The subsequent Nuremberg trials (also Nuremberg Military Tribunals; 1946–1949) were twelve military tribunals for war crimes committed by the leaders of Nazi Germany (1933–1945). The Nuremberg Military Tribunals occurred after the Nuremberg trials, held by the International Military Tribunal, which concluded in October 1946. The subsequent Nuremberg trials were held by U.S. military courts and dealt with the cases of crimes against humanity committed by the business community of Nazi Germany, specifically the crimes of using slave labor and plundering occupied countries, and the war-crime cases of Wehrmacht officers who committed atrocities against Allied prisoners of war, partisans, and guerrillas.
The Allies had initially planned to convene several international trials for war crimes at the International Military Tribunal, but failed because the Allies could not agree upon the proper legal management and disposition of military and civilian war criminals; however, the Control Council Law No. 10 (20 December 1945) of the Allied Control Council empowered the military authorities of every occupation zone in Germany to place on trial people and soldiers suspected of being war criminals. Based on this law, the U.S. authorities proceeded after the end of the initial Nuremberg Trial against the major war criminals to hold another twelve trials in Nuremberg. The judges in all these trials were American, and so were the prosecutors; the Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution was Brigadier General Telford Taylor. In the other occupation zones, similar trials took place.
The twelve U.S. trials before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT) took place from 9 December 1946 to 13 April 1949. The trials were as follows:
|1||Doctors' Trial||9 December 1946 – 20 August 1947||23 Nazi physicians of the Aktion T4|
|2||Milch Trial||2 January – 14 April 1947||Field Marshal Erhard Milch of the Luftwaffe|
|3||Judges' Trial||5 March – 4 December 1947||16 Nazi German "racial purity" jurists|
|4||Pohl Trial||8 April – 3 November 1947||Oswald Pohl and 17 SS officers|
|5||Flick Trial||19 April – 22 December 1947||Friedrich Flick and 5 directors of his companies|
|6||IG Farben Trial||27 August 1947 – 30 July 1948||24 directors of IG Farben, maker of Zyklon B|
|7||Hostages Trial||8 July 1947 – 19 February 1948||12 German generals of the Balkan Campaign|
|8||RuSHA Trial||20 October 1947 – 10 March 1948||14 racial cleansing and resettlement officials|
|9||Einsatzgruppen Trial||29 September 1947 – 10 April 1948||24 officers of Einsatzgruppen|
|10||Krupp Trial||8 December 1947 – 31 July 1948||12 directors of the Krupp Group|
|11||Ministries Trial||6 January 1948 – 13 April 1949||21 officials of Reich ministries|
|12||High Command Trial||30 December 1947 – 28 October 1948||13 generals and 1 admiral of the High Command|
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The Nuremberg process initiated 3,887 cases of which about 3,400 were dropped. 489 cases went to trial, involving 1,672 defendants. 1,416 of them were found guilty; fewer than 200 were executed, and another 279 defendants were sentenced to life in prison. By the 1950s almost all of them had been released.
Many of the longer prison sentences were reduced substantially by an amnesty under the decree of high commissioner John J. McCloy in 1951, after intense political pressure. Ten outstanding death sentences from the Einsatzgruppen Trial were converted to prison terms. Many others who had received prison sentences were released outright.
Some of the Nurenberg Military Tribunals have been criticised for their conclusion that "morale bombing" of civilians, including its nuclear variety, was legal, and for their judgment that, in certain situations, executing civilians in reprisal was permissible.
- Auschwitz Trial held in Kraków, Poland in 1947 against 40 SS-staff of the Auschwitz concentration camp death factory
- Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials, 1963–1965
- Majdanek Trials, held against Majdanek extermination camp officials. Longest Nazi war crimes trial in history, spanning over 30 years
- Chełmno Trials of the Chełmno extermination camp personnel, held in Poland and Germany. The cases were decided almost twenty years apart
- Sobibor Trial held in Hagen, Germany in 1965, concerning the Sobibor extermination camp
- Belzec Trial before the 1st Munich District Court in the mid-1960s, eight SS-men of the Belzec extermination camp
- Belsen Trial in Lüneburg, 1945
- Command responsibility doctrine of hierarchical accountability
- Dachau Trials held within the walls of the former Dachau concentration camp, 1945–1948
- Mauthausen-Gusen camp trials, 1946–1947
- Ravensbrück Trial
- Research Materials: Max Planck Society Archive
- "Nuremberg Trials". History. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
- Kevin Jon Heller (2011). The Trials. Introduction: the indictments, biographical information, and the verdicts. Oxford University Press. pp. 85–. ISBN 9780199554317. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- Nelson, Anne (April 2009). Red Orchestra: The Story of the Berlin Underground and the Circle of Friends Who Resisted Hitler. Random House. pp. 305–6. ISBN 9781588367990.
subsequent nuremberg trials 200 nazi.
- Heller, Kevin Jon (2011). The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3.
- Baars, Grietje (2013). "Capitalism's Victor's Justice? The Hidden Stories Behind the Prosecution of Industrialists Post-WWII". In Heller, Kevin; Simpson, Gerry (eds.). The Hidden Histories of War Crimes Trials. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-967114-4.
- Dubois, Josiah E. (1952). The Devil's Chemists (PDF). Boston, MA: Beacon Press. ASIN B000ENNDV6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-17.
- Priemel, Kim C.; Stiller, Alexa, eds. (2012). Reassessing the Nuremberg Military Tribunals: Transitional Justice, Trial Narratives, and Historiography. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-0-85745-532-1.
- Heller, Kevin Jon (2012). The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-165286-8.