Subsequent Nuremberg trials

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Judges of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals pose for a group photo
Auschwitz survivor Philipp Auerbach [de] testifies for the prosecution in the Ministries Trial

The subsequent Nuremberg trials (also Nuremberg Military Tribunals; 1946–1949) were twelve military tribunals for war crimes committed by the leaders of Nazi Germany (1933–1945). The Nuremberg Military Tribunals occurred after the Nuremberg trials, held by the International Military Tribunal, which concluded in October 1946. The subsequent Nuremberg trials were held by U.S. military courts and dealt with the cases of crimes against humanity committed by the business community of Nazi Germany, specifically the crimes of using slave labor and plundering occupied countries, and the war-crime cases of Wehrmacht officers who committed atrocities against Allied prisoners of war, partisans, and guerrillas.[1]


The Allies had initially planned to convene several international trials for war crimes at the International Military Tribunal, but failed because the Allies could not agree upon the proper legal management and disposition of military and civilian war criminals; however, the Control Council Law No. 10 (20 December 1945) of the Allied Control Council empowered the military authorities of every occupation zone in Germany to place on trial people and soldiers suspected of being war criminals. Based on this law, the U.S. authorities proceeded after the end of the initial Nuremberg Trial against the major war criminals to hold another twelve trials in Nuremberg. The judges in all these trials were American, and so were the prosecutors; the Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution was Brigadier General Telford Taylor. In the other occupation zones, similar trials took place.[2]


The twelve U.S. trials before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT) took place from 9 December 1946 to 13 April 1949.[2] The trials were as follows:

# Designations Dates Defendants
1 Doctors' Trial 9 December 1946 – 20 August 1947 23 Nazi physicians of the Aktion T4
2 Milch Trial 2 January – 14 April 1947 Field Marshal Erhard Milch of the Luftwaffe
3 Judges' Trial 5 March – 4 December 1947 16 Nazi German "racial purity" jurists
4 Pohl Trial 8 April – 3 November 1947 Oswald Pohl and 17 SS officers
5 Flick Trial 19 April – 22 December 1947 Friedrich Flick and 5 directors of his companies
6 IG Farben Trial 27 August 1947 – 30 July 1948 24 directors of IG Farben, maker of Zyklon B
7 Hostages Trial 8 July 1947 – 19 February 1948 12 German generals of the Balkan Campaign
8 RuSHA Trial 20 October 1947 – 10 March 1948 14 racial cleansing and resettlement officials
9 Einsatzgruppen Trial 29 September 1947 – 10 April 1948 24 officers of Einsatzgruppen
10 Krupp Trial 8 December 1947 – 31 July 1948 12 directors of the Krupp Group
11 Ministries Trial 6 January 1948 – 13 April 1949 21 officials of Reich ministries
12 High Command Trial 30 December 1947 – 28 October 1948 13 generals and 1 admiral of the High Command


The Nuremberg process initiated 3,887 cases of which about 3,400 were dropped. 489 cases went to trial, involving 1,672 defendants. 1,416 of them were found guilty; fewer than 200 were executed, and another 279 defendants were sentenced to life in prison. By the 1950s almost all of them had been released.[3]

Many of the longer prison sentences were reduced substantially by an amnesty under the decree of high commissioner John J. McCloy in 1951, after intense political pressure. Ten outstanding death sentences from the Einsatzgruppen Trial were converted to prison terms. Many others who had received prison sentences were released outright.


Some of the Nurenberg Military Tribunals have been criticised for their conclusion that "morale bombing" of civilians, including its nuclear variety, was legal, and for their judgment that, in certain situations, executing civilians in reprisal was permissible.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Nuremberg Trials". History. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  2. ^ a b Kevin Jon Heller (2011). The Trials. Introduction: the indictments, biographical information, and the verdicts. Oxford University Press. pp. 85–. ISBN 9780199554317. Retrieved 10 January 2015. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  3. ^ Nelson, Anne (April 2009). Red Orchestra: The Story of the Berlin Underground and the Circle of Friends Who Resisted Hitler. Random House. pp. 305–6. ISBN 9781588367990. subsequent nuremberg trials 200 nazi.
  4. ^ Heller, Kevin Jon (2011). The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3.

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