Subaru Impreza

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Subaru Impreza
2017 Subaru Impreza (GT7) 2.0i-S hatchback (2018-08-06) 01.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerSubaru Corporation
Production1992–present
AssemblyJapan: Yajima Plant, Ōta, Gunma
Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur (TCMA)
United States: Lafayette, IN (SIA)[1]
Body and chassis
ClassCompact car
LayoutFront-engine, front-wheel drive (1992–1996)
Front-engine, all-wheel drive (1992–present)
Chronology
PredecessorSubaru Leone

The Subaru Impreza (スバル・インプレッサ, Subaru Inpuressa) is a compact car that has been manufactured since 1992 by Subaru, introduced as a replacement for the Leone, with the predecessor's EA series engines replaced by the new EJ series.

Now in its fifth generation, Subaru has offered four-door sedan and five-door body variants since 1992; the firm also offered a coupe from 1995 until 2001, and a 5-door wagon from the Impreza's introduction in the form of a hatchback. Mainstream versions have received "boxer" flat-four engines ranging from 1.5- to 2.5-liters, with the performance-oriented Impreza WRX and WRX STI models uprated with the addition of turbochargers. Since the third generation series, some markets have adopted the abbreviated Subaru WRX name for these high-performance variants. The first three generations of Impreza in North America were also available with an off-road appearance package called the Outback Sport. For the fourth generation, this appearance package was renamed the XV (Crosstrek in North America), and, unlike the Outback Sport (which was exclusive to the North American market), is sold internationally.

The Impreza (also Impreza WRX and Impreza WRX STI) is a major rival to the Mitsubishi Lancer (and Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution).

Subaru has offered both front- and all-wheel drive layouts for the Impreza. Since the late-1990s, some markets have restricted sales to the all-wheel drive model—therefore granting the Impreza a unique selling proposition in the global compact class characterized by front-wheel drive. However, Japanese models remain available in either configuration.

First generation (1992–2000) – GM, GC, GF[edit]

First generation
1999 Subaru Impreza (GC8 MY99) RX AWD sedan (2011-08-17) 01.jpg
1999 Subaru Impreza RX sedan (Australia)
Overview
Also calledSubaru Outback Sport
Subaru Grand Leone (Israel, 1992–1996)
Production1992–2000
DesignerTetsuya Hayashi, Hidefumi Kato (1990)[2][3]
Body and chassis
Body style2-door coupe (GM)
4-door sedan (GC)
5-door hatchback (GF)
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,520 mm (99.2 in)
Length4,340 mm (170.9 in)
Width1,690 mm (66.5 in)
Height1,405 mm (55.3 in)
Curb weight1,220 kg (2,689.6 lb)

Announced on 22 October 1992,[4] the Impreza was released in Japan in November and offered in either front-wheel drive (FWD) or all-wheel drive (AWD) versions and as a four-door sedan or five-door hatchback/wagon (Touring).[5] The car used a shortened version of the Legacy's floor pan.[6] According to a Motor Trend article written March 1992 on page 26, the name of Subaru's new compact was, initially, to be called the Loyale, displaying an official photograph of the four-door sedan. In late 1995, a two-door coupe was introduced in Japan. Initial engine choices included 1.6-, 1.8- and 2.0-liter naturally aspirated engines.

Subaru chose to continue their longstanding use of the boxer engine in the Impreza. According to Subaru, their configuration of the engine inline with the transmission minimizes body roll due to the lower center of gravity compared with offset engines in most other vehicles. The boxer design provides good vibration mitigation due to the principles of a balanced engine because the movement of each piston is largely countered by a piston in the opposing cylinder bank, eliminating the need for a counter-weighted rotating crankshaft (harmonic balancer), but with some vibration from offsets. Torque steer is also reduced with this type of powertrain layout since the front drive shafts are of equal length and weight.

Subaru Impreza Gravel Express (Japan)
A 2001 Subaru Outback Sport
2001 model year Subaru Outback Sport (US)

At the time of introduction, the Japanese and European market naturally aspirated models (1.6 and 1.8) received an unusual grille with a small central opening. Only the WRX and regular North American models received a conventional "full" grille until the 1994 facelift, when the regular models' appearance was brought in line with that of the sporting models.

The Outback Sport was introduced to North America in 1994 for the 1995 model year as an updated Impreza "L" Sport Wagon. It was the top trim level of the Impreza wagon model with no significant mechanical or performance changes from the lower trim levels aside from a slightly lifted suspension. Subaru found some sales success with the Outback Sport as a smaller companion with similar ride height changes, body colors and trim levels to the larger, more successful selling Legacy-based Outback. For the first time, the 2.2-liter engine was used in the American Impreza. Later, the 2.5-liter engine was introduced. In Japan, the Impreza Sport Wagon was offered with a similar approach to the Outback Sport, calling it the "Impreza Gravel Express" with the WRX turbocharged engine. Subaru discontinued the Gravel Express when the second generation Impreza was introduced due to very limited sales. The hood-scoop found on the American Outback Sport was non-functional but was probably included because the American and Japanese versions were built at the same factory in Japan. The Outback Sport was offered with optional equipment, such as a gauge pack installed on top of the dashboard, that included a digital compass, outside temperature and barometer or altimeter readings.

Trim levels were LX, GL and Sport generation. LX models were front-wheel drive, and powered by a 1.6-liter engine; these were four-door only. GL trim levels were either front-wheel drive (Subaru badged these 2WD) or all-wheel-drive (badged AWD); cars launched in 1993 had a choice of 1.6- and 1.8-liter flat-4 engines, the 1.6 being available with 2WD, the 1.8 an AWD version only. From 1996, the 1.6- and 1.8-liter versions were dropped (in the European market), and replaced by a 2.0-liter engine. Sport versions had alloy wheels, and a 2.0-liter engine only. These were "warm hatch" versions which were similar to the WRX, albeit less adorned.

During this generation, Subaru offered a limited edition Impreza Sport Wagon called the CasaBlanca,[7] which had a retro-inspired front and rear end treatment, which was inspired by the popular kei car Subaru Vivio Bistro styling package and Subaru Sambar Dias Classic. The Sport Wagon was also offered with the WRX turbocharged engine, and was called the Gravel Express.

The Impreza received an external facelift for the 1997 model year, followed by an interior redesign in 1998, using the new redesigned dashboard from the Forester.

Subaru of North America initially offered the Impreza with the 1.8-liter engine only, with either front- or all-wheel drive; a 2.2-liter engine became optional for 1995.[8] For the 1995 model year, the 1.8/EJ18 was available with a 5-speed manual or a 4-speed automatic transmission on the 'base' model only.[8] The 2.2/EJ22 was only available with an automatic transmission for the L, LX, and Outback Sport trims. The 1995 model year also introduced OBD-II (On-Board Diagnostics version 2) in the EJ22/Automatic transmission equipped models. The 1996 model line-up replaced the base version with the low-content Brighton trim, also used in the Legacy model. A five-speed manual transmission became available with the 2.2 engine on all models, except the Brighton which was only available with the 1.8 and a 5-speed.

Subaru later decided to emphasize all-wheel drive in North America, making it standard on every Impreza (and Legacy) from 1997 onwards. North American markets never received the WRX version of the first generation Impreza. To test the waters for a full-fledged turbocharged model, Subaru showcased a turbocharged Impreza at various car shows around the country. The vehicle was named the 2.5RX and is now located in Subaru of America's Cherry Hill, New Jersey storage facility. Subsequently, the 2.5RS performance model was introduced in 1998 (the same year the 1.8-liter engine was dropped). A naturally aspirated 2.5-liter engine and larger brakes were fitted into the coupé body with gold-colored 16-inch five-spoke alloy wheels. The 2.5RS also featured several external cues from its overseas brethren such as hood vents, a hood scoop, and a rally-inspired rear spoiler. The 2.5/EJ25D (DOHC) used in the 1998 RS suffered from a high-rate of head gasket failures.[9] The 1999 model featured several changes: the newly designed "Phase II" SOHC version of the same 2.5 L engine featured a slightly higher peak torque by 5 N⋅m (3.7 lb⋅ft), the wheels turned to a standard silver, the interior got an update, and the exterior became visually similar to the Japanese model with an updated front bumper borrowed from the Japanese Version 5 Impreza WRX STI. 2.5RS models became available in sedan form for 2000.

WRX[edit]

There have been seven noted versions of the WRX dating back from Subaru's original World Rally Cross staging vehicles. Subaru adopted the name "WRX" to stand for "World Rally eXperimental" (in some places WRX stands for "World Rally Cross") as all WRX versions (1992 to present) feature rally inspired technology, including all wheel drive, stiffened suspensions and turbocharged four cylinder engines. The STI versions were marketed with consecutive numbers. Another way to determine the version of a WRX was to look at the chassis code. All WRX sold between 1992 and 2000 have the beginning chassis code of GC8 sedan or GF8 hatchback; this is followed by a letter from A to G. Coupe versions share the "GC" code with sedans, except in the US, where they have a separate chassis code of "GM".

In 1994, Subaru introduced Subaru Tecnica International (STI) versions of the WRX in Japan. These models were upgraded from the standard WRX in many categories, including blueprinted performance-tuned engines, transmissions, and suspensions. The STI versions of the WRX were immensely successful in rallies and popular among street racers but were only sold in the Japanese market. Compared to the WRX, the STI had mostly mechanical modifications.

GC8A (11/1992-9/1993)

The WRX debuted in November 1992 with 240 PS (176.5 kW; 236.7 hp). The center differential was a viscous coupling type, the rear limited slip differential was a viscous type. The WRX Type RA is a stripped down version of the WRX that was available in the Japanese market for people to purchase for motorsports and tuning. Targeted for race and rally, the RA versions were generally lighter in weight; featuring reduced soundproofing, manual windows, no air conditioning, no anti-lock brakes, and added racing features such as more robust engines, driver controlled center differentials, and shorter gearing. The WRX Type RA uses a closer ratio gearbox and a three-spoke leather steering wheel from Nardi.

In Europe, the WRX was introduced as the Impreza GT, and as the Impreza Turbo 2000 (UK). It came with 208 hp (155 kW; 211 PS). In the United Kingdom, Subaru offered six "WRX 1.8 GL" in 1993. The firm imported six Type RS's, the development car that led to the stripped-out Type RA. Three cars went to Prodrive; three were retained by Subaru UK and were subsequently sold. For UK car certification reasons they were registered as "1.8 GL" despite having the 2.0-liter turbocharged engine.

GC8B (10/1993-8/1994)

In October 1993, Subaru introduced the 1994 model year WRX which produced 240 PS (176.5 kW; 236.7 hp). The rear rotors were substituted from ventilated disk to solid disk. October 1993 was also the start of production of the hatchback version, with 220 PS (162 kW; 217 hp).

The first STI was known simply as "WRX STI", with 100 per month were produced starting from February 1994. It had 250 PS (184 kW; 247 bhp). This version of the STI was the only version where the standard cars were taken at the end of the assembly line and replaced by STI parts. An STI version of the Type RA was also offered, again with many amenities deleted to reduce weight and cost. Producing 275 PS (202 kW; 271 bhp), this version of the WRX STI came with a Driver Controlled Center Differential (DCCD). This device was an electromechanical differential that could lock the differential.

GC8C (9/1994-9/1996)
1995 Subaru Impreza WRX (GC8C)

In November 1994, the WRX had a power increase to 260 PS (191.2 kW; 256.4 hp). The wheel diameters were increased to 16 inches (410 mm) and brake rotors were both changed to ventilated disks. In Japan, the WRX engine was also offered with the hatchback body variant and was called the "Impreza Gravel Express" but was discontinued due to very limited sales.

To commemorate Colin McRae's success in the international rally scene, Subaru in the UK released 200 limited edition "Series McRae" WRXs in June 1995, prepared by Prodrive. These vehicles were finished in a very limited "Rally Blue" colour scheme, sported gold 16-inch alloy wheels, McRae decals, individual numbered badging from 1–201 (car 13 was never built since the number 13 is considered unlucky), and a factory-fitted electric tilt/slide sunroof. Recaro seats were fitted in the front, and the rear seats and side panels were retrimmed in the same Le Mans/Avus material.

The regular STI's engine output stood at 275 PS (202 kW; 271 bhp). The car weighed 1,240 kg (2,734 lb) and had gold wheels like those on the World Rally Championship Impreza. Now, the STI was built alongside the WRX on the production lines.

1995 Subaru Impreza WRX STI RA

The 1996 model year WRX debuted in January 1996. The WRX design received minimal mechanical changes, but a WRX V-Limited Edition was introduced to celebrate the success of the Impreza WRC car in the FIA WRC. It was mechanically the same to the WRX but had a curb weight nudge to 1,240 kg (2,734 lb). The V-limited cars are painted in World Rally Blue. A WRX STI V-limited edition was also produced. The interior is colored blue on the seat inserts and carpeting. The WRX Type RA STI received a radio and air-conditioning in the V-limited form. 1,000 WRX STI Version 2 V-limited were produced, with 555 WRX Type RA STI Version 2 V-limited models produced.

GC8D (9/1996-9/1997)

In September 1996, the WRX was updated with new styling. The WRX now has a power rating of 280 PS (206 kW; 276 hp) and now weighed 1,250 kg (2,756 lb). Although it actually developed about 300 PS, the output was under-reported at the then-established gentlemen's agreement power limit of 280 PS.

Subaru in the UK released the WRX "Catalunya" in March 1997, a limited production of 200 cars (again excluding car number 13) in black with red flecks riding on gold alloy wheels. The Catalunya was made to celebrate winning Subaru's second WRC manufacturer's title at the Rally of Spain (Catalunya).

With GC8D came the start of the coupé version of the WRX STI. It is called the WRX Type R STI. The coupé was chosen by Prodrive for use in the WRC because it was lighter and stiffer than the sedan, although it carried the same exterior dimensions. It was essentially a two-door version of the WRX Type RA STI meaning it had DCCD, minimal sound insulation, close-gear ratios and hardened gearbox. This car also has a water-spray nozzle to dampen the top of the intercooler. The water will then evaporate, taking heat away from the intercooler and cooling the intake charge. This car was produced on an order-only basis. An estimated 10,000 Type R models were produced for the Japanese Domestic Market. Also, there was a WRX STI type RA (sedan) available, with a roof vent instead of map lights, and wind up windows, although electrics are an option from factory.

Also available was a WRX Type R V-limited. It has a WRX motor with no forged internals like the STI, and it misses out on the four-pot front brakes as they are to be installed by rally teams. It has a roof vent and is lightweight, making a good base for a rally car.

GC8E (September 1997 to August 1998)

In Europe, the Subaru Impreza WRX GT's (Turbo 2000 in UK) interior was updated to leather. For the STI, power remained at 280 PS. Forged pistons were also added. The interior and the cockpit were changed into a newer design along with the new white colored gauges.

For the UK, the WRX "Turbo Terzo" was released in April 1998. 333 cars in blue with gold alloy wheels were produced to celebrate Subaru's WRC title.

Subaru Impreza 22B STI

In 1998, Subaru of Japan produced a widebody, coupe WRX STI called the "22B STI" produced between March and August 1998. The 22B was used to commemorate both Subaru's 40th anniversary as well as the third consecutive manufacturer's title for Subaru in the FIA World Rally Championship. On the release of the sales, all 400 Japanese units sold out in from 30 minutes to 48 hours, depending on the report.[10] Another 24 were produced for export markets—16 for the UK, along with another 5 for Australia, and 3 prototypes. The 16 cars imported to the UK were modified by Prodrive, with longer gear ratios, and UK specification lights. Because 50 22Bs had already been imported privately into the UK, Subaru had to wait until 1999 to register the 16 officially imported cars under the VCA's Single Vehicle Approval scheme.

The 22B had the EJ22G engine (note, the internal Subaru material states the closed-deck block comes from a version 3 EJ20G). This means the displacement was increased from 2.0 L (1,994 cc) to 2.2 L (2,212 cc), bored up to 96.9 mm (3.81 in). Officially, it produced 280 PS (276 bhp; 206 kW) @ 6,000 rpm and 363 N⋅m; 268 lbf⋅ft (37 kg⋅m) @ 3,200 rpm of torque, fuel feed by Electronic Fuel Injection and a IHI RHF 5HB turbocharger.[11] This car was given a unique color of blue and had fender flared widebody taken from the Peter Stevens designed WRC car, thus widening the width by 80 mm (3.15 inches). The car has a unique hood, front and rear fenders, a WRC-inspired front bumper and a unique adjustable rear wing. During assembly, a WRX Type R chassis was taken off the line. The fenders were replaced with the 22B STI fenders. The suspension is provided by Bilstein, while the brakes were four-pot front/two-pot rear STi calipers, painted red. The wheels were increased in size from the standard WRX Type R STI from 16- to 17-inches and the clutch was upgraded to a sintered twin clutch with a ceramic disk. The origin of the name 22B has been debated. The 22 referred to the 2.2-liter displacement and the B was thought to be for the Bilstein suspension. This would correlate with the idea that Subaru sells a Legacy Spec B, where the B represents the Bilstein suspension. However, the B is actually a Subaru internal code for Turbo. 22B is also the hexadecimal conversion for the number 555, Subaru's major sponsor in the WRC.[12] The car's curb weight is 1,270 kilograms (2,800 lb).

GC8F (9/1998-9/1999)
Subaru Impreza (MY99) WRX STI Version 5 coupe (Australia)

Mechanically the GC8F was virtually the same as its predecessor. The torque was increased a little from 242 to 250 lb⋅ft (328 to 339 N⋅m) at 4000 rpm. The weight also continues to increase and is set at 1,300 kg (2,800 lb).

Subaru Impreza WRX RB5

To celebrate the return of British driver Richard Burns to the rally team, a limited edition of 444 WRX "RB5" models in gray were created in 1999 for the UK. The basic model had little more than cosmetic differences, but most had the WR Sport Performance Pack, an option consisting of a new ECU and exhaust for 240 PS (177 kW; 237 hp) and 350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) torque. There was also an optional Prodrive suspension pack.

The standard UK Impreza Turbo 2000 was also tuned and partly restyled by Prodrive in 1999 to create the WRX "Prodrive WR Sport". It featured a unique interior, suspension upgrade, new bodykit and wheels, plus WR Sport decals and an optional ECU upgrade.

For the STI, the power stayed the same as the previous version but the engine layout and design was made cleaner and was dubbed as the "Boxer Phase 2" engine. The facelift the rest of the Impreza line had was also applied to the STI. The WRX STI weighed 1,270 kg (2,800 lb). There were 1000 WRX Type RA STI Version 5 Limited cars and each had a four-month waiting period. The interior was also changed slightly, including seats and steering. This model was also produced as a 555 limited edition.

GC8G (9/1999-9/2000)
1999–2000 Subaru Impreza WRX sedan (GC8G)

The last version of the GC WRX was introduced on September 1999. There is no change in the mechanical specifications. Added features are newly designed alloy wheels, color-coded mirrors and door handles, remote central locking, intermittent wipers with a timer and map lights.

The European WRX turbo model received further upgrades in the form of more parts from the STI range. The front brakes became Subaru branded four-pot calipers with 294 mm (11.6 in) discs, the wheels having become 16-inch lightweight alloys. The STI 4 high-level wing was fitted to the sedan, and STI-style front bucket seats and firmer suspension were also fitted. The "Phase 2" engine now fitted developed 160 kW (218 PS; 215 bhp), an increase of 5 kW (7 PS; 7 bhp) over the previous model.

To counter the grey imports of high-performance Japanese variants, Subaru UK commissioned Prodrive to produce a limited edition of 1,000 two-door cars in Sonic Blue, called the WRX "P1". Released in March 2000, they were taken from the STI Type R lines and used for the P1. The car was the only coupé version of the WRX STI GC chassis to receive ABS. In order to allow for ABS, the DCCD was dropped. Engine output was boosted to 276 bhp (206 kW; 280 PS), and the suspension optimised for British roads. Options were available from Subaru consisting of four-piston front brake calipers, electric Recaro seats, 18-inch wheels and a P1 stamped backbox. The P1, or Prodrive One, is echoed in the name of the Prodrive P2 concept car.

Likewise, for the STI, most of the changes were cosmetic with the fender being sculpted to be more aggressive. There were 2,000 WRX STI Version 6 Limited model produced, plus 1000 of the WRX STI Type R coupe Version 6 Limited, 2,000 of the WRX STI RA Version 6 Limited, and also 500 of the WRX STI Version 6 Limited hatchback models.

In 2000, STI released the WRX STI "S201", of which 300 were produced. This series is a limited production series that sports an engine output of 224 kW (305 PS) as special variants were excluded from the gentlemen's agreement. The car was decked with nearly every single part from the STI catalogue. The S201 was a sedan that sported the only body-kitted S-series WRX STI. Weighing in at 1,270 kg (2,800 lb), the S201 had a tri-planar wing and a massive front airsplitter. The entire suspension was composed of STI parts.

Second generation (2000–2007) – GD, GG[edit]

Second generation
2001-2002 Subaru Impreza (GDE MY02) RS sedan (2011-06-15) 01.jpg
Pre-facelift Subaru Impreza RS sedan (Australia)
Overview
Also calledSubaru Outback Sport
Saab 9-2X (2005–2006)
Production2000–2007 2001–2007 (United States)
Body and chassis
Body style4-door sedan (GD)
5-door wagon (GG)
Powertrain
Engine1.5 L EJ15 H4
1.6 L EJ16 H4
2.0 L EJ20 H4
2.0 L EJ20 H4-T
2.5 L EJ25 H4
2.5 L EJ25 H4-T
Transmission4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
6-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,525 mm (99.4 in)
Length4,415 mm (173.8 in)
WidthSedan: 1,730 mm (68.1 in)
Wagon: 1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height1,425 mm (56.1 in)
Curb weight1,390 kg (3,064.4 lb)

Subaru introduced the "New Age" Impreza to Japan in August 2000. Larger in size compared to the previous iteration, the sedan increased its width by 40 millimetres (1.6 in), while the hatchback notably increased by just 5 millimetres (0.2 in)—placing the two variants in different Japanese classification categories. The coupe body style from the first generation did not reappear for the new series, and the off-road appearance package that included contrasting-colored bumpers did carry over forward. Marketed as a separate model line, this North America-only variant was, as before, badged the Outback Sport.

Naturally aspirated flat-four (boxer) engines comprised the 1.5-liter EJ15, the 1.6-liter EJ16, the 2.0-liter EJ20, and the 2.5-liter EJ25. Turbocharged versions of the 2.0- and 2.5-liter engines were offered in the WRX and WRX STI models. STI models featured a more powerful 2.0-liter (2.5-liter outside of the Japanese market) turbocharged engine. WRX models featured a 2.0-liter turbocharged boxer engine until 2005, after which they switched to the 2.5-liter turbocharged engine.

At the Australian Wheels Car of the Year, the car won the overall COTY award in 2000. At the American MotorWeek Drivers' Choice Awards, the Impreza won the Best Sport Sedan in 2002 and the Best Performance Car in 2004.

Saab 9-2x[edit]

Subaru manufactured a badge engineered variant, marketed by Saab as the 9-2x for the North American market (2005-2006) in solely the wagon bodystyle.[13] The 9-2X received redesigned front and rear styling as well as other interior, acoustic and technical modifications.

WRX[edit]

As with the first generation, the turbocharged STI variants were available in numerous specifications with a myriad of limited edition variants sold. Subaru issued yearly updates to the STI, tweaking cosmetics and equipment levels, and also improving performance and handling.

Third generation (2007–2014) – GE, GV, GH, GR[edit]

Third generation
2007-2009 Subaru Impreza sedan -- 03-22-2010.jpg
Pre-facelift Subaru Impreza sedan (US)
Overview
Also calledSubaru Outback Sport
Subaru Impresa B3 (Israel)
Production2007–2011
2007–2014 (WRX)
Body and chassis
Body style4-door sedan (narrow, GE)
4-door sedan (wide, GV)
5-door hatchback (narrow, GH)
5-door hatchback (wide, GR)
Powertrain
Engine1.5 L EL15 H4 (gasoline)
2.0 L EJ20 H4 (gasoline)
2.0 L EJ20 H4-T (gasoline)
2.0 L EE20 H4-T (diesel)
2.5 L EJ25 H4 (gasoline)
2.5 L EJ25 H4-T (gasoline)
Transmission4-speed automatic
5-speed automatic
5-speed manual
6-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,620 mm (103.1 in)
LengthSedan: 4,580 mm (180.3 in)
Hatchback: 4,415 mm (173.8 in)
Width1,740 mm (68.5 in)
Height1,475 mm (58.1 in)
Outback Sport: 1,481 mm (58.3 in)
Curb weight1,394 kg (3,073 lb)
Hatch (pre-facelift)
Sedan (pre-facelift)
Hatch (facelift)

Subaru revealed the third generation Impreza at the New York Auto Show on 2 April 2007—both the standard naturally aspirated Impreza and turbocharged WRX versions were revealed.[14] The 3rd generation of the high performance WRX STI debuted in October 2007. Initially, the new Impreza was offered as a five-door hatchback (designated GH), with the four-door sedan (designated GE) introduced in 2008. This generation also saw the discontinuation of the wagon, replaced by a new 5-door hatchback body style. The wide-body variants of the hatchback and sedan are labelled GR and GV, respectively. Dimensionally, this version is wider by 56 mm (2.2 in) and increases track by approximately 38 millimetres (1.5 in). Although first adopted by the STI, the wide-body platform was later utilized by the standard WRX range.

The third series of the Impreza is slightly longer, wider and offers a longer wheelbase. Two Subaru traditions were discontinued with the new model: the parking light switch atop the steering column is no longer present, and for the first time the windows have frames to improve noise, vibration, and harshness levels.[15] Subaru made an effort to control the weight of the new chassis. Despite the increase in size, stiffness, and safety equipment, the car's weight is similar to the previous generation. The front suspension uses a MacPherson strut setup, while the rear features a new double wishbone suspension.

Flat-four gasoline engines in the naturally aspirated tune comprised a 1.5-liter EL15 producing 80 kW (107 hp), the 2.0-liter EJ20 with 110 kW (148 hp) and 196 N⋅m (145 lb⋅ft), and the 2.5-liter EJ25 with 127 kW (170 hp). Turbocharged versions of the two latter engines were fitted to the WRX and WRX STI versions as discussed later. Subaru introduced a flat-four diesel engine, designated EE20 at the 2008 Paris Motor Show. Sales began in several European countries from early 2009, with the 2.0-liter turbo diesel engine of 112 kW (150 hp). Two models are available as of July 2009, 2.0 TD and 2.0 TD Sport.

In the Japanese domestic market the range comprised the 1.5-liter 15S, plus the 2.0-liter 20S and turbocharged S-GT, both using the 2.0-liter engine. Japanese dealers retailed the hatchback initially, with the sedan body variant arriving in autumn 2008 as the Impreza Anesis. This generation represented the first time that the Impreza was no longer in compliance with Japanese government regulations concerning exterior dimensions. Japanese specification models are fitted with an engine start button.

Subaru Australia released the third generation hatchback in September 2007. Naturally aspirated 2.0-liter versions fell under the R, RX and RS trims, with the turbocharged 2.5-liter reserved for the WRX. The sedan body style came later in 2008, paralleling the hatchbacks's model range.

North America received only the 2.5-liter models. Released to the United States market for the 2008 model year, the model range consists of the 2.5i, the turbocharged WRX, and the Outback Sport that Subaru marketed as a separate model line. The naturally aspirated models are electronically limited from surpassing 190 km/h (120 mph). For 2009, a new 2.5i GT trim arrived to the market with the turbocharged 167 kW; 227 PS (224 hp) engine from the 2008 model WRX (this 2009 WRX received a boost in power). While automatic transmission was not available with the WRX, the 2.5i GT did gain an optional four-speed automatic. In the Canadian market, the base Impreza 2.5i received upgrades for the 2009 model year, including rear disc brakes, electronic stability control, and body-colored door handles—features previously only found on the 2.5i Sport and more expensive trims.

In Israel, the Impreza is denoted as the B3, and three styles are offered: the B3 1.5, with a 1.5-liter engine, the B3 2.0 and the B3 2.0 Sport, both with the 2.0-liter engine. Four-door and five-door models are available for each engine type, ranging from the basic R class, to the medium RX and top RXI class.

Indonesian-specification versions were initially only available as the hatchback style, with the sedan arriving in 2011. The 1.5R and 2.0R could be ordered with a dual-range five-speed manual, or four-speed automatic transmission. However, in Singapore and Thailand, the Impreza 1.5 R, 2.0 R, and 2.5 WRX are also offered as four-door sedan. The WRX STI trim in Singapore, Indonesia and Thailand can be ordered with the dual-range six-speed manual, or five-speed automatic if WRX STI A-Line is available.

Safety of the car has been increased with range wide inclusion of electronic stability control as standard in many markets. When the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) in the US crash-tested the five-door Impreza, the organization granted the Impreza the highest ranking available.[16] ANCAP in Australia tested the Impreza where it scored 34.66 out of 37 points, or the full five-star rating in the occupant safety crash test; the Impreza also scored a four-star pedestrian safety test.

The Impreza range received a facelift in late 2009 for the 2010 model year, gaining a new grille insert.

WRX[edit]

Pre-facelift Subaru Impreza WRX hatchback (US)
Pre-facelift Subaru Impreza WRX hatchback (US)
Facelift Subaru Impreza WRX sedan (Canada)
Facelift Subaru Impreza WRX sedan (Australia)

Subaru debuted the turbocharged WRX performance variant of the third generation series alongside the mainstream naturally aspirated models on 2 April 2007. For this generation, most markets adopted the abbreviated name "WRX", although the Japanese, North American and UK markets retained the full "Subaru Impreza WRX" title. The 2.5-liter EJ255 engine is largely unchanged internally. Changes in the engine compartment consist primarily of a fourth generation Legacy GT style intake manifold and intercooler. The TD04 turbo remains from the previous generation, however it has been adjusted to fit the new intake design. Power output consists of 169 kW (227 hp) and 320 N⋅m (236 lb⋅ft) from its 2.5-liter engine. It was offered in either a five-speed manual, or 4 speed automatic. The five-speed manual transmission was changed to the same found in the fourth-generation Legacy GT. The rear limited slip differential has been discarded in exchange for the new VDC (Vehicle Dynamics Control) system. The weight of the car also has been reduced and gives the WRX a 0 to 100 km/h (0 to 62 mph) time of 5.8 seconds. In contrast, curb weight of the standard Impreza model is around 27.2 kg (60 lb) heavier. For the US market, the WRX was offered in "base", Premium, and Limited trim levels. In Australia, the WRX is available as a sedan or hatchback. An optional premium package adds the satellite navigation with DVD player and 7-inch screen, leather upholstery and a sunroof.

In response to criticism that the third generation WRX suspension is too soft, and needing to keep on par with rival car companies new releases, Subaru issued several changes in 2008 for the 2009 model year, known in the UK as the WRX-S. The EJ255 engine received an output boost to 198 kW (265 hp) and 331 N⋅m (244 lb⋅ft) of torque by swapping the previous TD04 turbocharger to an IHI VF52. This led to the car now achieving a 0–60 time of just 4.7 seconds, as tested by Car and Driver.[17] In addition, the updated model received altered springs/struts, sway bars, and Dunlop summer tires to improve handling. Exterior cosmetic changes included the 2008 WRX Premium aero package, STi spoiler (Hatchback only), updated grill with WRX badge, and darker Gunmetal colored wheels as standard equipment. Interior changes consisted of aluminum pedals, silver trim around the shifter, red stitching on the shift boot and seats, and a red WRX logo embroidered on the driver and passenger seat.

Further changes in 2010 for year model 2011 saw the WRX gain the wide-body shell from the STI, as well as the addition of quad muffler tips with diffuser. The new model gains 15 kilograms (33 lb). Firmer rear sub-frame bushings and wider 17-inch wheels contribute to improved traction.

WRX STI[edit]

Pre-facelift Subaru Impreza WRX STI hatchback
Facelift Subaru Impreza WRX STI sedan

Debuting at the Tokyo Auto Show in October 2007, WRX STI versions build further on the standard WRX cars. The STI available in Japan is fitted with the 2.0-liter EJ207 engine with twin scroll turbocharger generating 227 kW (308 PS) at 6,500 RPM and 422 N⋅m (311 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4,400 RPM. Export markets receive the higher-displacement 2.5-liter EJ257 unit with the single-scroll VF48 turbocharger rated at 221 kW (300 PS) and 407 N⋅m (300 lb⋅ft) of torque. The turbocharger directs air through a larger top-mount intercooler which has lost the red "STI" that was on previous generations. The STI (3,395 lbs) is heavier than the WRX (3,174- 3,240 lbs depending on trim) due to a more robust transmission, rear differential and other chassis reinforcements.

Like the standard WRX, the third generation model was shortened to "Subaru WRX STI", with the Japanese markets notably abstaining from this convention. To differentiate the STI from the regular WRX, Subaru opted to manufacture the STI with a wider body and therefore track—as noted by the flared wheel arches. Furthermore, Subaru utilized aluminum suspension components for the STI. Electronic modifications include a multi-mode electronic stability control with "normal", "traction", and "off" modes; Subaru Intelligent-Drive (SI-Drive) with three modes: "intelligent", "sport", and "sport sharp"; and multi-mode driver controlled center differential (DCCD). The DCCD is a combined mechanical and solenoid operated limited-slip differential which enables the driver to switch between manual and automated centre differential locking. The locking strength can vary from fully open to fully locked [18] with a 40/60 front/rear open torque bias.


The STI hatchback was released in the United States in March 2008.

A Subaru Impreza WRX STI Group R4 was entered in 2012 FIA Asia-Pacific Rally.[19]

In 2010 for the 2011 model year, the WRX STI became available as a four-door. The most noticeable feature on the STI sedan is a large rear spoiler. Australia also received the 2011 model year STI as a sedan to complement the hatchback released in 2008. Australian STIs were offered in standard form, plus the STI spec.R. An electric sunroof, leather upholstery, satellite navigation, and BBS wheels are standard on the spec.R, while Recaro seats are optional.

A facelift of the STI arrived in 2010 for the 2011 model year, distinguished by a new front bumper. Tweaks to the suspension—stiffer springs, larger anti-roll bars, new pillow ball bushings on the front lower arms, as well as wider standard tires—had the effect of improved handling.[20]

Subaru WRX STI Takumi (2008)

It is a concept vehicle based on the Impreza WRX STI hatchback with upgraded springs and shocks, revised suspension bits, lightweight 12-spoke wheels, undisclosed engine tweaks and a slightly reworked exterior.

The vehicle was unveiled in Motorsport Japan 2008.[21]

20th Anniversary Edition WRX STI (2008)

It is a limited (300 units) version of the Impreza WRX STI hatchback for the Japanese market, with a new set of coilovers with retuned springs and shocks, thicker front and rear anti-roll bars, 18-inch aluminum wheels, white body colour, black lip spoiler, Recaro leather seats with red stitching, a commemorative plaque on the center console, new set of door sills.[22]

WRX STI spec C (2009)

It is a limited (900 units) version of the Impreza WRX STI for the Japanese market. It included engine, suspension, and body parts improvement over the regular model. The ball bearing on the turbine axle was modified to reduce friction, the ECU retuned for better response, and an intercooler water spray fitted. The cross member, suspension and power steering were also improved for better handling and body rigidity. An aluminum hood, laminar window glass, and a lighter battery helped to reduce weight.

WRX STI A-Line (2009)

It is a version of the WRX STI with a five-speed semi-automatic, steering wheel-mounted paddle shifter. The vehicle went on sale initially in Japan and Singapore,[23] and later also in Hong Kong, and later in Thailand, Indonesia, and Australia in 2011.[24]

WRX STI 330S / WRX STI Type UK, WRX STI 380S

They are versions of the Impreza WRX STI for the UK market, with specific tuning by Prodrive. The WRX STI 330S includes increased engine power to 330 PS (243 kW; 325 hp). The WRX STI 380S includes increased engine power to 380 PS (279 kW; 375 hp), new wheels, an upgraded body kit. The vehicles were unveiled at the British Auto Show.

Subaru announced, on 10 September 2008, that the 380S variation would not be produced, due to homologation and specification difficulties. However, the regular 330S model did enter production as the "WRX STI Type UK".

WRX STI R205

The R205 was a complete car from STI; the "R" signifying the "road". Based on the Impreza WRX STI, the model utilised technology developed through STI's participation in the 24 Hours Nürburgring Race to the full. As the name implies, focus was given to the car's performance on public roads in its development in order to create the best road-going car possible. As for the engine, maximum output was increased to 320PS and the maximum torque to 44.0 kg-m by the introduction of such components as a special ball bearing twin scroll turbo. In addition, Brembo 13-inch discs and calipers were installed on the front and rear brakes. With regard to the exterior, aerodynamic devices including STI front and rear under spoilers were fitted. In order to further enhance the "flexible yet elegant driving feel" that STI aims for, a newly developed Flexible Draw Stiffener was installed along with STI dampers/springs and Flexible Tower Bar. As a result, the car could achieve exceptional vehicle manoeuvrability, which made the car react smoothly to the driver's intention.[25]

WRX STI Special Edition (MY 2010)

It is a version of the Impreza WRX STI for the North American market, similar to the Japanese STI Spec C. It included stiffer suspension and a thicker stabilizer bar for better handling, seven twin-spokes gray 18-inch alloy wheels, downgraded manual air conditioning, a four-speaker stereo instead of climate control and 10-speaker premium audio on the regular WRX STI.

WRX STI tS, WRX STI A-Line tS (2010)

It is a limited (400 units) version of the Impreza WRX STI sedan for the Japanese market.[26]

Cosworth WRX STI CS400

The Cosworth WRX STI CS400 is a limited (75 units) version of the Impreza WRX STI for the UK market. It includes a Cosworth-tuned version of the standard STI engine rated at 400 PS (294 kW; 395 hp),[27] an upper mesh grille with piano black finish on the top frame, modified front bumper with "Cosworth" emblem on the lower mesh grille, 18-inch alloy wheels, lip front spoiler, rear waist spoiler, Bilstein struts, Eibach springs, AP Racing's larger diameter ventilated front brakes with six-piston calipers, Recaro leather seats with "Cosworth" label, piano black center console panel, "Cosworth"-badged floor mats.

The "Cosworth WRX STI CS400" was announced in late May 2010.[28]

WRX STI S206, WRX STI S206 NBR CHALLENGE PACKAGE (2011–2012)

It is a limited (300 units) version of the Impreza WRX STI sedan for the Japanese market.[29][30]

WRX STI A-Line type S (2011)

It is a version of the Impreza WRX STI A-Line 4-door sedan and 5-door hatchback for the Japanese market.[31]

Impreza G4 STI (concept; 2012)

It is a version of the Japanese model of the Subaru Impreza (4th Gen) G4 2.0i-S with: STI Front Under Spoiler, STI Sport Muffler (Prototype), STI Side Under Spoiler (Prototype), STI Flexible Tower Bar, STI Rear Trunk Spoiler (Prototype), STI Low Down Spring (Prototype), STI Skirt Lip, STI 18-inch Aluminum Wheel, (Prototype), STI Shift Knob – CVT (Prototype), STI Stainless Steel Mesh Brake Hose (Prototype). The vehicle was unveiled at the 2012 Tokyo Auto Salon.[32]

Impreza WRX STI Group R4 (2012)

The Impreza WRX STI Group R4 is a race car version of the Subaru Impreza WRX STI sedan built for the Intercontinental Rally Challenge. The vehicle was unveiled at the 2012 Tokyo Auto Salon,[32] and was also shown at the 2013 Tokyo Auto Salon.[33][34]

WRX STI, WRX STI spec C, STI A-Line type S Package (2012)

Change to Japanese models of the Impreza WRX STI sedan and 5-door hatchback include:

  • New design 18-inch alloy wheels from the WRX STI, WRX STI A-Line
  • available A-line equipment options including premium package (premium tan interior, BBS 18-inch forged alloy wheels) for 6-speed manual transmission models
  • trunk garnish in body colour (4-door sedan)

Change to Japanese models of the Impreza WRX STI spec C included:

  • 4-door sedan model available
  • option deletions including rear wiper, fog lamp, large rear spoiler on 17-inch cars (4-door sedan)
  • 17-inch cars include full auto air conditioning manufacturer option
  • 17-inch cars include head rest and 3-point seat belt option at rear centre seat

Change to Japanese models of the Impreza WRX STI A-Line type S Package include:

  • Large rear spoiler (4-door sedan)
  • exclusive bucket type front seat in Alcantara/leather, red stitching
  • floor console lid and door arm rest in Alcantara
  • BBS 18-inch forged alloy wheels
  • Recaro bucket type front seat manufacturer option
  • Brembo 17-inch front brake discs with 4-piston calipers, 2-piston rear calipers manufacturer option

The vehicles went on sale on 3 July 2012.[35]

WRX STI tS Type RA, WRX STI tS Type RA NBR CHALLENGE PACKAGE (2013)

It is a limited (300 units) version of the Impreza WRX STI sedan for the Japanese market.[36][37]

In 2010, the Impreza won the AMI Insurance performance car of the year award.[38]

Fourth generation (2011–2016) – GJ, GP, VA[edit]

Fourth generation
Subaru Impreza 2.0i Sport 2013 (16054304524) (cropped).jpg
Overview
Also calledSubaru XV
Production2011–2016
2014–2017 (XV)
2014–present (WRX)
Body and chassis
Body style4-door sedan (GJ)
5-door hatchback (GP)
4-door sedan (VA)
RelatedSubaru Levorg
Powertrain
Engine1.6 L H4 (gasoline)
2.0 L H4 (gasoline)
2.0 L H4-T (diesel)
2.0 L H4-T (gasoline)
2.5 L H4-T (gasoline)
Transmission5-speed manual
6-speed manual (WRX)
CVT automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,644 mm (104.1 in)
XV: 2,635 mm (103.7 in)
LengthSedan: 4,580 mm (180.3 in)
Hatchback: 4,414 mm (173.8 in)
XV: 4,450 mm (175.2 in)
Width1,740 mm (68.5 in)
XV: 1,750 mm (68.9 in)
Height1,465 mm (57.7 in)
XV: 1,570 mm (61.8 in)
Curb weight1,320 kg (2,910 lb)
Hatchback
Sedan

Four-door sedan or five-door hatchback versions of the fourth-generation Impreza were unveiled in 2011 at the New York International Auto Show.[39] The car went on sale in late 2011 as a 2012 model year. There is also a bigger station wagon with different bodywork, called the Subaru Levorg. It was first shown at the 2013 Tokyo Motor Show and went on sale in April 2014.

Early US models include a choice of a 2.0-liter DOHC (148 hp) engine, five-speed manual or Lineartronic CVT with paddle shifting six-speed manual mode. Trim package included base 2.0i, 2.0i Premium, and 2.0i Limited.[40][41][42]

Japan models went on sale on 20 December 2011. a choice of four-door sedan (as Impreza G4) or five-door hatchback body (as Impreza Sport), 1.6-liter DOHC FB16 (1.6i, 1.6i-L) or 2.0-liter DOHC FB20 (2.0i, 2.0i EyeSight, 2.0i-S, 2.0i-S EyeSight), five-speed manual or Lineartronic continuously variable transmission (CVT).[43][44] The smaller 1.6-liter engine is offered in Japan so as to reduce the annual Japanese road tax obligation.

Remaining nearly the same size as the previous series, the new model is lighter and more fuel efficient, plus is claimed to be better packaged. The 2012 Impreza received longer wheelbase that provides more interior room for passengers. The Impreza hatchback rear head-and-legroom is impressive; two adults can ride in the back of the Impreza with comfort. Whereas, in the hatchback, the rear 65/35 split seatbacks fold down, offering 52.4 cu. ft. of cargo space.[45][46]

Higher quality materials are fitted throughout the interior, and due to its larger exterior dimensions as defined by Japanese government regulations, the Impreza is an upmarket product in Japan. It is now almost exactly the same dimensions as the first and second Subaru Legacy (1990–1999). The 2015–2016 models had an updated grille, bumper, side mirrors and increased sound deadening.

The third generation high-performance WRX variants will continue on in production until new versions will be released in early 2014. As of 2014, Subaru has decided to move away from marketing the WRX and WRX STI under the Impreza name, but the WRX and WRX STI are simply performance trims of the Impreza with higher output engines, firmer suspension, larger brakes, slightly resculpted body panels, lowered ride height and larger intakes. Subaru had promised to completely move the WRX and STi off the Impreza chassis and body to create a standalone model, but they instead chose to simply alter the Impreza's body, and chassis and remove the Impreza name. Subaru decided to not produce a WRX or WRX STi wagon as had been previously offered. The wagon made up approximately 50 percent of US WRX and WRX STI sales.[47]

In addition to the regular models, Subaru also offered the Impreza Sport Hatchback in the Premium and Limited trim levels. The so-called American Impreza Sport (not to be confused with the JDM regular hatchback with the same name) has the rugged style with side spoilers, roof rack, different style alloys, and availability of two-tone colors. However it also has the normal ground clearance, unlike the new XV. For the Premium model grade, buyers can choose 5 speed manual or Lineartronic CVT, while the Limited is only available with CVT.

EyeSight consists of two cameras with one on each side of the interior rear view mirror, that use human like stereoscopic vision to judge distances and generally keep tabs on the driver. The system can help maintain a safe distance on the highway, a lane departure warning system, a wake up call when traffic lights change, and even keeps an eye out for pedestrians. Autonomous cruise control system has been integrated into the EyeSight feature as a driver safety aid. This feature is initially available only in Japan, but was expanded to US models of other vehicles, beginning with 2013 Legacy and Outback models.[48]

XV / Crosstrek[edit]

Interior

Subaru demonstrated the Subaru XV concept vehicle in 2011. Based on a raised suspension version of the Subaru Impreza 5-door hatchback, the XV concept offered aluminum alloy wheels with silver spokes, black wheels and clear blue center caps; yellow-green body colour, silvery white leather interior upholstery at seats, mesh in selected interior areas with yellow/green piping, multifunction display with navigation, car audio, and vehicle information in the center panel; EyeSight driving assist with LCD monitor between the two combination meters and stereo cameras, 2.0-liter four cylinder Horizontally-Opposed DOHC engine, Lineartronic CVT, and 245/45 ZR19 tires. The vehicle was unveiled at Auto Shanghai 2011.[49][50]

The production version of the XV was unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show, and later at the 20th Indonesia International Motor Show.[51][52]

Markets[edit]

Malaysian production of the Subaru XV shipped as complete knock-down kits began at Tan Chong Motor Assemblies Sdn. Bhd (TCMA) in Malaysia in January 2013, with annual production of 5000 units destined for sale in Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.[51][52][53] Production at Tan Chong began on 20 December 2012.[54][55]

Badged Impreza XV in Japan, this model went on sale in Japan on 25 September 2012.[56] Early models include a 2.0-liter boxer engine, and Lineartronic Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT).[57]

Early European models include a choice of 1.6-litre petrol, 2.0-liter petrol, 2.0-liter diesel engines; five-speed manual (1.6 petrol), six-speed manual (2.0 petrol, 2.0 diesel), Lineartronic CVT (1.6 petrol, 2.0 petrol) transmission, and idle engine start stop (standard in petrol engine models, optional in diesel engine models).[58][59]

In North America, the XV was sold as the Subaru XV Crosstrek and was unveiled at the 2012 New York International Auto Show. The US model went on sale in 2012 as a 2013 model year vehicle. Early models include a 148-horsepower 2.0-liter boxer engine, five-speed manual or available second-generation Lineartronic Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT).[60][61] In the United States starting with the 2016 model year, Subaru dropped the XV from its name and sold it as simply the Crosstrek. An updated model based on the fifth-generation Impreza became available in 2018.[62]

XV submodels[edit]

XV Sport Concept, 2013 Tokyo
XV Hybrid, showing external distinctions
XV sub-models

The Subaru XV Sport Concept (2013) is a version of the Subaru XV with Front Bumper (Prototype), Bilstein Suspension (Prototype), LED Driving Lights (Prototype), STI Flexible Tower Bar (Prototype), Side Under Spoiler (Prototype), STI Sport Muffler (Prototype), Fender Arch Protector (Prototype), Enkei Designed 17-inch Aluminum Wheels (Prototype), Recaro Front Seat (Prototype), Brembo Brake & Drilled Rotor (Prototype). The concept vehicle was unveiled at the 2013 Tokyo Auto Salon.[34]

The Subaru XV Crosstrek Hybrid (2013) is a version of the Subaru XV Crosstrek with permanent magnet AC synchronous motor rated 10 kW (14 PS; 13 hp) and 65 N⋅m (48 lb⋅ft), Lineartronic CVT, Nickel hydride batteries, and 225/55 R17 tires. Externally, "HYBRID" badges have been applied to the front doors and on the rear liftgate, and unique rear lights and wheels are exclusive to the hybrid version. The vehicle was Subaru's first production hybrid after a series of concepts stretching back to the 2003 B9 Scrambler, and was unveiled at the 2013 New York International Auto Show.[63][64] Compared to the conventionally-powered XV Crosstrek, a new gauge cluster and keyless start have been added to the hybrid, which gains approximately 300 pounds (140 kg) in weight. The 0.6 kW-hr battery (weighing 55 pounds (25 kg) by itself) takes the space previously occupied by the spare tire, minimizing the loss of cargo space. Using the battery alone, range is estimated at 1 mile (1.6 km) at 25 mph (40 km/h). The 10 kW generator-motor is built into the Lineartronic CVT, similar to the "turbo-parallel-hybrid" system first shown on the Subaru B5 TPH concept, and is intended to be used primarily for acceleration assistance and regenerative braking. Fuel consumption is improved by approximately 11%, from 28 mpg‑US (8.4 L/100 km; 34 mpg‑imp) (combined city/highway) to 31 miles per US gallon (7.6 L/100 km; 37 mpg‑imp).[65]

WRX (VA)[edit]

Subaru WRX (VA; Australia)
Subaru WRX (VA; Australia)
Subaru WRX interior (Japan)

For the VA series WRX released in 2014 for the 2015 model year, Subaru took a different approach with the model when compared to past generations. This time, the Impreza name was dropped in all markets in which the new model is named simply as the WRX, as had been the case in North America with the previous model, while in Japan it was sold as the WRX S4. The body design also took a stronger departure from the Impreza donor model than in the past. The general WRX profile/silhouette was carried over from the Impreza, as were the front doors, trunk lid, and interior. However, the entire front end bodywork plus the rear quarter panels were unique to the WRX. The rear doors received a subtle reskin with an upwards kink and revised character line, but retained an otherwise identical shape.

This model is the first of the WRX line to deviate from the EJ-series engine. It uses the new 2.0-liter FA20F engine, which has direct injection and a twin-scroll turbocharger. On all previous WRXs the turbocharger was located near the right-hand side of the firewall, close to the third cylinder. With the new FA20F, Subaru fitted the turbocharger at the front of the car, close to the serpentine accessory belts. There is a robust aluminum skid plate that protects the underside of the turbocharger. Mounting the turbo lower in the engine bay helps reduce the car's center of gravity to 19.5 in (500 mm).[66] The FA20's high compression ratio of 10.6:1 combined with its 68° intake and 54° exhaust cam phasing range allow it to produce excellent off-boost efficiency as well as a wide torque peak.[67]

Behind the wheel, the most noticeable difference between the EJ and FA engines is the latter's broader torque curve. The 2.5L EJ produced a maximum of 240 lb⋅ft (330 N⋅m) at 4,000 rpm, while the new 2.0L FA peaks twice as soon (258 lb⋅ft (350 N⋅m) at 2,000 rpm).[66] Less obvious is a 3 hp (2.2 kW) increase over the old engine; the FA is rated at 268 hp (200 kW) at 5,600 rpm.[66]

From 2009 through 2014 the WRX's engine was mated exclusively to a five-speed manual. That changes for 2015. In base trim, the sole transmission is a six-speed manual, the first ever available in a non-STi WRX while the Limited and Premium trim levels add the option of a continuously variable transmission (CVT) with paddle shifters for the first time.

When left in Intelligent mode (the most frugal of its three settings) the CVT returns better fuel economy than the manual. In Sport and Sport# modes it shifts more aggressively, mimicking a six and eight-speed gearbox, respectively, but its acceleration still lags that of the manual transmission.

The new powertrain gives the 2015 WRX a different character than the car it replaces, but its acceleration times are virtually unchanged. The biggest performance gains come from the 2015 redesigned chassis. Structural stiffness and spring rates are up 40 to 60 percent, raising roadholding numbers by about 0.80 G.

The 2015 WRX has been met with mixed reviews by automotive journalists. It placed second to the 2015 Volkswagen GTI in separate comparison tests in the September 2014 issues of Car and Driver and Motor Trend. In general, it bests its sub-$30,000 competition in nearly every performance metric, but suffers from a cheaper interior and a less comfortable ride. Its sharp styling is usually listed as polarizing, too, although the bulk of criticism in that area is based on the lack of a hatchback model.

Performance numbers vary from publication to publication. Testing from Car and Driver, Road & Track and Motor Trend has produced 0–60 mph (97 km/h) times as fast as 4.8 seconds and as slow as 5.5 seconds. It runs the quarter-mile anywhere from 13.6 sec at 102 mph (164 km/h) to 14.0 sec at 98 mph (158 km/h). (CVT-equipped WRXs are about a half-second slower to 60 mph and through the quarter-mile.) On the skidpad, roadholding numbers range from 0.92 G to 0.96 G. Braking from 70 mph (110 km/h) results in stops as short as 156–166 feet.

In base trim, the car starts at $27,090 (including destination) and weighs 3,267 lbs. Limited and Premium trim levels add more comfort and convenience, such as heated seats and LED headlights, but not more performance. Starting in 2016 the Premium and Limited trim levels also come with 18" wheels, similar to the last generation STI Enkei wheels.

WRX STI[edit]

Subaru WRX STI Type S (United Kingdom)
Subaru WRX STI (United Kingdom)
Interior

This model retains the same engine as the previous generation STI, which is a 2.5-liter EJ257 with dual AVCS however with modifications to the ECU which have increased fuel economy slightly, and has given a 6 kW (8.0 hp) boost in power to 227 kW (305 HP). Torque, however, has dropped from 407 N⋅m (300 lb⋅ft) to 394 N⋅m (291 lb⋅ft) at 4,000 rpm and top speed is now 160 mph (258 km/h).

There are also reports that along with the ECU changes, the rev limit was raised to 7,100 rpm to support the power increase at the upper rev range to support a stronger top end.[citation needed] It also retains a hydraulic power steering system as opposed to the WRX's new electric-assisted rack. The steering rack was changed to a quicker 13:1 ratio, as used in the Japan delivered vehicles, as opposed to the 15:1 ratio of the previous models. Also, the 2.0-liter EJ207 that is standard for Japanese STIs was retained specifically for the Japanese market in the new 2015 WRX STI.

A sound tube device, also seen on the BRZ, has also been fitted to the air intake system to channel certain induction and turbo frequencies into the cabin, reports show this is only fitted to vehicles in some markets. In Europe, Australia, Canada and Japan, the STI is available with and without the wing. Starting in 2016 the US version of the limited STI was also made available with or without the wing.

In 2013, British rally champion Mark Higgins lapped the Isle of Man TT course in 17 minutes, 35.139 seconds.[68]

In 2015 Subaru released the WRX STI Launch Edition that came in World Rally Blue Pearl exterior paint combined with gold-painted, 18-inch, BBS alloy wheels. Only 1000 Launch Editions were released in North America.

In 2015 Subaru released the WRX STI S207, limited to 400 units sold only for the Japanese market. The S207 used the 2 liter EJ20 engine which was tuned to 328 PS (323.5 hp, 241 kW) and 318 lb.-ft. of torque (431 Nm). Upgrades also include a quicker-ratio 11-to-1 steering rack (compared to 13-to-1 for the stock unit). STI-spec Recaro front bucket seats, Bilstein's adjustable DampMatic II front suspension, and drilled rotors clamped by Brembo monoblock six-piston front calipers and four-pot rear calipers. Up to 200 of the units could be equipped with the NBR Challenge Package, which features a carbon-fibre wing and a badge commemorating Subaru's class victory at the 2015 Nürburgring 24 Hours.

In 2016 Subaru released the WRX STI Hyper Blue special edition series, with production limited to 700 units for the United States. The new color covers the outside, and it is also offset with gloss black 18-inch BBS wheels, badges and mirror caps. Blue stitching brings the color into the interior, and Subaru's seven-inch navigation system with a nine-speaker stereo is standard for this version. In Australia, Subaru announced the WRX Premium Hyper Blue special edition with the CVT automatic will be limited to 200 units targeted to customers, and WRX STI Premium with the six-speed gearbox will be limited to just 50 units.

As a way of celebrating 30 years of the STI nameplate (in 2018), Subaru offered a limited edition WRX STi Diamond Edition which was developed by Subaru Southern Africa’s technical team making it exclusively available to the region with only 30 being produced. The WRX STi Diamond Edition is powered by a fettled 2.5-litre, high-boost turbocharged Boxer engine that offers 260 kW (350 hp) @ 4 500 rpm and 464 N⋅m (342 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4 000 rpm. The remapping of the Electronic Control Unit and the fitment of a performance exhaust system has contributed to improved performance. A new engine brace has been fitted for better stability and balance. The WRX STi Diamond Edition rides 20mm lower than the standard WRX STi and the body kit, in a High Viz yellow further lowers the front-end by 10 mm. The spoiler vane gets a stainless steel STI badge unique to this limited edition model and high gloss black Diamond Edition badges appear on the sides of the rear wing. The WRX STi Diamond Edition rides on 19-inch lightweight and darkened aluminium Y-design alloy wheels.


In 2013, the Impreza won the IIHS Top Safety Pick+ award.[69] In 2014, the car won the National Business Review Sports Car of the year award in New Zealand.[70]

Fifth generation (2016–present)-GK, GT[edit]

Fifth generation
2017 Subaru Impreza (GT7) 2.0i-L hatchback (2018-09-17) 01.jpg
Overview
Production2016–present
2017–present (XV)
Body and chassis
Body style4-door sedan (GK)
5-door hatchback (GT)
PlatformSubaru Global Platform
Powertrain
Engine1.6 L H4 (gasoline)
2.0 L DAVCS 152 hp (113 kW) H4 (gasoline)
Transmission5-speed manual
6-speed manual (XV)
CVT automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,670 mm (105.1 in)
LengthSedan: 4,625 mm (182.1 in)
Hatchback: 4,460 mm (175.6 in)
XV: 4,465 mm (175.8 in)
Width1,775 mm (69.9 in)
XV: 1,800 mm (70.9 in)
HeightSedan: 1,455 mm (57.3 in)
Hatchback: 1,480 mm (58.3 in)
XV: 1,615 mm (63.6 in)
Curb weight1,386–1,433 kg (3,056–3,159 lb)
Sedan
Hatchback
Interior

Subaru unveiled the fifth generation 2017 model year Impreza sedan and hatchback at the New York International Auto Show in March 2016.[71] The fifth generation is the first model to be underpinned by the new Subaru Global Platform, which will underpin all future Subaru models.[71]

Japanese domestic market models went on sale on 13 October 2016 at Subaru dealerships, while the new Impreza entered the core North American and Australian markets for the company in December 2016. In Japan, the new Impreza outsold its monthly sales target of 2,500 units by more than fourfold, with 11,050 orders. According to Subaru, demand from customers in the Japanese domestic market switching from other brands has been notable, representing 51% of all orders. This is an indication that the Impreza is now attracting a wider range of customers in Japan. North American models are now produced for the first time at Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. in Lafayette, Indiana as opposed to Japan.[1] Models for markets outside of North America continue to be produced in Japan. SIA also produces the North American-market Subaru Outback and Subaru Legacy, and will produce the three-row Ascent crossover previewed by the Viziv 7 concept from the 2016 Los Angeles Auto Show in 2018.

The new Subaru Global Platform underpins both sedan and hatch versions of the Impreza. This new platform has an increased rigidity of 70% to 100% over the outgoing model and a lower centre of gravity by 5 mm (0.2 inches). 95% of this new Impreza is all-new when compared to the fourth generation. The suspension has been set up for better comfort, while Active Torque Vectoring in some models also helps improve dynamics. The car is longer and wider than the old one, with a longer wheelbase. Much of the increase in wheelbase was used to improve both front- and rear-seat legroom; in the United States, Subaru now boasts that the new Impreza has category-leading passenger room.

Powering the new Subaru Impreza[72] is a revised version of the FB20 2.0 litre direct-injection boxer-four. This engine is sold in all markets except Europe. A 1.6 litre engine continues to be available in Europe and in the Japanese domestic market. With around 80% of parts revamped, the engine produces 152 hp, four more than before. Subaru's Lineartronic CVT was also improved with enhanced ratio coverage, and a 5-speed manual transmission continues to be available. The changes made to the Impreza's 2.0L engine are supposed to offer slightly improved acceleration and flexibility of power delivery. Although the engine is 152 hp, some auto reviewers feel that the new Impreza continues to fall short in power when compared to competitors from other brands. Some competing compact sedans such as the Volkswagen Jetta, Honda Civic, and Hyundai Elantra are sold with optional engines offering 200 hp or more. Subaru has rated the new Impreza in the US market [73] (with 2.0L engine) an EPA-estimated 28 miles per US gallon (8.4 L/100 km; 34 mpg‑imp) city /38 miles per US gallon (6.2 L/100 km; 46 mpg‑imp) highway. As with the previous generation Impreza, Subaru's Symmetrical AWD is standard in all markets except Japan, where it is optional.

Subaru's EyeSight suite of active safety functions is available, as is a new infotainment system with both Apple CarPlay and Android Auto. In the North American and Australian market models, CarPlay and Android Auto are standard on all trims. The North American model Impreza Limited is also offered with a power driver's seat for the first time in the model's history. Although not present in the North American model, the new Impreza is also the first car ever produced by a Japanese brand to include a pedestrian protection airbag as standard. The new Impreza earned a record high safety score under the Japan New Car Assessment Program[74] and earned top safety marks from the Euro NCAP in 2017.[75]

At the car's introduction in 2016, it won the Car of the Year Japan Award. This win gives Subaru only its second ever COTY trophy and its first victory since the Legacy B4 won 13 years ago.[76][77][78][79][80]

XV / Crosstrek[edit]

Subaru XV (Australia)

The new Subaru XV ("Crosstrek" for the North American market) was unveiled at the Geneva International Motor Show in March 2017. Like the Impreza, the XV/Crosstrek has moved to the Subaru Global Platform and uses the revised FB20 with 115 kW (154 hp; 156 PS) and 196 N⋅m (20.0 kg⋅m; 145 lb⋅ft) output. Minimum ground clearance is 220 mm (8.7 in) and matte black cladding has been added to each side to add a "rugged flavor", creating "a dynamic form expressing all the enjoyment to be expected from a crossover vehicle". During its first full month of sales, the XV sold 11,085 vehicles in Japan.[81] In May 2018, Subaru of America announced that there will be a new Crosstrek Hybrid for the 2019 model year. [82]

WRX[edit]

As with the previous generation, the WRX remains a separate model. The WRX was redesigned for 2014, so the move to a Subaru Global Platform-based WRX is not expected until the 2020 model year.

Viziv Performance Concept

The automotive press speculated the Viziv Performance concept shown at the Tokyo Motor Show in October 2017 would set the styling direction for the forthcoming WRX. The Viziv Performance concept has a longer wheelbase than the current WRX, increasing by 81 mm (3.2 in) to 2,730 mm (107.5 in), but the overall length increases by only 36 mm (1.4 in) to 4,630 mm (182.3 in), meaning the overhangs are shorter.[83] Width is also increased on the Viziv Performance Concept, to 1,950 mm (77 in). Powertrain details were not released, only stating that it uses Subaru's Symmetrical AWD with a boxer engine.[84] An updated Viziv Performance STI Concept was shown at the Tokyo Auto Salon in January 2018, leading to further speculation those styling modifications could show up in a future WRX STI.[85]

The UK marketing director of Subaru, Chris Hawken, stated in November 2017 the "[Subaru Global Platform] has been designed to take hybrid and electric" and "that is the way STI is going", leading to speculation the next WRX STI may use a hybrid drivetrain.[86]

Police use[edit]

Various models of the Impreza have been used by police forces in Japan, Latvia, Australia,[87] France,[88] Singapore[89] and in the UK, where they are featured extensively on the TV documentary series Police Interceptors.[90]

Motorsports[edit]

Stéphane Sarrazin driving a Subaru Impreza WRC on the Monte Carlo Rally

The Impreza chassis has been more successful in rallying than Subaru's previous contenders. Prior to the introduction of the Impreza into World Rally Championship racing in 1993, the Subaru World Rally Team had fielded its larger mid-size Legacy. However, with the rest of the rally competition increasingly shifting towards smaller and lighter chassis, Subaru introduced the smaller Impreza, immediately achieving a podium on its debut on the 1993 1000 Lakes Rally. To jumpstart its early rally efforts, and to develop the Impreza into a competitive rally car, Subaru teamed up with preparatory firm and British motorsports company Prodrive, in 1989.

Immediately following the first overall WRC event win for both the fledgling Subaru team and its young driver, the late Colin McRae aboard a Group A Legacy on the 1993 Rally New Zealand, the Scotsman's teammate and childhood idol, 1981 World Rally Champion, Ari Vatanen of Finland, went on to finish second in the debut rally of the first ever factory Impreza. New recruit for the following season, 1990 and 1992 World Champion, Carlos Sainz brought the Impreza its inaugural victory on the 1994 Acropolis Rally.

The Impreza brought Subaru three consecutive WRC constructors' titles (19951997, the latter season the first for the newly introduced World Rally Car class) and a driver's championship for McRae in 1995, the late Richard Burns in 2001, and the Norwegian, Petter Solberg in 2003.

Another evolution of the Impreza WRC made its debut in the 2007 Corona Rally Mexico. Unfortunately, the team had several major problems with reliability as the car experienced mechanical difficulties in almost every rally from its first.

Petter Solberg's Subaru Impreza WRC 2008 at the 2008 Rally Catalunya

Subaru debuted an Impreza WRC in hatchback form for the first time from the 2008 Acropolis Rally onwards, on which event Solberg scored a second-place finish. On 16 December 2008 Subaru announced that it would withdraw from the World Rally Championship due to economic problems.[91] The Impreza holds the record for the most WRC event wins, tied with the Lancia Delta.[citation needed]

However, the Subaru Rally Team USA is still competing in the Rally America National Championship. Also, there are still several teams using Subaru models in the Intercontinental Rally Challenge. Starting in 2006, Subaru of America (SOA), as the official distributor of Subaru vehicles in the United States, participates in the Subaru Road Racing Team (SRRT) with a Subaru Legacy 2.5 GT Spec-B in the Grand-Am Street Tuner class. In 2010, SRRT campaigns a Subaru Impreza WRX STI in the Grand Sport class. In 2011, SRRT switched from the hatchback to a 2011 Subaru Impreza WRX STI sedan.

Possum Bourne won the Silverstone Race to the Sky in 2001. David Higgins won the Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race in 2011 and 2014.

From 2005–2008, the Cusco team entered into the Super GT championship using an Impreza, being the only team to do so using a 4WD car.

Nobushige Kumakubo won the 2006 D1 Grand Prix season using a rear-wheel drive Impreza GDB. Stephan Verdier was Formula D's Most Improved Driver of 2008, with Eric O'Sullivan winning Rookie of the Year in 2009.[citation needed]

Compass 360 Racing used an Impreza in the Canadian Touring Car Championship in 2010, with Roger Ledoux winning the title for Lachute Performance in 2014 and 2015.[92] Other teams entering the GTS category of the 2014 Pirelli World Challenge season, the 1998 Japanese Touring Car Championship and the 2016 TCR International Series.

In April 2010, a modified third generation WRX STI driven by Tommi Mäkinen set a lap time of 7:55 on the Nürburgring Nordschleife, which is a record for a 4-door car.[93] The Subaru Road Racing Team debuted the Impreza WRX STI hatchback and switched to Impreza WRX STI sedan in 2011 participated to the GRAND-AM Continental Tire Sports Car Challenge series.

In 2011, Mark Higgins used a stock Impreza to set a lap record at the Isle of Man TT course.[94] In 2016, Higgins again broke the record in a modified WRX STI.[95]

In May 2012, Subaru Rally Team USA announced that a new rallycross team, Subaru Puma Rallycross Team USA will participate in the 2012 Global RallyCross Championship season with Dave Mirra, Bucky Lasek, and Sverre Isachsen.[96] They also competed in the 2014 FIA World Rallycross Championship.

The 2014 Alcan Winter Rally was won by a Subaru Impreza winning first in its class and taking first place in the overall race, continuing the winning tradition begun with the Legacy in 1990.[97]

The car has also been used in endurance racing, having had class wins at the 2011 24 Hours of Nürburgring, the 1995 Eastern Creek 12 Hour, and the Bathurst 12 Hour in 1994 and 2007 and 2009. Hitoshi Goto won the 2017 Super Taikyu Series, finishing on the podium in every race.

Rally championship victories[edit]

Individual event wins are too numerous to mention. Below is a list of championships won.

Championship Titles Years
African Rally Championship 16 1996–2013
Asia-Pacific Rally Championship 8 1994–2009
Australian Rally Championship 12 1996–2016
Belgian Rally Championship 1 2008
British Rally Championship 2 2006–2010
Canadian Rally Championship 10 1993–2015
Central European Zone Rally Championship 4 2005–2012
China Rally Championship 4 2005–present
Codasur South American Rally Championship 6 2004–2010
Czech Rally Championship 2 2001–2014
Deutsche Rallye Meisterschaft 3 1998–2011
European Rally Championship 2 1997–1998
Finnish Rally Championship 1 2009
French Rally Championship 2 2002–2004
Hungarian Rally Championship 3 1998–2009
Irish Tarmac Rally Championship 11 1996–2014
Italian Rally Championship 3 1997–2005
Lebanese Rally Championship 1 1996
Middle East Rally Championship 8 2003–2010
New Zealand Rally Championship 11 2001–2015
Production World Rally Championship 6 2003–2011
Rajdowe Samochodowe Mistrzostwa Polski 9 1999–2013
Rally America 11 2005–2016
Romanian Rally Championship 1 2007
SCCA ProRally 1 2001
Scottish Rally Championship 10 1997–2016
Slovak Rally Championship 1 2005
Swiss Rally Championship 2 2004–2009
Victorian Rally Championship 5 2004–2013
World Rally Championship 3 1995–2003
Total 159

Sales[edit]

Calendar year Impreza (US) WRX/WRX STI (US) XV/Crosstrek (US) Total
2007 46,333 (combined) N/A 46,333
2008 [98] 49,098 (combined) 49,098
2009 [99] 46,611 (combined) 46,611
2010 [100] 36,072 8,323 44,395
2011 42,401 13,805 56,206
2012 [101] 68,175 13,624 7,396 89,195
2013 58,856 17,969 53,741 130,566
2014 [102] 57,996 25,492 70,956 154,444
2015 66,785 33,734 88,927 189,446
2016 [103] 55,238 33,279 95,677 184,194
2017 [104] 86,043 31,358 110,138 227,539

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