Sub tuum praesidium
Beneath Thy Protection (Ancient Greek: Ὑπὸ τὴν σὴν εὐσπλαγχνίαν; Latin: Sub tuum praesidium) is a Christian hymn and prayer. It is the oldest known Marian prayer and the oldest preserved extant hymn to Mary as Theotokos. It dates to the 3rd (or 4th) century AD and is well known among the Catholic church, the Eastern Orthodox church and the Oriental Orthodox church.
The earliest text of this hymn was found in a Coptic Orthodox Christmas liturgy. The papyrus records the hymn in Greek, dated to the 3rd century by papyrologist E. Lobel and by scholar C.H. Roberts to the 4th century. According to scholar Serafim Seppälä, "there are no determinate theological or philological reasons to reject the 3rd century dating."
The hymn is used in the Coptic liturgy to this day, as well as in the Armenian, Byzantine, Ambrosian, and Roman Rite liturgies. It was part of Sulpician custom that all classes ended with a recitation of this prayer. Besides the Greek text, ancient versions can be found in Coptic, Syriac, Armenian and Latin.
Henri de Villiers finds in the term "blessed" a reference to the salutation by Elizabeth in Luke 1:42. 'Praesidium' is translated as "an assistance given in time of war by fresh troops in a strong manner."
The former medieval and post-medieval practice in several dioceses, especially in France, was to use the Sub tuum as the final antiphon at Compline instead of the Salve Regina, and in the Rite of Braga, where it is sung at the end of Mass.
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In the Byzantine Rite used by the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, the hymn occurs as the last dismissal hymn of daily Vespers in Great Lent. In Greek practice, it is usually sung in Neo-Byzantine chant.
In the Armenian Rite, the hymn is sung on the Eve of Theophany and is also used as an acclamation (Armenian: մաղթանք) in the daily compline service known as the Rest Hour (Հանգստեան Ժամ). A slightly different version of the hymn is appended to the Trisagion when the latter is chanted in the daily Morning (Առաւօտեան) and Evening (Երեկոյեան) Hours of the Daily Office.
The Slavonic version of the hymn is also often used outside of Great Lent, with the triple invocation «Пресвѧтаѧ Богородице спаси насъ» ("Most Holy Theotokos, save us") appended. Other than the traditional and modern chant settings, which are the most commonly used, the most well-known musical setting is perhaps that of Dmytro Bortniansky.
In the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church it is used as the antiphon for the Nunc Dimittis at Compline in the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and in the Liturgy of the Hours may be used as the Marian antiphon after Compline or Vespers outside of Eastertide.
The prayer has a special significance for Marists, and it is often heard in Marist schools and groups around the world. It is also commonly used by the Salesians in honor of Mary Help of Christians.
Pope Francis asked to pray this Hymn along with the Rosary and the Prayer to Saint Michael asking for the unity of the Church during October (2018) in the face of diverse scandals and accusations. In the official communiqué he added that "Russian mystics and the great saints of all the traditions advised, in moments of spiritual turbulence, to shelter beneath the mantle of the Holy Mother of God pronouncing the invocation 'Sub Tuum Praesidium'".
|Greek Text||English Translation|
The earliest Church Slavonic manuscripts have the prayer in the following form:
|Church Slavonic||English Translation|
This version continues to be used by the Old Believers today. In the 17th century, under the liturgical reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow, the Russian Orthodox Church adopted a new translation (but parishes continue to use the form given above):
|Church Slavonic||English Translation|
This second version continues in use today.
The Latin translation, likely derived from the Greek, dates from the 11th century:
|Latin Text||English Translation|
Domina nostra, Mediatrix nostra, Advocata nostra (Our Lady, our Mediatrix, Our Advocate)
tuo Filio nos reconcilia (Reconcile us to your Son)
tuo Filio nos recommenda (Recommend us to your Son)
Marc-Antoine Charpentier, 3 settings, H.20, for 3 voices and bc (1670), H.28, for 3 voices unaccompanied (1681 - 82), H.352, for 1 voice and bc (late1680s).
- Matthewes-Green, Frederica (2007). The Lost Gospel of Mary: The Mother of Jesus in Three Ancient Texts. Brewster MA: Paraclete Press. pp. 85–87. ISBN 978-1-55725-536-5.
- See the Leuven Database of Ancient Books, P. Ryl. 470. About the date of the papyrus Rylands III 470, see also Hans Förster, «Die älteste marianische Antiphon - eine Fehldatierung? Überlegungen zum "ältesten Beleg" des Sub tuum praesidium», in Journal of Coptic Studies 7 (2005), pp. 99-109.
- O'Carroll, Michael (1982). Theotokos. A Theological Encyclopedia of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Wilmington: Michael Glazier Inc. p. 336.
- Mercenier, François (1939). L'Antienne mariale grecque la plus ancienne (in French). Le Muséon 52. pp. 229–233.
- Seppälä, Serafim (2010). Elämän Äiti. Neitsyt Maria varhaiskristillisessä teologiassa [Mother of Life. Virgin Mary in early Christian theology] (in Finnish). Helsinki: Maahenki. p. 84.
- "Green, Michael. "The History of the Sub Tuum"" (PDF). Static.squarespace.com. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "The Sub Tuum Praesidium". Newliturgicalmovement.org. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "Help of Christians : University of Dayton, Ohio". Udayton.edu. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Charpentier, Marc-Antoine (2017) [ca. 1687]. "Sub tuum praesidium, H.352". Imslp.org. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- "Pope Francis invites the faithful to pray the Rosary in October". Vaticannews.va. 2018-09-29. Retrieved 2018-10-02.
- ""Sub tuum Praesidium", KofC" (PDF). Kofc.org. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Schneider, Josephus (1900). Manuale Sacerdotum (in Latin). J. P. Bachem.
- Crowther, Arthur Anselm (1663). Jesus, Maria, Joseph: Or, The Devout Pilgrim of the Ever Blessed Virgin Mary. In His Holy Exercises Upon the Sacred Mysteries of Jesus, Maria, Joseph. p. 187.
- Gebet- und Gesang-Buch für die Schüler des Znaimer Gymnasiums (in German). Lenck. 1865. p. 116.
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- "Under thy compassion we take refuge..." Photograph of papyrus, dated to 250 AD, the earliest example of this hymn.