radar cross-section that is an order of magnitude smaller than prior generation fighters.
A new 4th generation radar Pika-M of the complex BKR-3, having a range up to 300 km, passed state tests in 2016.
The Su-34's long range was shown in a July 2010 exercise when Su-34s and Su-24Ms were moved from Russian bases in Europe to one on the Pacific coast, 6,000 kilometres away, which requires in-flight refuelling. The exercise included aircraft carrying weapons at full load, simulated delivering them on a target before arriving at the Pacific coast base. Su-24Ms were refuelled three times, while the Su-34 was refuelled twice.
The Russian Air Force completed the final stage of the state tests on 19 September 2011. The aircraft entered service in early 2014. The Su-34 was rumoured to have been used by Russian command during the 2008 South Ossetia war. Russia plans to have 124 in use by 2020. This total is planned to increase to 200 later.
On 4 June 2015, a Su-34 had an accident in Russia's Voronezh region while conducting a routine training mission. The airplane's parachute failed to open after landing and the Su-34 slid off the runway and flipped over. Nobody was killed. In June 2016, the damaged Su-34 was transported on board Antonov An-124 to the Novosibirsk Aviation Plant to undergo repairs. The aircraft was probably returned in service in the same year.
2015 Russian military intervention in Syria
In September 2015, six Su-34s arrived at Latakia airport in Syria, for attacks against rebel and ISIL forces. Russian air attacks in Syria started on the 30 September, in the Homs region. On 1 October, the Su-34 was used to bomb Islamic State targets in Syria. The Russian Air Force Su-34 fighter-bombers destroyed an Islamic State command center and training camp south-west of the city of Raqqa. These included precision strikes from an altitude of over 5,000 m (16,400 ft). Russian Su-34 and Su-25 attack aircraft carried out air strikes the next day against Islamic State targets in Syria's Hama province using precision bombs. According to Russian Defense Ministry spokesman Maj. Gen. Igor Konashenkov, Su-34s hit an ISIL fortified bunker in the Hama province with guided bombs. Fortifications, ammunition depots, seven units of the military equipment near Syria's Maarrat al-Numan were also destroyed by the Russian Air Force. An ISIL command center and underground depot were also destroyed with explosives near Raqqa. Defense Ministry spokesman Maj. Gen. Igor Konashenkov said in a statement on 3 October, "Accurate delivery of a concrete-piercing bomb BETAB-500 launched from a Su-34 aircraft near Raqqa destroyed a hardened command centre of one of the illegal armed groups as well as an underground bunker with explosives and ammunition depot." A Russian Air Force representative stated Su-34s acquire targets using the GLONASS satellite system for bombing. During this time six Su-34s were in Syria maintaining a 70 percent availability rate for sorties. Eight more Su-34s arrived in Syria on 20 November 2015. Following the shooting down of an Su-24 by Turkey, Russia announced on 30 November 2015 that Su-34s in Syria had begun flying combat missions while armed with air-to-air missiles. On 16 August 2016, Tu-22M3 long-range bombers and Su-34 bombers, having taken off from their base in Hamadan [Islamic Republic of Iran], carried out group airstrikes against targets belonging to Daesh and Jabhat al-Nusra terrorist groups in the provinces of Aleppo, Deir ez-Zor and Idlib. On August 17, 2016, Russian Su-34 bombers carried out strikes from the Hamadan airfield on the territory of the Islamic Republic of Iran against targets of the Daesh terrorist group in the province of Deir ez-Zor. Aircraft carried high-explosive bombs OFAB-500.
- Russian Air Force – 118 aircraft as of September 2018. This includes also 7 prototypes/pre-production units.
- Crew: 2
- Length: 23.34 m (72 ft 2 in)
- Wingspan: 14.7 m (48 ft 3 in)
- Height: 6.09 m (19 ft 5 in)
- Wing area: 62.04 m² (667.8 ft²)
- Empty weight: 22,500 kg (49,608 lb)
- Loaded weight: 39,000 kg (85,980 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 45,100 kg (99,425 lb)
- Internal fuel: 12,100 kg (15,400 l)
- Powerplant: 2 × Saturn AL-31FM1 turbofans
- Maximum speed:
- At high altitude: Mach 1.8+ (≈2,000 km/h, 1,200 mph)
- At sea level: Mach 1.2 (1,400 km/h, 870 mph)
- Range: 1,100 km (680 mi; 590 nmi) at low altitude
- Combat radius: 1,100 km (standart from 8,000 kg bomb). (683 mi; 541 nmi)
- Ferry range: 4,000 km (2,490 mi; 2,160 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 15,000 m (49,200 ft)
- Thrust/weight: 0.68
- Maximum g-load: 9 g
- Guns: 1 × 30 mm Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1 autocannon with 180 rounds
- Hardpoints: 12 × wing and fuselage pylons with a capacity of 8,000–12,000 kg (17,600–26,500 lb) and provisions to carry combinations of:
- Air-to-air missiles:
- Air-to-surface missiles:
- Anti-ship missiles:
- Anti-radiation missiles:
- Cruise missiles:
- KAB-500KR TV-guided bomb
- KAB-500L laser-guided bomb
- KAB-500OD guided bomb
- KAB-500S-E satellite-guided bomb
- KAB-1500KR TV-guided bomb
- KAB-1500L laser-guided bomb
- OFAB-250-270 bomb
- OFAB-100-120 bomb
- FAB-500T general-purpose bomb
- 2 × BETAB-500SHP
- P-50T bomb
- ODAB-500PM bomb
- RBK-500 cluster bomb
- SPBE-D bomb
- V004 passive electronically scanned array radar
- Khibiny electronic countermeasures system
- SAP-14 electronic coutermeasures system
- SAP-518 electronic coutermeasures system
- UKR-RT radio surveillance system
- L150 Pastel Radar Warning Receiver
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Sukhoi Su-24
- Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
- McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle
- Shenyang J-16
- General Dynamics F-111, FB-111
- "Su-32". Sukhoi. Archived from the original on 30 June 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- "Sukhoi Su-34 Fullback Russia's New Heavy Strike Fighter". Air Power Australia. Carlo Kopp. April 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "Russia's SU-32/34 Long-Range Strike Fighters". Defense Industry Daily. 2014-06-11. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "SU-34 Fullback Supersonic Strike Fighter". Defense Update. 27 October 2006. Archived from the original on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "Su-34 front-line bomber enters Russian Air Force service". Voice of Russia. 20 March 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Su-34 frontline bomber was put into service by Russian air forces". Russian Aviation. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Su-34 in the sky". Sukhoi. 2 October 2006. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "Russian Air Force receives 4 new Su-34 fighter-bombers". Sukhoi. 24 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "Шагол получил еще два бомбардировщика Су-34". bmpd.livejournal.com. 23 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
- "The Russian air force received two new Su-34" [Russian Air force received two Su-34]. Vedomosti (in Russian). 21 December 2009. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011.
- "Russia producing new Su-34 bombers". United Press International. 14 January 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
- "NATO tracks large-scale Russian air activity in Europe". NATO. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Outlook 2010: Reorganization Nears Completion, But Russian Industry Still Has Far To Go". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 172 (4). 25 January 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2015. (Subscription required (. ))
- Litovkin, Nikolai (6 June 2017). "Russia's 'Duckbill': Su-34 combines features of both bomber and fighter".
- Kedrov, Ilya (25 April 2014). "Национальная оборона / Вооружения / Су-34 официально встал в строй ВВС РФ" [National defence/Armaments/Su-34 officially stood up operational Russian Air Force]. oborona.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Су-34 в штате ВВС России" [Su-34 in the state of the Russian air force]. topwar.ru (in Russian). 7 February 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Williams (2002), p. 132.
- Gordon (1999), p. 92.
- Gordon (1999), p. 93.
- Eden (2004), p. 466.
- Andrews, Thomas, "Sukhoi Su-27/Su-30 Family," International Air Power Review, Volume 8, Spring 2003.
- Velovich, Alexander; Barrie, Douglas (22 January 1997). "Radar tests get under way on Sukhoi Su-27IB variant". Flight International. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
- "Минобороны модернизирует бомбардировщик Су-34". Lenta.ru. 2016-07-04.
- "The defense Ministry is modernizing the bomber su-34". RIA Novosti. 2016-07-04. Archived from the original on 2016-08-26.
- "Historical Background: Su-32". Sukhoi. Archived from the original on 3 December 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Su-34 Fullback fighter takes to the skies". Sputnik. 19 December 2006. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "3rd serial Su-34 fighter-bomber to take to the skies in November". Sputnik. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Russian Air Force to receive five Su-34 warplanes in 2008". Sputnik. 14 January 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "С соблюдением формальностей, ВВС в 2012 году примут на вооружение бомбардировщики Су-34" [In compliance with the formalities, Russian Air Force adopt Su-34 bombers in 2012]. lenta.ru (in Russian). 20 September 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Russian Air Force receives new Su-34 fighter-bombers". Sputnik. 28 December 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Наука и техника: Западный военный округ вооружился бомбардировщиками Су-34" [Science and technology: Western military district armed with bombers and Su-34]. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 9 December 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Министерство обороны купило 92 бомбардировщика Су-34" [The Ministry of defence bought 92 Su-34 bombers]. lenta.ru (in Russian). 1 March 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Sukhoi completely fulfilled 2012 State Defense Order". Sukhoi Company (JSC). 29 December 2012. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "Sukhoi Delivers 5 Su-34 Bombers to Russian Air Force". Sputnik. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "Russian Air Force receives first Su-34 bomber". English pravda.ru. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "A batch of Su-34 front-line bombers was transferred to the Russian Air Force". Sukhoi Company (JSC). 9 July 2013. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "Оружие: Вооружение: "Сухой" выполнил годовой гособоронзаказ на Су-34" ["Sukhoi" fulfilled the annual State Defense order for Su-34]. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 24 December 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Sukhoi Signs $47M Transponder Deal for Su-34". Sputnik. 19 August 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "Su-34 for the 559th bap (Morozovsk)". Rossiya 1 via Youtube. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Три новосибирских Су-34 улетели в Ростовскую область — 54новости.рф" [Three of Novosibirsk Su-34 flew in Rostov Oblast] (in Russian). 18 July 2014. Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Новосибирский авиазавод им. Чкалова увеличил план по выпуску бомбардировщиков Су-34" [The Novosibirsk plant them. Chkalova increased plan for production of Su-34 bombers]. ТASS (in Russian). 14 March 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Sukhoi handed over two Su-34 frontline bombers to the Russian Air Force exceeding initial yearly plan". Sukhoi Company (JSC). 22 December 2014. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Su-34 park may reach 200 aircraft". TASS. 26 December 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Sukhoi Delivers More Su-34 Bombers to Russian MoD". Forecast International. 21 May 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "ПАО "Компания "Сухой" – Новости – Новости компании" [Sukhoi has transferred a batch of Russian air force Su-34]. Sukhoi (in Russian). 16 July 2015. Archived from the original on 4 October 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 February 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "АЛ-31Ф серии 42 (М1)" [Al-31F series 42 (M1)]. Salut.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Сухой Су-34" [Sukhoi Su-34]. airwar.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Первая в 2014 году партия Су-34 отправилась в войска" [First in 2014 batch of Su-34 embarked troops]. arms-expo.ru (in Russian). 11 June 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Бондарев: Су-34 гораздо лучше предшественников" [Bondarev: Su-34 is much better than predecessors]. RIA Novosty (in Russian). 26 December 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Sukhoi Company (JSC) – Airplanes – Military Aircraft – Su-32 – Aircraft performance". Sukhoi.org. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- Gordon & Davison (2006), pp. 80–81.
- "Su-34/Su-32FN Bomber". airforceworld.com. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "ФРОНТОВОЙ БОМБАРДИРОВЩИК СУ-34, FRONT-LINE BOMBER SU-34". narod.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Генеральный конструктор КРЭТ Юрий Маевский о развитии средств РЭБ" [Chief Designer Yury Kret Majewski on the development of Radio-Electronic Warfare]. lenta.ru (in Russian). 25 September 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Gordon, Yefim (1999). Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker: Air Superiority Fighter. London: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84037-029-4.
- Spick (2000), pp. 518–519.
- Eden (2004).
- "Характеристики бомбардировщика Су-34" [Features bomber Su-34]. RIA Novosty (in Russian). 16 September 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Су-34" [Su-34]. topwar.ru (in Russian). 8 February 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Самолеты". www.sukhoi.org.
- ""ОПК" запускает серийное производство "всевидящих" РЛС | Еженедельник "Военно-промышленный курьер"". Vpk-news.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- "Warplanes: F-15Eski Goes Long Against China". Strategypage.com. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Пятидневная война: итог в воздухе" [Five-Day War: Outcome in the air]. Army.lv (in Russian). Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "В Новосибирске увеличат выпуск бомбардировщиков Су-34" [In Novosibirsk production will increase of the Su-34 bombers]. vpk.name (in Russian). 8 January 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Elkov, Igor (27 March 2014). "ВВС России получат на вооружение до 200 самолетов Су-34" [The Russian air force will receive up to 200 adopted Su-34]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Su-34 bomber crashes in Voronezh region; pilots survive". Russia beyond the headlines. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Перевернувшийся в 2015 году Су-34 доставлен "Русланом" на ремонт в Новосибирск – bmpd". Bmpd.livejournal.com. 2016-06-16. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- Cenciotti, David (29 September 2015). "Six Russian Su-34 Fullback bomber have just arrived in Syria. And this is the route they have likely flown to get there". The Aviationist. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- Cooper, Helene; Gordon, Michael R.; MacFarquhar, Neil (30 September 2015). "Russians Strike Targets in Syria, but Not ISIS Areas". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Terrorist training camp & command HQ annihilated in Russian MoD-released combat footage (VIDEO)". RT English. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Russian Air Force Destroys ISIL Command Center, Training Camp in Syria". Sputniknews.com. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Russian Su-34s Can Precisely Strike Any ISIL Ground Target in Syria (VIDEO)". Sputniknews.com. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Russian Jets Destroy ISIL Command Post, Bunker in Syria". Sputniknews.com. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Russia Air Force Destroys ISIL Command Center, Underground Depot Near Raqqa". sputniknews.com. 3 October 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Russian Bombers Use Satellite-Guided Missiles for High Precision (VIDEO)". Sputniknews.com. 3 October 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Russian weapons in Syria are overrated". Thedailystar.com. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Russian Air Force Carries Out 394 Sorties, Hits 731 Targets in Three Days". Sputnik. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Russia arms Syrian-based fighters with air-to-air missiles". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- "TASS: Military & Defense – Russian bombers first time use Iranian air base for strikes in Syria". Tass.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- "Russian Su-34 Jets Deployed in Iran Conduct Airstrikes Against Daesh in Syria". Sputnik. 2016-08-17. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
- "На вологодские ледяные заторы сбросили четыре тонны бомб". Rg.ru. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- "Су-34 разбомбили Кобылинские перекаты, скованные льдом". Vesti.ru. 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- "Экипажи бомбардировщиков Су-34 ЗВО выполнили бомбометание по ледяным заторам на реке Сухона в Вологодской области : Министерство обороны Российской Федерации". Function.mil.ru. 2016-04-18. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- Insinna, Valerie (2016-01-05). "algeria-orders-12-su-34-fullback-fighter-bombers-russia". Defensenews.com. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- "Going Global: Russian Su-34 on the Way to Become Export Bestseller – Sputnik International". Sputniknews.com. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- "Russia, Algeria To Sign Deal for Su-34 Sale by End of 2016". Defense News. 2016-03-02.
- "К месту постоянного базирования в Шагол прибыли первые три фронтовых бомбардировщика Су-34". bmpd.livejournal.com. 9 September 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
- "Выпускники летных училищ освоят новейшие бомбардировщики Су-34 в липецком авиацентре" [Alumni summer schools embrace the newest Su-34 bombers in Lipetsk aviacentre]. ITAR-TASS (in Russian). 13 January 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Два новых ударных самолета Су-34 пополнили боевой состав Липецкого авиацентра : Министерство обороны Российской Федерации". Function.mil.ru. 2016-01-29. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- "Компания "Сухой" передала ВВС России два сверхплановых фронтовых бомбардировщика Су-34" [Sukhoi Russian air force transferred two front-line bomber Su-34 bomber]. armstrade.org (in Russian). 22 December 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "В ЮВО поступила очередная партия истребителей-бомбардировщиков Су-34" [In the publication another batch of Su-34 fighter-bombers received]. armstrade.org (in Russian). 22 May 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Поставки боевых самолетов в Вооруженные Силы России в 2016 году". bmpd.livejournal.com. 4 January 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- "ВКС России получили первые бомбардировщики Су-34 программы 2017 года". bmpd.livejournal.com. 23 May 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- "ВКС России получили четыре фронтовых бомбардировщика Су-34". bmpd.livejournal.com. 17 October 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- "Russia increases operational jets in Syria after US missile strike [+ Photos]". Al-Masdar News. 30 April 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- "Su-32: Aircraft performance". Sukhoi. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015., "Armaments". Sukhoi. Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- Gordon & Davison (2006), pp. 92, 95–96.
- "Su-34 (Su-27IB) Flanker Fighter Bomber Aircraft, Russia". airforce-technology.com. Retrieved 5 October 2012.[unreliable source?]
- "SU-34". airwar.ru. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "Бондарев: Су-34 гораздо лучше предшественников" [Bondarev: Su-34 is much better than predecessors]. RIA Novosty (in Russian). 26 December 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Su-34". Deagel.com. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- "Su-34 Fullback". Defense-update.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "На что способна одна эскадрилья Су-34? - Армейский вестник". army-news.ru.
- "Aircraft performance". Sukhoi. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- "Истребитель-бомбардировщик Су-34" [Su-34 Fighter-bomber]. structure.mil.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "РАКЕТНЫЙ КОМПЛЕКС С ПРОТИВОКОРАБЕЛЬНОЙ РАКЕТОЙ "ОНИКС" ("ЯХОНТ"), THE MISSILE COMPLEX WITH ANTI-SHIP MISSILE "ONYX" ("YAKHONT")". narod.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Eden, Paul, ed. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London: Amber Books. ISBN 978-1-904687-84-9.
- Gordon, Yefim (1999). Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker: Air Superiority Fighter. London: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84037-029-4.
- Gordon, Yefim; Davison, Peter (2006). Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker. North branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press. ISBN 978-1-58007-091-1.
- Kopp, Carlo (January 2011). "Sukhoi Su-34 Fullback". Ausairpower.net.
- Spick, Mike (2000). "The Flanker". The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-0-7603-0893-6.
- Williams, Mel, ed. (2002). "Sukhoi 'Super Flankers'". Superfighters: The Next Generation of Combat Aircraft. Norwalk, Connecticut: AIRtime Publishing Inc. ISBN 978-1-880588-53-6.
- Wilson, Stewart (2000). Combat Aircraft since 1945. Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 978-1-875671-50-2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sukhoi Su-34.|
- Official Sukhoi Su-32 (Su-34) page[dead link]
- Russian Su-34 web page on airwar.ru
- Su-34 page on MILAVIA.net
- Su-34 page on aerospaceweb.org
- Su-34 Fullback on Globalaircraft.org
- Sukhoi Su-34 Fullback: Russia's New Heavy Strike Fighter on ausairpower.net
- "Russia gets first new fighters for 15 years as Sukhoi Su-34 debuts". Flight Global, 4 January 2007.
- "Russian Air Force to adopt Su-34 'flying tank'". INFOgraphics
- Su-34/Su-32FN bomber family on airforceworld.com