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A subsidiary alliance is an alliance between a dominant nation and a nation that it dominates.
British policy in India
The doctrine of subsidiary alliance was introduced by Lord Wellesley, British Governor-General in India from 1798 to 1805. Early in his governorship Wellesley adopted a policy of non-intervention in the princely states, but he later adopted the policy of forming subsidiary alliances. This policy was to play a major role in British expansion in India. According to the term of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed force . They were to be protected by the company, but had to pay for the 'subsidiary forces' that the company was supposed to maintain for the purpose of this protection. If the Indian rulers failed to make the payment, then part of their territory was taken away as penalty.For example,the ruler of Awadh was forced to give over half of his territory to the company in 1801,as he failed to pay for the "subsidiary forces". Hyderabad was also forced to cede territories on similar grounds. By the late 18th century, power of the Maratha Empire had weakened in the Indian subcontinent, and India was left with a great number of states, most small and weak. Many rulers accepted the offer of protection by Lord Wellesley, as it gave them security against attack by their neighbours.
The main principles of a subsidiary alliance were:
- An Indian ruler entering into a subsidiary alliance with the British had to accept British forces within his territory and also agreed to pay for their maintenance.
- The ruler would accept a British Resident in his state.
- An Indian ruler who entered into a subsidiary alliance would not enter into any further alliance with any other power, nor would he declare war against any power without the permission of the British.
- The ruler would not employ any Europeans other than the British, and if he were already doing so, he would dismiss them.
- In case of a conflict with any other state, he would agree the resolution decided upon by the British.
- The ruler would acknowledge the East India Company as the paramount power in India.
- In return for the ruler accepting its conditions, the Company undertook to protect the state from external dangers and internal disorders.
- If the Indian rulers failed to make the payments required by the alliance, then part of their territory was to be taken away as a penalty.
Under this doctrine, Indian rulers under British protection surrendered the control of their foreign affairs to the British. Most disbanded their native armies, instead maintaining British troops within their states to protect them from attack. As British power grew, in most parts of India this became increasingly unlikely.
The Nizam of Hyderabad was the first to enter into such an alliance. Tipu Sultan of Mysore refused to do so, but after the British victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, Mysore was forced to become a subsidiary state. The Nawab of Awadh was the next to accept the Subsidiary Alliance, in 1801. After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the Maratha ruler Baji Rao II also accepted a subsidiary alliance.
Subsidiary Alliance System by Lord Wellesley
It was Wellesley who effectively reverted the policy of "non intervention" followed by his predecessors. He made the Nawab and Nizams subsidiary allies by signing almost 100 such treaties. Initially Wellesley compelled the friendly rulers to accept this alliance. The policy of subsidiary alliance was first used by Wellesley in dealing with the Nizam of Hyderabad. Wellesley neutralized the Nizam by getting him to sign the Subsidiary alliance to replace his French detachments. He also forbade Nizam to correspond with the Marathas without British consent. As the Nawab was a French protégé, he had appointed many Frenchmen at his court, but after this treaty, he was forced to dismiss the French employees and maintained six expensive British Battalions. Marathas in Deccan had not entered into any kind of treaty, but still they were neutralized by Wellesley by a promise of share in the spoils of Tipu. After that only Wellesley demanded submission of Tipu and followed an invasion. In summary, the system of Subsidiary Alliance could be any of the following: 1. The company lent its army in place of the Cash 2. Company kept the armies near the border of the Protectorate and collected cash. 3. Company kept the army inside the border for protection and collected cash. 4. Company kept its army inside the border of army and got some territories. The last among the above given four types was dangerous. It was Nawab of Oudh that entered into this kind of arrangement in 1801 (Treaty of Lucknow) and ceded half of Awadh to the British East India Company and also agreed to disband his troops in favour of a hugely expensive, British-run army. After this, the British were able to use Oudh's vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. They also got revenues from running Oudh's armed forces. Last, but not least, the subsidiary alliance made Oudh a "buffer state", which gave strategic advantage to the British.
Timeline of British-Indian subsidiary alliances
- 1798 - Hyderabad
- 1799 - Mysore
- 1799 - Tanjore
- 1801 - Awadh
- 1802 - Peshwa
- 1803 - Scindia
- 1803 - Gaekwad
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