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mtDNA haplogroups are defined by the presence of a series of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the hypervariable regions and the coding region of mitochondrial DNA. They are named with the capital letters A through Z, with further subclades named using numbers and lower case letters.
The Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC) developed a system of naming major human Y-DNA haplogroups with the capital letters A through T, with further subclades named using numbers and lower case letters (YCC longhand nomenclature). YCC shorthand nomenclature names Y-DNA haplogroups and their subclades with the first letter of the major Y-DNA haplogroup followed by a dash and the name of the defining terminal SNP. Y-DNA haplogroup nomenclature is changing over time to accommodate the increasing number of SNPs being discovered and tested, and the resulting expansion of the Y chromosome phylogenetic tree. This change in nomenclature has resulted in inconsistent nomenclature being used in different sources. This inconsistency, and increasingly cumbersome longhand nomenclature, has prompted a move towards using the simpler shorthand nomenclature.
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- "About mtDNA Haplogroups (Maternal Ancient Ancestry)". DNA Ancestry Project. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "Comparison of Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroups". DNA Ancestry Project. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "myFTDNA 2.0 User Guide: Y-DNA: What is the Y-DNA - Matches page?". Family Tree DNA. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
A terminal SNP determines the terminal (final) subbranch on the Y-DNA Tree to which someone belongs.
- "Understanding Results: Y-DNA Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP): How are haplogroups and their subclades named?". Family Tree DNA. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "Understanding Haplogroups: How are the haplogroups named?". Family Tree DNA. Archived from the original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2013.