|30th Foreign Secretary of India|
January 2015 – January 2018
|Prime Minister||Narendra Modi|
|Preceded by||Sujatha Singh|
|Succeeded by||Vijay Keshav Gokhale|
|Indian Ambassador to the United States|
December 2013 – January 2015
|Preceded by||Nirupama Rao|
|Succeeded by||Arun Kumar Singh|
|Indian Ambassador to China|
June 2009 – December 2013
|Preceded by||Nirupama Rao|
|Succeeded by||Ashok Kantha|
|Born||15 January 1955|
Subrahmanyam Jaishanker or S Jaishankar (born 9 January 1955) is an Indian diplomat who was Foreign Secretary of India from January 2015 to January 2018. He joined Indian Foreign Service in 1977. He had previously served as Indian Ambassador to the United States (2014–2015), China (2009–2013) and the Czech Republic (2001–04), and as High Commissioner to Singapore (2007–09). Jaishankar also played a key role in negotiating the Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement.
Early life and background
Jaishankar was born on 9 January 1955 in New Delhi, India to prominent Indian strategic affairs analyst, commentator, and civil servant K. Subrahmanyam and Sulochana. He is the brother of historian Sanjay Subrahmanyam and S Vijay Kumar, former Rural Development Secretary of India. He is married to Kyoko, and has two sons and a daughter.
He did his schooling from Air Force Central School, New Delhi and is a graduate of St Stephen’s College at the University of Delhi. He has an MA in Political Science and an MPhil. and PhD in International Relations from Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), where he specialised in nuclear diplomacy.
Joining the Indian Foreign Service in 1977, Jaishankar served as third secretary and second secretary in the Indian mission to the Soviet Union in Moscow from 1979 to 1981, where he studied Russian. He returned to New Delhi, where he worked as a special assistant to the diplomat G. Parthasarathi and as under secretary in the America’s division of India's Ministry of External Affairs, dealing with the United States. He was part of the team that resolved the dispute over the supply of US nuclear fuel to the Tarapur Power Stations in India. From 1985 to 1988 he was first secretary at the Indian embassy in Washington, D.C.
From 1988 to 1990, he served in Sri Lanka as First Secretary and political adviser to the Indian Peacekeeping Force (IPKF). From 1990 to 1993, he was Counsellor (Commercial) at the Indian mission in Budapest. Returning to New Delhi, he served as Director (East Europe) in the Ministry of External Affairs and as press secretary and speechwriter for President of India Shankar Dayal Sharma.
Jaishankar was then Deputy Chief of Mission at the Indian Embassy in Tokyo from 1996 to 2000. This period saw a downturn in Indo-Japan relations following India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests as well as a recovery after a visit to India by then Japanese Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori. Jaishankar is reported to have helped introduce future Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe to his Indian counterpart, Manmohan Singh. In 2000, he was appointed India’s ambassador to the Czech Republic.
From 2004 to 2007, Jaishankar was Joint Secretary (Americas) at the Ministry of External Affairs in New Delhi. In this capacity, he was involved in negotiating the US-India civil nuclear agreement and improving defence co-operation, including during relief operations following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Jaishankar was also involved with the conclusion of the 2005 New Defense Framework and the Open Skies Agreement, and he was associated with the launch of the US-India Energy Dialogue the India-US Economic Dialogue, and the India-US CEO's Forum. In 2006–2007, Jaishankar led the Indian team during the negotiations on the 123 Agreement with the United States. He also represented the Indian government at the Carnegie Endowment International Non-proliferation Conference in June 2007.
High Commissioner to Singapore
From 2007 to 2009, Jaishankar served as India’s High Commissioner to Singapore. During his tenure, he helped implement the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) that expanded the Indian business presence in that country, and oversaw a defence arrangement by which Singapore keeps some of its military equipment in India on a permanent basis. Jaishankar also promoted the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas, and IIMPact in Singapore.
Ambassador to China
Jaishankar was India's longest-serving ambassador to China, with a four-and-a-half year term. As Ambassador to Beijing, Jaishankar was involved in improving economic, trade and cultural relations between China and India, and in managing the Sino-Indian border dispute. In 2012, he became the first Indian ambassador in ten years to visit Tibet.
Jaishankar’s tenure as India’s ambassador to China coincided with several major developments in relations between the two countries. His 2010 briefing to the Indian Cabinet Committee on Security regarding China’s refusal to issue a visa to the head of the Indian army’s Northern Command led to a suspension of Indian defence co-operation with China, before the situation was resolved in April 2011. Also in 2010, Jaishankar negotiated an end to the Chinese policy of issuing stapled visas to Indians from Jammu and Kashmir. In 2012, in response to Chinese passports showing Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin as parts of China, he ordered visas issued to Chinese nationals showing those territories as parts of India. And in May 2013, he negotiated the end of a stand-off resulting from the encampment by China’s People’s Liberation Army on Ladakh’s Depsang Plains, threatening to cancel Premier Li Keqiang’s scheduled visit to India if Chinese forces did not withdraw (See also 2013 Daulat Beg Oldi Incident). Jaishankar also briefed the media after the conclusion of Li's visit to New Delhi in May 2013.
Jaishankar advocated deeper Indian co-operation with China as long as India’s "core interests" were respected, and argued for better market access for Indian businesses operating in China on the grounds that more balanced trade was necessary for the bilateral economic relationship to be sustainable. He was also involved in improving people-to-people contacts between India and China, promoting events that showcased Indian culture in 30 Chinese cities and concluding an agreement with the Chinese government to introduce Mandarin in Indian schools. In addition, he was also responsible for notable investment deals, such as the $400 million agreement for a Tebian Electric Apparatus plant in Gujarat.
Ambassador to United States
Jaishankar was appointed as India's Ambassador to United States in September 2013. He took charge on 23 December 2013 succeeding Nirupama Rao. He arrived in the United States amid the Devyani Khobragade incident, and was involved in negotiating the Indian diplomat's departure from the United States. On 29 January 2014, Jaishankar addressed the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he argued that "the grand strategy underwriting [India-US] ties is fundamentally sound" but that ties suffered from a "problem of sentiment." On 10 March 2014, he formally presented his credentials to US President Barack Obama at the Oval Office.
Jaishankar was involved in planning Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's maiden visit to the United States in September 2014, welcoming him upon his arrival and hosting a dinner in his honour for members of the Indian-American community.
Foreign Secretary of India
Jaishankar was appointed as Foreign Secretary of India on 29 January 2015. The announcement of his appointment was made following a 28 January 2015 meeting of the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet chaired by the PM Narendra Modi.
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- Dhruva Jaishankar, Transtlantic Fellow, German Marshall Fund
- Dr. S. Jaishankar, Ambassador of India- Beijing. Embassy of India, Beijing, China
- C.Raja Mohan and S. Jaishankar, "Nuclear Cartelisation Theory and Practice", Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 12, No. 20, 14 May 1977
- Dr. S. Jaishankar, Ambassador of India – Beijing. Embassy of India, Beijing, China
- Assignment Colombo, Konark Publishers, 1997, pg. 283
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- Japan-India Relations (Basic Data), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, November 2012
- The importance of Shinzo Abe, The Hindu, 19 December 2012
- ‘No too many holes in Indo-US nuke deal’,The Hindu, 26 June 2007
- 2004 Tsunami disaster – Consequences for Regional Cooperation
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- US-India nuke deal: 1.. 2 ..3..go, Times of India, 22 July 2007
- N-deal's not an arms control agreement: India, Rediff News, 26 June 2007
- Jaishankar is PM’s Choice for Foreign Secy Post,Times of India, 10 June 2013
- Interview with Indian Foreign Minister Salman Khurshid, The Straits Times, 5 July 2013
- Dr. S. Jaishankar, Ambassador of India – Beijing. Embassy of India, Beijing, China
- Singapore all set to attract skilled Indians, The Economic Times, 16 November 2007
- India and Singapore sign defence cooperation pact, 10 October 2007
- Pravasi Bharatiya Divas kicks off in Singapore, The Hindu Business Line, 10 October 2008
- Indian professionals hailed as alternative global voices, The Hindu, 22 April 2008
- Jaishankar moving to U.S. after eventful tenure in China, The Hindu, 13 December 2013
- India’s relationship with China expanding substantively: S. Jaishankar, The Business Standard, 20 May 2013
- Disturbance of Peace at Border Can Vitiate Ties: India to China,The Economic Times, 21 August 2013
- Indian ambassador makes visit to Tibet for first time in 10 years,Global Times, 3 July 2012
- PLA Presence in PoK Worries India,The Economic Times, 4 September 2010
- Understanding Reached on Stapled Visa Issue, Says Indian Envoy, The Hindustan Times, 19 December 2010
- Press Trust of India, Map Row: India Terms Chinese Action as Unacceptable,The Economic Times, 13 November 2012
- Ranjit Bhushan and Manak Singh,The Inscrutables, The Sunday Indian, 2 June 2013
- Press Trust of India, India-China Border talks Today; Defence Minister AK Antony to Visit Beijing Next Month,NDTV, 28 June 2013
- Transcript of Media Briefing by Official Spokesperson and Indian Ambassador to China MEA Media Center, 20 May 2013
- S. Jaishankar, India and China: Fifty Years Later, ISAS Special Reports, Institute of South Asian Studies, 23 November 2012
- Opportunities More Crucial than Differences,Global Times, 14 December 2010
- ‘Self-interest key to India-China ties’, The Hindustan Times, 4 September 2009
- Selina Sun and William Wang, Interview of Ambassador of India to China, Dr. S. Jaishankar, China Report, 4 September 2009
- Language builds bridges for India and China, Global Times, 26 August 2012
- "Meet Subrahmanyam Jaishankar, the new Indian Ambassador to USA". Retrieved 24 December 2013.
- Ambassador Jaishankar On US India Relations
- Yashwant Raj, "PM Modi Arrives in US", The Hindustan Times, 26 September 2014
- Modi to undertake over 50 engagements during maiden US visit, The Times of India, 23 September 2014.
- Ambassador’s Bio Data, Embassy of India, Washington DC
- Interview, China Central Television, 3 August 2010
| Indian Ambassador to China
| Indian Ambassador to the United States
Arun Kumar Singh
| Foreign Secretary of India
Vijay Keshav Gokhale