|(400,000 cited 1978–2011)|
The Subanen language (also Subanon and Subanun) is an Austronesian language belonging to the Greater Central Philippine languages. It is typically considered by linguists as a dialect cluster more than a monolithic language. Subanon is spoken in various areas of Zamboanga Peninsula namely the provinces of Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur, and in Misamis Occidental of Northern Mindanao. There is also a sizeable Subanon community in Misamis Oriental. Most go by the name of Subanen, Subanon or Subanun, while those who adhere to Islam refer to themselves as Kalibugan.
Jason Lobel (2013:308) classifies the Subanen varieties as follows.
- Western Subanon
- Western Kolibugan
- West Nuclear
- Tawlet-Kalibugan Subanen
- Salug-Godod Subanen
- East Nuclear
- Southern Subanen
- Central Subanen
- Northern Subanen
- Eastern Subanen
- West Nuclear
Lobel (2013:308) lists the following innovations among each of the following subgroups.
- Nuclear Subanen: *k > Ø
- Western Subanen: *k > /k/
- East Nuclear Subanen: *r > /l/
- West Nuclear Subanen: *r > /r/
- Western Subanen: *r > /l/ (independently took place, likely due to contact with Tausug, Maguindanaon, Butuanon, Cebuano, and/or Ilonggo, which have also undergone the *r > /l/ shift independently of one another)
Proto-Subanen is also notable for having completely lost Proto-Greater Central Philippine *h.
Lobel (2013) also provides a reconstruction of Proto-Subanen.
Western Subanon has 15 native consonants. There is no phonemic contrast between velar and uvular consonants.
Western Subanon Consonants
Western Subanon Vowels
Western Subanon has 5 vowels.
The diphthongs of Western Subanon are /au/, /ua/, /io/, /oi/, /ai/, and /ia/.
The chorus of the Western Subanon song Momula ita 'Let’s plant' is shown.
Gumani ita We will harvest (or, Let’s harvest) Gumani ita We will harvest Landu’ da’da’an ta Great is our rejoicing Po’ gumani ita Because we will harvest Gumani ita We will harvest Gumani ita We will harvest Di’ na mobon sinsaan ta Our suffering will not last long Gumani ita We will harvest
- Central at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Northern at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Western at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Kolibugan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Southern at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Eastern at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Subanen". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Estioca, Sharon Joy. "Subanon (Spring 2015)". Language Documentation Training Center. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
- Lobel, Jason William. 2013. Philippine and North Bornean languages: issues in description, subgrouping, and reconstruction. Ph.D. dissertation. Manoa: University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
- Audio recordings of Subanon are archived with Kaipuleohone, including a word list, sentences, and a traditional song
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