This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (November 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Subliminal stimuli (//) (the prefix sub- literally "below, or less than"), contrary to supraliminal stimuli or "above threshold", are any sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception. A 2012 review of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies shows that subliminal stimuli activate specific regions of the brain despite participants' unawareness. Visual stimuli may be quickly flashed before an individual can process them, or flashed and then masked, thereby interrupting the processing. Audio stimuli may be played below audible volumes or masked by other stimuli.
Applications of subliminal stimuli often base themselves on the persuasiveness of the message. Importantly, research on action priming has shown that subliminal stimuli can trigger only actions a receiver of the message plans to perform anyway. However, consensus of subliminal messaging remains unsubstantiated by other research. Most actions can be triggered subliminally only if the person is already prepared to perform a specific action. The following sections have more information on specific studies which investigate the effectiveness of subliminal stimuli.
The context that the stimulus is presented in affects their effectiveness. If the target is thirsty then a subliminal stimuli for a drink is likely to influence the target to purchase that drink if it is readily available. The stimuli can also influence the target to choose the primed option over other habitually chosen options. If the subliminal stimuli is for a product that is not quickly accessible or if there is no need for it within a specific context then the subliminal stimuli will have little to no effect. Even when people believe they are making a "free choice" subliminal priming can be directing their actions.  When primed to push a button with their off-hand, people will use that hand even if given a free choice between using their off-hand and their dominant hand.  However, a meta analysis of many strong articles displaying effectiveness of subliminal messaging revealed its effects on actual consumer purchasing choices between two alternatives are not statistically significant.  Subliminal messaging is only effective in very specific contexts. 
The threshold in subliminal stimuli research is the level at which the participant is not aware of the stimulus being presented. Researchers determine a threshold for the stimulus that will be used as the subliminal stimulus. That subliminal stimulus is then presented during the study at some point and measures are taken to determine the effects of the stimulus. The way in which studies operationally define thresholds depends on the methods of the particular article. The methodology of the research also varies by the type of subliminal stimulus (auditory or visual) and the dependent variables they measure.
The objective threshold is found using a forced choice procedure, in which participants must choose which stimulus they saw from options given to them. Participants are flashed a stimulus (e.g. the word "orange") and then given a few choices and asked which one they saw. Participants must choose an answer in this design. The objective threshold is obtained when participants are at chance level of performance in this task. The length of presentation that causes chance performance on the forced choice task is used later in the study for the subliminal stimuli.
The subjective threshold is determined by when the participant reports that his or her performance on the forced choice procedure approximates chance. The subjective threshold is 30 to 50 ms slower than the objective threshold, demonstrating that participants are able to detect the stimuli is present sooner than their perceived accuracy ratings would indicate. In other words, stimuli presented at a subjective threshold have a longer presentation time than those presented at an objective threshold. When using the objective threshold, primes neither facilitated nor inhibited the recognition of a color. However, the longer the duration of the priming stimuli, the greater effect it had on subsequent responding. These findings indicate that the results of some studies may be due to their definition of below threshold.
Direct and indirect measures
Perception without awareness can be demonstrated through the comparison of direct and indirect measures of perception. Direct measures use responses to task definitions as per the explicit instructions given to the subjects. Indirect measures use responses that are not a part of the task definition given to subjects. Both direct and indirect measures are displayed under comparable conditions except for the direct or indirect instruction. For example, in a typical Stroop Task, subjects are given the task of naming the color of a patch of ink. A direct measure is 'accuracy'—true to the instructions given to the participants. The popular indirect measure used in the same task is 'response time'—subjects are not told that they are being measured for response times.
Similarly, a direct effect is the effect of a task stimulus on the instructed response to that stimulus, usually measured as accuracy. An indirect effect is an uninstructed effect of the task stimulus on behavior, sometimes measured by including an irrelevant or distracting component in the task stimulus and measuring its effect on accuracy. These effects are then compared on their relative sensitivity: an indirect effect that is greater than direct effect indicates existence of unconscious cognition.
In order to study the effects of subliminal stimuli, researchers will often prime the participants with specific visual stimuli, often images, and determine if those stimuli elicit different responses. Subliminal stimuli have mostly been studied in the context of emotion, in particular, researchers have focused a lot of attention to the perception of faces and how subliminal presentation to different facial expression affects emotion. Visual subliminal stimuli has also been used to study emotion eliciting stimuli and simple geometric stimuli. A significant amount of research has been produced throughout the years to demonstrate the effects of subliminal visual stimuli.
Attitudes can develop without being aware of its antecedents. Individuals viewed slides of people performing familiar daily activities after being exposed to either an emotionally positive scene, such as a romantic couple or kittens, or an emotionally negative scene, such as a werewolf or a dead body between each slide and the next. After exposure from something which the individuals consciously perceived as a flash of light, the participants gave more positive personality traits to those people whose slides were associated with an emotionally positive scene and vice versa. Despite the statistical difference, the subliminal messages  had less of an impact on judgment than the slide's inherent level of physical attractiveness.
Individuals show right amygdala activity in response to subliminal fear, and greater left amygdala response to supraliminal fear. People were exposed to a subliminal image flashed for 16.7 milliseconds that could signal a potential threat and again with a supraliminal image flashed for half a second. Furthermore, supraliminal fear showed more sustained cortical activity, suggesting that subliminal fear may not entail conscious surveillance while supraliminal fear entails higher-order processing.
Emotion eliciting stimuli
A subliminal sexual stimulus has a different effect on men compared to women. Men and women were subliminally exposed to either a sexual or a neutral picture, and their sexual arousal was recorded. Researchers examined the accessibility of sex-related thoughts after following the same procedure with either a pictorial judgment task or lexical decision task. The results revealed that the subliminal sexual stimuli did not have an effect on men, but for women, lower levels of sexual arousal were reported. However, in conditions related to accessibility of sex-related thoughts, the subliminal sexual stimuli led to higher accessibility for both men and women.
Subliminal stimuli can elicit significant emotional changes, but these changes are not valuable for a therapeutic effect. Spider-fearful and non-fearful undergraduates experienced either a positive, negative, or neutral subliminal prime followed immediately by a picture of a spider or a snake. Using visual analogue scales, the participants rated the affective quality of the picture. No evidence was found to support that the unpleasantness of the pictures can be modulated by subliminal priming. In fact, the non-fearful participants rated the spiders as more frightening after being primed with a negative stimuli, however, for the fearful participants, this effect was not found.
Simple geometric stimuli
Laboratory research on unconscious perception often employs simple stimuli (e.g., geometric shapes or colors) in which visibility is controlled by visual masking. Masked stimuli are then used to prime the processing of subsequently presented target stimuli. For instance, in the Response Priming paradigm, participants have to respond to a target stimulus (e.g., by identifying whether it is a diamond or a square) which is immediately preceded by a masked priming stimulus (also a diamond or a square). The prime has large effects on responses to the target; it speeds responses when it is consistent with the target, and slows responses when it is inconsistent. Response priming effects can be dissociated from visual awareness of the prime, such as when prime identification performance is at chance, or when priming effects increase despite decreases in prime visibility.
The presentation of geometric figures as subliminal stimuli can result in below threshold discriminations. The geometric figures were presented on slides of a tachistoscope followed by a supraliminal shock for a given slide every time it appeared. The shock was administered after a five-second interval. Electrical skin changes of the participants that occurred before the reinforcement (shock) or non-reinforcement were recorded. The findings indicate that the proportion of electrical skin changes that occurred following subliminal visual stimuli was significantly greater than expected. In contrast, the proportion of electrical skin changes that occurred in response to the stimuli which were not reinforced was significantly less. As a whole, participants were able to make below threshold discriminations.
Word and non-word stimuli
Another form of visual stimuli are words and non-words. In a set of experiments, words and non-word were used as subliminal primes. Primes that work best as subliminal stimuli are words that have been classified several times before they are used as primes. Word primes can also be made from parts of practiced words to create new words. In this case, the actual word used as a prime can have the opposite meaning of the words it came from (its "parents"), but it will still prime for the meaning of the parent words. Non-words created from previously practiced stimuli have a similar effect, even when they are unpronounceable (e.g., made of all consonants). These primes generally only increase response times for later stimuli for a very short period of time (milliseconds).
Masking visual stimuli
Visual stimuli are often masked by forward and backward masks so that they can be displayed for longer periods of time, but without the subject being able to tell what the prime is. A forward mask displayed before the prime for a short period of time and usually a backward mask will follow the prime. This prevents recognition of the prime by the subject.
One method for creating subliminal auditory stimuli is called masking. This method involves hiding the target auditory stimulus in some way. Auditory subliminal stimuli are shown to have some effect on the participant, but not a large one. For example, one study used other speechlike sounds to cover up the target words. The study found evidence of priming in the absence of awareness of the stimuli. But the effects of these subliminal stimuli were only seen in one of the outcome measures of priming, while the effects of conscious stimuli were seen in multiple outcome measures. However, the empirical evidence for the assumption of an impact of auditory subliminal stimuli on human behavior remains weak: In an experimental study on the influence of subliminal target words (embedded into a music track) on choice behavior for a drink, authors found no evidence for a manipulative effect.
Self-help audio recordings
A study investigated the effects on self-concept of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and auditory subliminal stimulation (separately and in combination) on 141 undergraduate students with self-concept problems. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups receiving either Rational-Emotive Therapy, subliminal stimulation, both, or a placebo treatment. Rational-Emotive Therapy significantly improved scores on all the dependent measures (cognition, self-concept, self-esteem, anxiety), except for behavior. Results for the subliminal stimulation group were similar to those of the placebo treatment except for a significant self-concept improvement and a decline in self-concept related irrational cognitions. The combined treatment yielded results similar to those of Rational-Emotive Therapy, with tentative indications of continued improvement in irrational cognitions and self-concept from posttest to follow-up.
Another study investigated the effects of self-help tapes on self-esteem and memory. Volunteers who wanted to improve their self-esteem or memory were recruited and completed several self-esteem and memory tests before being given a self-help tape. Subjects were given a self-esteem audio tape or a memory audio tape, but half of the tapes were mislabeled and half were correctly labeled. After listening to the tapes daily for five weeks, subjects came back and repeated the self-esteem and memory tests. There was no significant change from the first set of testing to the second, although subjects believed that their self-esteem or memory improved based on which tape they believed they had, even when they had a mislabeled tape (those who had tapes labeled as self-esteem tapes felt their self-esteem had increased and the same with memory). This effect is often referred to as a placebo. There are multiple other studies on subliminal self-help with different measures and have given similar results.
Consumption and television
Some studies have looked at the efficacy of subliminal messaging in television. Subliminal messages produce only one-tenth of the effects of detected messages and the findings related the effects of subliminal messaging were relatively ambiguous. Also, participants’ ratings of positive response to commercials are not affected by subliminal messages in the commercials.
Karremans suggests that subliminal messages have an effect when the messages are goal-relevant. In a study, researchers made half of the105 volunteers feel thirsty by giving them food with lots of salt before performing the experiment. At the end, as predicted, they found that the subliminal message had succeeded among the thirsty. 80% of them chose "Lipton Ice" versus the 20% of the control group that was not exposed to the message. However, those who were not thirsty did not choose the drink in question, despite the subliminal message. The experiment showed that in certain circumstances subliminal advertising worked.
Karremans did a study assessing whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink would affect a person's choice of drink, and whether this effect is caused by the individual's feelings of being thirsty. In another study, participant's ratings of thirst were higher after viewing an episode of The Simpsons that contained single frames of the word "thirsty" or of a picture of a Coca-Cola can. Some studies have shown greater effects of subliminal messaging with as high as 80% of participants showing a preference for a particular rum when subliminally primed by the name placed in an ad backward. Martin Gardner, however, criticizes claims, such as those by Wilson Bryan Key, by pointing out that "recent studies" serving as the basis for his claims were not identified by place or experimenter. He also suggests that claims about subliminal images are due to the "tendency of chaotic shapes to form patterns vaguely resembling familiar things."In 2009, the magazine of the American Psychological Association, defended that subliminal stimuli are subordinated to previously structured associative stimuli and that their only role is to reinforce a certain behavior or a certain previous attitude, without there being conclusive evidence that the stimulus that provokes these behaviors is properly subliminal.
There is still speculation about this effect, as in the journal of the American Psychological Association, which showed that subliminal stimuli are subordinated to previously structured associative stimuli and that their only role is to reinforce a certain behaviour or a certain previous attitude, without there being conclusive evidence that the stimulus that provokes these behaviors is properly subliminal.
Many authors have continued to argue for the effectiveness of subliminal cues in changing consumption behavior, citing environmental cues as a main culprit of behavior change. Authors who support this line of reasoning cite findings such as the research that showed slow-paced music in a supermarket was associated with more sales and customers moving at a slower pace. Findings such as these support the notion that external cues can affect behavior, although the stimulus may not fit into a strict definition of subliminal stimuli because although the music may not be attended to or consciously affecting the customers, they are certainly able to perceive it.
Studies on advertising with subliminal stimuli in still images
Among the researchers in favor is already legend Wilson Bryan Key, collector of hidden messages in advertisements, mainly associated with sex and death. One of his most cited studies is a whisky ad in which Key found several hidden figures in ice cubes. However, for other researchers Key is someone with a sexual fixation.
In reality these examples would not be subliminal in regard to images, environments and situations are consciously perceived, as shown by the fact that the viewer is able to describe and analyze them.Lluís Bassat suggests an interesting observation by indicating that the current objective of advertising is "to get the consumer to take into account the brand when making the decision", a trend opposed to the objective of subliminal advertising. In turn, Fernando Ocaña shows that the essential thing in the field of media planning is to obtain the greatest possible memory, which implies a conscious perception and not an unconscious one as it should be the case.
The most widespread studies of psychology say that for a stimulus to produce any effect it must be perceived. We are continually subjected to a lot of stimuli that the brain must override to avoid madness. It has been calculated that to be able to process all the stimuli that the sight receives, would require a cubic light-year brain.
On the other hand, certain discoveries in experimental psychology and neurosciences show that the transmission of information through neurons responds to the law of everything or nothing. In other words, for information to be transmitted through a neuron, there must be an action potential and at that point there are only two options: either an action potential is transmitted or it is not transmitted. When an action potential is transmitted it is because the stimuli have exceeded the minimum threshold of perception, but when they do not exceed it there is no action potential. Bearing in mind that subliminal stimuli are, by definition, below the minimum threshold that generates an action potential, it can be argued that the human brain does not consciously or unconsciously perceive subliminal messages.
Sometimes the subliminal technique is confused with the associative technique. So in examples such as:
- Alcohol ads are often accompanied by well-dressed and successful youth groups. It is not only the alcoholic drink that the consumer acquires, but also the acceptance of the social group.
- A car is advertised and associated with success, beauty and virility.
- Household products are advertised by happy and complete families (with a father, a mother and two or three children), who live in a house that indicates their social position.
- In many of the advertisements for cosmetic products, such as lotions or perfumes, it is a young, sensual, beautiful couple who sells the product. This appeals to the desire of people to find a partner with certain aesthetic characteristics, and to those who already have it feel identified.
Following the Spanish legal definition it can be discussed whether these examples would not be subliminal because images, environments and situations are consciously perceived, so much so that past the announcement can be summarized and described.[awkward]
- Instances of subliminal messages
- Subliminal messages in popular culture
- Peripheral vision horizon display (PVHD)
- Pre-attentive processing
- Priming (psychology)
- Response priming
- Unconscious thought theory § Criticism of UTT
- "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, sublīmis". perseus.tufts.edu.
- Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Klinger, Mark R. (June 1992). "Is the unconscious smart or dumb?". American Psychologist. 47 (6): 761–765. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.47.6.761. PMID 1616173.
- Brooks, S.J.; Savov V; Allzén E; Benedict C; Fredriksson R; Schiöth HB. (February 2012). "Exposure to subliminal arousing stimuli induces robust activation in the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, insular cortex and primary visual cortex: a systematic meta-analysis of fMRI studies". NeuroImage. 59 (3): 2962–2973. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.09.077. PMID 22001789.
- Schlaghecken, F.; Eimer, M. (2004). "Subliminal stimuli can bias 'free' choices between response alternatives". Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 11 (3): 463–468. doi:10.3758/bf03196596. PMID 15376796.
- van Gaal, S; de Lange, FP; Cohen, MX (2012). "The role of consciousness in cognitive control and decision making". Front Hum Neurosci. 6: 121. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00121. PMC 3345871. PMID 22586386.
- Zeman, A. (2001). "Consciousness". Brain. 124 (Pt 7): 1263–1289. doi:10.1093/brain/124.7.1263. PMID 11408323.
- Verwijmeren, Thijs; Karremans, Johan C.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Wigboldus, Daniël H.J. (April 2011). "The workings and limits of subliminal advertising: The role of habits". Journal of Consumer Psychology. 21 (2): 206–213. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2010.11.004. ISSN 1057-7408.
- Trappey, R. (2014). Brand choice : revealing customers' unconscious -automatic and strategic thinking processes. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-349-52357-3. OCLC 945231870.
- Chessman, Jim; Merikle, Philip M. (1984). "Priming with and without awareness". Perception and Psychophysics. 36 (4): 387–395. doi:10.3758/bf03202793. PMID 6522236.
- Reingold, Eyal M.; Merikle, Philip M. (1988). "Direct and indirect measures to study perceptions without awareness". Perception and Psychophysics. 44 (6): 563–575. doi:10.3758/bf03207490. PMID 3200674.
- Greenwald, Anthony G.; Klinger, Mark R.; Schuh, Eric S. (1995). "Activation by marginally Perceptible ("Subliminal") Stimuli: Dissociation of Unconscious From Conscious Cognition". Journal of Experimental Psychology. 124 (1): 22–42. doi:10.1037/0096-34126.96.36.199. PMID 7897340.
- Krosnick, J. A.; Betz, A. L.; Jussim, L. J.; Lynn, A. R. (1992). "Subliminal Conditioning of Attitudes". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 18 (2): 152–162. doi:10.1177/0146167292182006. S2CID 145504287.
- Williams, L. M.; Liddell, B. J.; Kemp, A. H.; Bryant, R. A.; Meares, R. A.; Peduto, A. S.; Gordon, E. (2006). "Amygdala–prefrontal dissociation of subliminal and supraliminal fear". Human Brain Mapping. 27 (8): 652–661. doi:10.1002/hbm.20208. PMC 6871444. PMID 16281289.
- Baldwin, M.; Carrell, D. F.; Lopez, D. F. (1990). "Priming relationship schemas: My advisor and the pope are watching me from the back of my mind" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 26 (5): 435–454. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.321.544. doi:10.1016/0022-1031(90)90068-W.
- Lee, Su Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Eun; Namkoong, Kee; An, Suk Kyoon (February 2011). "Differential priming effect for subliminal fear and disgust facial expressions". Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. 2. 73 (2): 473–481. doi:10.3758/s13414-010-0032-3. PMID 21264732.
- Ibáñez, Agustin; Hurtado, Esteban; Lobos, Alejandro; Escobar, Josefina; Trujillo, Natalia; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Manes, Facundo; Decety, Jean (29 June 2011). "Subliminal presentation of other faces (but not own face) primes behavioral and evoked cortical processing of empathy for pain". Brain Research. 1398: 72–85. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.05.014. PMID 21624566. S2CID 20717144.
- Yang, Zixu; Tong, Eddie M. W. (2010). "The Effects of Subliminal Anger and Sadness Primes on Agency Appraisals". Emotion. 10 (6): 915–922. doi:10.1037/a0020306. PMID 21058845.
- Gillath, Omri; Mikulincer, Mario; Birnbaum, Gurit E.; Shaver, Phillip R. (May 2007). "Does subliminal exposure to sexual stimuli have the same effects on men women?" (PDF). Journal of Sex Research. 2. 44 (2): 111–121. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.581.7310. doi:10.1080/00224490701263579. PMID 17599269. S2CID 38357734.
- Mayer, Birgit; Merckelbach, Harald (10 December 1998). "Do subliminal priming effects on emotion have clinical potential?". Anxiety, Stress, & Coping. 12 (2): 217–229. doi:10.1080/10615809908248330.
- Vorberg, D.; Mattler, U.; Heinecke, A.; Schmidt, T.; Schwarzbach, J. (2003). "Different time courses for visual perception and action priming". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 100 (10): 6275–6280. doi:10.1073/pnas.0931489100. PMC 156362. PMID 12719543.
- Taylor, Frank W. R. (March 1953). "The discrimination of subliminal visual stimuli". Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1. 7 (1): 12–20. doi:10.1037/h0083570. PMID 13032835.
- Kouider, S; Dehaene, S (May 2007). "Levels of processing during non-conscious perception: a critical review of visual masking". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 362 (1481): 857–75. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2093. PMC 2430002. PMID 17403642.
- Abrams, R. L.; Greenwald, A. G. (2000). "Parts outweigh the whole (word) in unconscious analysis of meaning". Psychological Science. 11 (2): 118–124. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.79.8405. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00226. PMID 11273418. S2CID 6563451.
- Breitmeyer, B.G.; Ogmen, H. (2007). "Visual Masking". Scholarpedia. 2 (7): 3330. doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.3330.
- Egermann, Hauke; Kopiez, Reinhard; Reuter, Christoph (2007). "Is there an effect of subliminal messages in music on choice behavior?". Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis. 4 (2): 29–64.
- Comparison of the effects of auditory subliminal stimulation and rational-emotive therapy, separately and combined, on self-concept. Möller AT, Kotzé HF, Sieberhagen KJ. Department of Psychology, University of Stellenbosch, RSA.
- Pratkanis, A. R. (1992). "The cargo-cult science of subliminal persuasion". Skeptical Inquirer. 16: 260–272.
- Greenwald, A.G.; E. R. Spangenberg; A. R. Pratkanis; J. Eskenazi (1991). "Doubleblind tests of subliminal self-help audiotapes". Psychological Science. 2 (2): 119–122. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1991.tb00112.x. S2CID 14378726.
- Auday, B.C.; J. L. Mellett; P. M. Williams (1991). "Self-improvement Using Subliminal Selfhelp Audiotapes: Consumer Benefit or Consumer Fraud?". Psychological Science: Paper presented at the meeting of Western Psychological Association, San Francisco, CAlif., April.
- Moore, T.E. (1995). "Subliminal self-help auditory tapes: An empirical test of perceptual consequences". Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. 27 (1): 9–20. doi:10.1037/008-400X.27.1.9.
- Smith, Kirk H.; Rogers, Martha (1994). "Effectiveness of subliminal messages in television commercials: Two experiments". Journal of Applied Psychology. 79 (6): 866–874. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.79.6.866.
- Karremans, J.; Stroebe, W.; Claus, J. (2006). "Beyond Vicary's fantasies: the impact of subliminal priming and brand choice☆". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 42 (6): 792–798. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2005.12.002.
- Motluk, Alison. "Subliminal advertising may work after all". New Scientist. Retrieved 2020-11-02.
- Karremans, Johan C.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Claus, Jasper (2006-11-01). "Beyond Vicary's fantasies: The impact of subliminal priming and brand choice". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 42 (6): 792–798. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2005.12.002. ISSN 0022-1031.
- Cooper, Joel; Cooper, Grant (2002). "Subliminal motivation: A story revisited". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 32 (11): 2213–2227. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb01860.x.
- Key, W.B. (1973), Subliminal seduction: Ad media's manipulation of a not so innocent America, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, ISBN 978-0-13-859090-1
- Radford, Benjamin (September–October 2019). "Subliminal Advertising, Trumpian and Otherwise". Skeptical Inquirer. Vol. 43 no. 5. Center for Inquiry. pp. 28–29.CS1 maint: date format (link)
- "Los mensajes subliminales sí funcionan". BBC Mundo. Londres: BBC. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
- estudio publicado en la revista Emotion
- Dijksterhuis, Ap; Smith, Pamela K.; van Baaren, Rick B.; Wigboldus, Daniel H.J. (2005). "The unconscious consumer: Effects of environment on consumer behavior". Journal of Consumer Psychology. 15 (3): 193–202. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.167.6867. doi:10.1207/s15327663jcp1503_3.
- Milliman, Ronald E. (1982). "Using Background Music to Affect the Behavior of Supermarket Shoppers". Journal of Marketing. 46 (3): 86–91. doi:10.2307/1251706. JSTOR 1251706.
- "Section 3. Misleading-advertising". BCAP Code. Committees on Advertising Practice (CAP). 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014. "No advertisement may use images of very brief duration, or any other technique that is likely to influence consumers, without their being fully aware of what has been done."
- Chen, Adam. Expert discusses the effects of subliminal advertising
- Johns, Craig M. Wilson Bryan Key is insane!
- Adams, Cecil. Are subliminal messages secretly embedded in advertisements?
- Bassat, Lluís, Libro rojo de la publicidad, Editorial Planeta, Barcelona, 2003
- Ferrater Mora, José, Fundamentos de filosofía, Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 1985, 1987
- Boese, Alex (2006), Hippo Eats Dwarf: A Field Guide to Hoaxes and Other B.S, Orlando: Harcourt, pp. 193–195, ISBN 978-0-15-603083-0
- Dixon, Norman F. (1971), Subliminal Perception: The nature of a controversy, New York: McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-094147-2
- Greenwald, A. G. (1992). "New Look 3: Unconscious cognition reclaimed" (PDF). American Psychologist. 47 (6): 766–779. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.47.6.766. PMID 1616174.
- Holender, D. (1986), "Semantic activation without conscious identification in dichotic listening, parafoveal vision, and visual masking: A survey and appraisal" (PDF), Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9 (1): 1–23, doi:10.1017/s0140525x00021269
- Merikle, P. M.; Daneman, M. (1998), "Psychological Investigations of Unconscious Perception", Journal of Consciousness Studies, 5 (1): 5–18
- United States Senate, Ninety-ninth Congress, First Session on Contents of Music and the Lyrics of Records (September 19, 1985), Record Labeling: Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing OfficeCS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Watanabe, T.; Náñez, J.; Sasaki, Y. (2001). "Perceptual learning without perception". Nature. 413 (6858): 844–848. doi:10.1038/35101601. PMID 11677607. S2CID 4381577.