Subspecies of Canis lupus

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Canis lupus subspecies
Temporal range: Middle Pleistocene – present (700,000-0 YBP)
The Wolves of North America (1944) C. lupus subspecies skulls.jpg
Skulls of various wolf subspecies from North America
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Tribe: Canini
Genus: Canis
Species:
C. lupus
Binomial name
Canis lupus
Subspecies

Numerous and disputed

Present distribution of gray wolf (canis lupus) subspecies.png
Present range of wild subspecies of C. lupus

The historic Canis lupus has 38 subspecies listed in the taxonomic authority Mammal Species of the World, 2005 edition. These subspecies were named over the past 250 years, and since their naming, a number of them have gone extinct. The nominate subspecies is Canis lupus lupus.

Canis lupus is assessed as least concern by the IUCN, as its relatively widespread range and stable population trend mean that the species, at global level, does not meet, or nearly meet, any of the criteria for the threatened categories. However, some local populations are classified as endangered,[2] and some subspecies are endangered or extinct. Biological taxonomy is not fixed and placement of taxa is reviewed as a result of new research. The current categorization of subspecies of C. lupus is shown below. Also included are synonyms, which are now discarded, duplicate or incorrect namings, or in the case of the domestic dog synonyms, old taxa referring to subspecies of domestic dog, which when the dog was declared a subspecies itself, had nowhere else to go. Common names are given, but may vary, as they have no set meaning.

Taxonomy[edit]

The species C. lupus was first recorded by Carl Linnaeus in his publication Systema Naturae in 1758,[1] with the Latin classification translating into the English words "dog wolf".

A subspecies is the taxonomic rank below species.[3] When geographically separate populations of a species exhibit recognizable phenotypic differences, biologists may identify these as separate subspecies; a subspecies is a recognized local variant of a species.[4] The 38 subspecies of Canis lupus are listed in Mammal Species of the World (third edition) that was published in 2005,[5][6] and in the Catalogue of Life.[7] The nominate subspecies is the Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus),[6] also known as the common wolf.[8] The subspecies includes the domestic dog, dingo, eastern wolf and red wolf.[5] However, the classification of several as either species or subspecies has recently been challenged.

List of extant subspecies[edit]

This is the list of living subspecies recognized by MSW3 as of 2005[9] and divided into Old World and New World:[10]

Eurasia and Australia[edit]

For Eurasia, in 1995 mammalogist Robert Nowak recognized five subspecies based on skull morphology, these being: C. l. lupus, C. l. albus, C. l. pallipes, C. l. cubanensis, and C. l. communis.[11] In 2003, Nowak also recognized the distinctiveness of C. l. arabs, C. l. hattai, and C. l. hodophilax.[12] In 2005, MSW3 included C. l. filchneri.[9] In 2003, two forms were distinguished in southern China and Inner Mongolia as being separate from C. l. chanco and C. l. filchneri and have yet to be named.[13][14]

Subspecies of Canis lupus
Subspecies Image Authority Description Range Synonyms
C. l. albus
Tundra wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. albus mod.jpg Kerr, 1792[15] A large, light-furred subspecies.[16] Northern tundra and forest zones in the European and Asian parts of Russia and Kamchatka. Outside Russia, its range includes the extreme north of Scandinavia.[16] dybowskii Domaniewski, 1926, kamtschaticus Dybowski, 1922, turuchanensis Ognev, 1923[17]
C. l. arabs
Arabian wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate IV) C. l. arabs mod.jpg Pocock, 1934[18] A small, "desert-adapted" wolf that is around 66 cm tall and weighs, on average, about 18 kg..[19] Its fur coat varies from short in the summer to long in the winter, possibly because of solar radiation.[20] Southern Israel, southern and western Iraq, Oman, Yemen, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and probably some parts of the Sinai Peninsula
C. l. campestris
Steppe wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. campestris mod.jpg Dwigubski, 1804 A wolf of average size with short, coarse and sparse fur.[21] Northern Ukraine, southern Kazakhstan, the Caucasus and the Trans-Caucasus[21] bactrianus Laptev, 1929, cubanenesis Ognev, 1923, desertorum Bogdanov, 1882[22]
C. l. chanco
Mongolian wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. chanco mod.jpg Gray, 1863[23] The fur is fulvous, on the back longer, rigid, with intermixed black and gray hairs; the throat, chest, belly, and inside of the legs pure white; head pale gray-brown; forehead grizzled with short black and gray hairs.[23] Mongolia,[24] northern and central China,[13][14] Korea,[25] and the Ussuri River region of Russia[26] chanco Gray, 1863, coreanus Abe, 1923, dorogostaiskii Skalon, 1936, karanorensis Matschie, 1907, niger Sclater, 1874, tschiliensis Matschie, 1907
C. l. dingo
Dingo and New Guinea singing dog
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXXVII).jpg Meyer, 1793 Generally 52–60 cm tall at the shoulders and measures 117 to 124 cm from nose to tail tip. The average weight is 13 to 20 kg..[27] Fur color is mostly sandy- to reddish-brown, but can include tan patterns and be occasionally black, light brown or white.[28] Australia and New Guinea antarticus Kerr, 1792 [suppressed ICZN O451:1957], australasiae Desmarest, 1820, australiae Gray, 1826, dingoides Matschie, 1915, macdonnellensis Matschie, 1915, novaehollandiae Voigt, 1831, papuensis Ramsay, 1879, tenggerana Kohlbrugge, 1896, hallstromi Troughton, 1957, harappensis Prashad, 1936[29]
C. l. familiaris
Domestic dog
Yakutian laika (white background).jpg Linnaeus, 1758 The domestic dog is a divergent subspecies of the gray wolf and was derived from a now-extinct population of Late Pleistocene wolves.[10][30][31] Through selective pressure and selective breeding, the domestic dog has developed into hundreds of varied breeds and shows more behavioral and morphological variation than any other land mammal.[32] Worldwide

aegyptius Linnaeus, 1758, alco C. E. H. Smith, 1839, americanus Gmelin, 1792, anglicus Gmelin, 1792, antarcticus Gmelin, 1792, aprinus Gmelin, 1792, aquaticus Linnaeus, 1758, aquatilis Gmelin, 1792, avicularis Gmelin, 1792, borealis C. E. H. Smith, 1839, brevipilis Gmelin, 1792, cursorius Gmelin, 1792, domesticus Linnaeus, 1758, extrarius Gmelin, 1792, ferus C. E. H. Smith, 1839, fricator Gmelin, 1792, fricatrix Linnaeus, 1758, fuillus Gmelin, 1792, gallicus Gmelin, 1792, glaucus C. E. H. Smith, 1839, graius Linnaeus, 1758, grajus Gmelin, 1792, hagenbecki Krumbiegel, 1950, haitensis C. E. H. Smith, 1839, hibernicus Gmelin, 1792, hirsutus Gmelin, 1792, hybridus Gmelin, 1792, islandicus Gmelin, 1792, italicus Gmelin, 1792, laniarius Gmelin, 1792, leoninus Gmelin, 1792, leporarius C. E. H. Smith, 1839, major Gmelin, 1792, mastinus Linnaeus, 1758, melitacus Gmelin, 1792, melitaeus Linnaeus, 1758, minor Gmelin, 1792, molossus Gmelin, 1792, mustelinus Linnaeus, 1758, obesus Gmelin, 1792, orientalis Gmelin, 1792, pacificus C. E. H. Smith, 1839, plancus Gmelin, 1792, pomeranus Gmelin, 1792, sagaces C. E. H. Smith, 1839, sanguinarius C. E. H. Smith, 1839, sagax Linnaeus, 1758, scoticus Gmelin, 1792, sibiricus Gmelin, 1792, suillus C. E. H. Smith, 1839, terraenovae C. E. H. Smith, 1839, terrarius C. E. H. Smith, 1839, turcicus Gmelin, 1792, urcani C. E. H. Smith, 1839, variegatus Gmelin, 1792, venaticus Gmelin, 1792, vertegus Gmelin, 1792[33]

Proposed as the species Canis familiaris, but debated[34]

C. l. filchneri
Tibetan wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III).jpg Matschie, 1907[35] Long sharp face, elevated brows, broad head, large pointed ears, thick woolly pilage and very full brush of medial length. Above, dull earthy-brown; below, with the entire face and limbs yellowish-white.[36] China in the regions of Gansu, Qinghai, and Xichang (Tibet),[13][14] and northern India in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir[37] and the Lahoul region of Himachal Pradesh[38] laniger Hodgson, 1847
C. l. lupus
Eurasian wolf
(nominate subspecies)
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I).jpg Linnaeus, 1758[39] Generally a large subspecies with rusty ocherous or light gray fur.[40] Has the largest range among wolf subspecies and is the most common subspecies in Europe and Asia, ranging through Western Europe, Scandinavia, the Caucasus, Russia, China, Mongolia and the Himalayan Mountains. Its habitat overlaps with the Indian wolf in some regions of Turkey. altaicus Noack, 1911, argunensis Dybowski, 1922, canus Sélys Longchamps, 1839, communis Dwigubski, 1804, deitanus Cabrera, 1907, desertorum Bogdanov, 1882, flavus Kerr, 1792, fulvus Sélys Longchamps, 1839, italicus Altobello, 1921, kurjak Bolkay, 1925, lycaon Trouessart, 1910, major Ogérien, 1863, minor Ogerien, 1863, niger Hermann, 1804, orientalis Wagner, 1841, orientalis Dybowski, 1922, signatus Cabrera, 1907[41]
C. l. pallipes
Indian wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate IV).jpg Sykes, 1831 A small wolf with pelage shorter than that of northern wolves and with little to no underfur.[42] Fur color ranges from grayish-red to reddish-white with black tips. The dark V-shaped stripe over the shoulders is much more pronounced than in northern wolves. The underparts and legs are more or less white.[43] India, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and southern Israel

North America[edit]

North American wolf subspecies distribution according to Goldman (1944). These subspecies are included in MSW3 2005.

For North America, in 1944 the zoologist Edward Goldman recognized as many as 23 subspecies based on morphology.[44] In 1959, E. Raymond Hall proposed that there had been 24 subspecies of lupus in North America.[45] In 1970, L. David Mech proposed that there was "probably far too many sub specific designations...in use" as most did not exhibit enough points of differentiation to be classified as a separate subspecies.[46] The 24 subspecies were accepted by many authorities in 1981 and these were based on morphological or geographical differences, or a unique history.[47] In 1995, the American mammologist Robert M. Nowak analyzed data on the skull morphology of wolf specimens from around the world. For North America, he proposed that there were only five subspecies of gray wolf. These include a large-toothed Arctic wolf named C. l. arctos, a large wolf from Alaska and western Canada named C. l. occidentalis, a small wolf from southeastern Canada named C. l. lycaon, a small wolf from the southwestern U.S. named C. l. baileyi and a moderate-sized wolf that was originally found from Texas to Hudson Bay and from Oregon to Newfoundland named C. l. nubilus.[48][49] This proposal was not reflected in the taxonomic classification of Canis lupus subspecies in Mammal Species of the World (third edition, 2005).[9]

Subspecies of Canis lupus
Subspecies Image Authority Description Range Synonyms
C. l. arctos
Arctic wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. arctos mod.jpg Pocock, 1935[50] A medium-sized, almost completely white subspecies.[51] Melville Island (the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Ellesmere Island and Alaska
C. l. baileyi
Mexican wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate IV) C. l. baileyi mod.jpg Nelson and Goldman, 1929[52] Smallest of the North American wolves, with dark fur.[53] Presently found in southeastern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona
C. l. columbianus
British Columbia wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I) C. l. columbianus mod.jpg Goldman, 1941 Yukon, British Columbia, and Alberta
C. l. crassodon
Vancouver Island wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. crassodon mod.jpg Hall, 1932 A medium-sized subspecies with grayish fur.[54] Vancouver Island, British Columbia
C. l. hudsonicus
Hudson Bay wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I) C. l. hudsonicus mod.jpg Goldman, 1941 A light-colored subspecies similar to occidentalis, but smaller.[55] Northern Manitoba and the Northwest Territories
C. l. irremotus
Northern Rocky Mountain wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. irremotus mod.jpg Goldman, 1937[56][57] A medium to large-sized subspecies with pale fur.[58] The northern Rocky Mountains
C. l. labradorius
Labrador wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate V) C. l. labradorius.jpg Goldman, 1937[56] A medium-sized, light-colored subspecies.[59] Labrador and northern Quebec; recent confirmed sightings on Newfoundland[60][61]
C. l. ligoni
Alexander Archipelago wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. ligoni mod.jpg Goldman, 1937[56] A medium-sized, dark-colored subspecies.[62] The Alexander Archipelago, Alaska
C. l. lycaon
Eastern wolf
but refer Synonyms
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate V).jpg Schreber, 1775 A small, dark-colored form.[63] Mainly occupies the area in and around Algonquin Provincial Park in Ontario and also ventures into adjacent parts of Quebec, Canada. It also may be present in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Manitoba. canadensis de Blainville, 1843, ungavensis Comeau, 1940[64]

Proposed as the species Canis lycaon[65] but debated
C. l. mackenzii
Mackenzie River wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I) C. l. mackenzii mod.jpg Anderson, 1943 A subspecies with variable fur and intermediate in size between occidentalis and manningi.[66] The Northwest Territories
C. l. manningi
Baffin Island wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate IV) C. l. manningi mod.jpg Anderson, 1943 The smallest wolf of the Arctic, with buffy-white fur.[67] Baffin Island
C. l. occidentalis
Northwestern wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I) C. l. occidentalis mod.jpg Richardson, 1829 A very large, usually light-colored subspecies.[68] Alaska, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and the northwestern United States ater Richardson, 1829, sticte Richardson, 1829[69]
C. l. orion
Greenland wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. orion mod.jpg Pocock, 1935 Greenland and the Queen Elizabeth Islands[70]
C. l. pambasileus
Alaskan Interior wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I) C. l. pambasileus mod.jpg Elliot, 1905 Larger in skull and tooth proportions than occidentalis, with fur that is black, white or a mix of both in color.[71] The Alaskan Interior and the Yukon, save for the tundra region of the Arctic Coast[72]
C. l. rufus
Red wolf
but refer Synonyms
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate V) C. l. rufus mod.jpg Audubon and Bachman, 1851 Has a brownish or cinnamon pelt, with gray and black shading on the back and tail. Generally intermediate in size between other American wolf subspecies and coyotes. Like other wolves, it has almond-shaped eyes, a broad muzzle and a wide nosepad, though like the coyote, its ears are proportionately larger. It has a deeper profile, a longer and broader head than the coyote, and has a less prominent ruff than other wolves.[73] Presently found in eastern North Carolina[74] Proposed as the species Canis rufus[75] but debated
C. l. tundrarum
Alaskan tundra wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I) C. l. tundrarum mod.jpg Miller, 1912 A large, white-colored wolf closely resembling pambasileus, though lighter in color.[76] The Barren Grounds of the Arctic Coast region from near Point Barrow eastward toward Hudson Bay and probably northwards to the Arctic Archipelago[77]

List of historically extinct subspecies[edit]

The subspecies recognized by MSW3 as of 2005 and which have gone extinct over the past 150 years:[9]

Extinct subspecies of Canis lupus
Subspecies Image Authority Description Range Synonyms
C. l. alces
Kenai Peninsula wolf
Goldman 1941[78] One of the largest subspecies, similar to pambasileus. Its fur color is unknown.[79] The Kenai Peninsula, Alaska
C. l. beothucus
Newfoundland wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. beothocus mod.jpg G. M. Allen and Barbour 1937 A medium-sized, white-furred subspecies.[80]Its former range is slowly being claimed by its relative, the Labrador wolf (C. l. labradorius). Newfoundland
C. l. bernardi
Banks Island wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. bernardi mod.jpg Anderson 1943 A large, slender subspecies with a narrow muzzle and large carnassials.[81] Limited to Banks and Victoria Islands in the Canadian Arctic banksianus Anderson, 1943[82]
C. l. floridanus
Florida black wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate V) C. l. floridanus.jpg Miller 1912 A jet-black wolf that is described as being extremely similar to the red wolf in both size and weight.[83] This subspecies became extinct in 1908.[84] Florida Proposed as a subspecies of Canis rufus[75]but debated
C. l. fuscus
Cascade Mountains wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate IV) C. l. fuscus mod.jpg Richardson 1839 A cinnamon-colored wolf similar to columbianus and irremotus, but darker in color.[85] The Cascade Range gigas Townsend, 1850[86]
C. l. gregoryi
Mississippi Valley wolf
but refer Synonyms
Goldman, 1937[56] A medium-sized subspecies, though slender and tawny; its coat contains a mixture of various colors, including black, white, gray and cinnamon.[56] In and around the lower Mississippi River basin Proposed as a subspecies of Canis rufus[75] but debated
C. l. griseoalbus
Manitoba wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I) C. l. griseoalbus-occidentalis mod.jpg Baird 1858 Northern Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba knightii Anderson, 1945[87]
C. l. hattai
Hokkaidō wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I) C. l. hattai.jpg Kishida 1931 Similar in size, and related, to the wolves of North America.[88] Hokkaido and Sakhalin Island,[89][90]the Kamchatkan Peninsula, and Iturup and Kunashir Islands just to the east of Hokkaido in the Kuril Archipelago.[90] rex Pocock, 1935[91]
C. l. hodophilax
Japanese wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate V) C. l. hodophilax mod.jpg Temminck 1839 Smaller in size compared to other wolves, except for the Arabian wolf (C. l. arabs).[90] Japanese islands of Honshū, Shikoku, and Kyūshū (but not Hokkaido)[92][93] japonicus Nehring, 1885[94]
C. l. mogollonensis
Mogollon Mountains wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. mogollonensis mod.jpg Goldman 1937[56] A small, dark-colored subspecies, intermediate in size between youngi and baileyi.[95] Arizona and New Mexico
C. l. monstrabilis
Texas wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. monstrabilis mod.jpg Goldman 1937[56] Similar in size and color to mogollonensis.[96] Texas and New Mexico niger Bartram, 1791[97]
C. l. nubilus
Great Plains wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. nubilus mod.jpg Say 1823 A medium-sized, light-colored subspecies.[98] Throughout the Great Plains from southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan southward to northern Texas[99] variabilis Wied-Neuwied, 1841[100]
C. l. youngi
Southern Rocky Mountain wolf
Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate III) C. l. youngi mod.jpg Goldman 1937[56] A medium-sized, light-colored subspecies closely resembling nubilus, though larger, with more blackish-buff hairs on the back.[101] Southeastern Idaho, southwestern Wyoming, northeastern Nevada, Utah, western and central Colorado, northwestern Arizona and northwestern New Mexico


Subspecies discovered since the publishing of MSW3 in 2005 and has gone extinct over the past 150 years:

Extinct subspecies of Canis lupus
Subspecies Image Authority Description Range Synonyms
Canis lupus cristaldii
Sicilian wolf
Angelici & Rossi 2018.[102] A slender, short-legged wolf with light, tawny colored fur. The dark band present on the forelimbs of the mainland Italian wolf are absent or poorly defined in the Sicilian wolf. Sicily

Disputed subspecies and species[edit]

Skull of a European wolf
Skull of a Canadian wolf

Eurasia[edit]

Giuseppe Altobello's 1925 comparative illustration of the skulls and dentition of C. l. lupus (a) and C. l. italicus (b). The distinct status of the latter is currently unrecognised by MSW3.

Apennine wolf[edit]

The Apennine wolf (Italian wolf) was first recognised as a distinct subspecies Canis lupus italicus in 1921 by zoologist Giuseppe Altobello.[103] Altobello's classification was later rejected by several authors, including Reginald Innes Pocock, who synonymised C. l. italicus with C. l. lupus.[104] In 2002, the noted paleontologist R.M. Nowak reaffirmed the morphological distinctiveness of the Italian wolf and recommended the recognition of Canis lupus italicus.[104] A number of DNA studies have found the Italian wolf to be genetically distinct.[105][106] In 2004, the genetic distinction of the Italian wolf subspecies was supported by analysis which consistently assigned all the wolf genotypes of a sample in Italy to a single group. This population also showed a unique mitochondrial DNA control-region haplotype, the absence of private alleles and lower heterozygosity at microsatellite loci, as compared to other wolf populations.[107] In 2010, a genetic analysis indicated that a single wolf haplotype (w22) unique to the Apennine Peninsula and one of the two haplotypes (w24, w25), unique to the Iberian Peninsula, belonged to the same haplogroup as the prehistoric wolves of Europe. Another haplotype (w10) was found to be common to the Iberian peninsula and the Balkans. These three populations with geographic isolation exhibited a near lack of gene flow and spatially correspond to three glacial refugia.[108]

The taxonomic reference Mammal Species of the World (third edition, 2005) does not recognize Canis lupus italicus; however, NCBI/Genbank publishes research papers under that name.[109]

Iberian wolf[edit]

The Iberian wolf was first recognised as a distinct subspecies (Canis lupus signatus) in 1907 by zoologist Ángel Cabrera. The wolves of Iberian peninsula have morphologically distinct features from other Eurasian wolves and each are considered by their researchers to represent their own subspecies.[110][111]

The taxonomic reference Mammal Species of the World (third edition, 2005) does not recognize Canis lupus signatus; however, NCBI/Genbank does list it.[112]

Himalayan wolf[edit]

Phylogenetic tree with timing in years for Canis lupus[a]
250,000
?
80,000
31,000

Dog Tibetan mastiff (transparent background).png

Holarctic grey wolf Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I).png

Late Pleistocene wolfThe American Museum journal (c1900-(1918)) (Canis dirus) transparent background.png

Indian plains wolf Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I).png

Himalayan wolf/Tibetan wolf Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I).png

The Himalayan wolf is a proposed clade within the Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus filchneri) that is distinguished by its mitochondrial DNA, which is basal to all other wolves. The taxonomic status of this wolf is disputed, with the species Canis himalayensis being proposed based on two limited DNA studies.[113][114][115] In 2017, a study of mitochondrial DNA, X-chromosome (maternal lineage) markers and Y-chromosome (male lineage) markers found that the Himalayan wolf was genetically basal to the holarctic grey wolf and has an association with the African golden wolf.[116]

The taxonomic reference Mammal Species of the World (third edition, 2005) does not recognize Canis himalayensis, however NCBI/Genbank lists a new subspecies Canis lupus himalayensis.[117]

Indian plains wolf[edit]

The Indian plains wolf is a proposed clade within the Indian wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) that is distinguished by its mitochondrial DNA, which is basal to all other wolves except for the Himalayan wolf. The taxonomic status of this wolf clade is disputed, with the separate species Canis indica being proposed based on two limited DNA studies.[113][114] The proposal has not been endorsed because they relied on a limited number of museum and zoo samples that may not have been representative of the wild population and a call for further fieldwork has been made.[115]

The taxonomic reference Mammal Species of the World (third edition, 2005) does not recognize Canis indica, however NCBI/Genbank lists a new subspecies Canis lupus indica.[118]

North America[edit]

Coastal wolves[edit]

A study of the three coastal wolves indicates a close phylogenetic relationship across regions that are geographically and ecologically contiguous, and the study proposed that Canis lupus ligoni (Alexander Archipelago wolf), Canis lupus columbianus (British Columbian wolf), and Canis lupus crassodon (Vancouver Island wolf) should be recognized as a single subspecies of Canis lupus.[119] They share the same habitat and prey species, and form one study's six identified North American ecotypes - a genetically and ecologically distinct population separated from other populations by their different type of habitat.[120][121]

Eastern wolf[edit]

The eastern wolf has two proposals over its origin. One is that the eastern wolf is a distinct species (C. lycaon) that evolved in North America, as opposed to the gray wolf that evolved in the Old World, and is related to the red wolf. The other is that it is derived from admixture between gray wolves which inhabited the Great Lakes area and coyotes, forming a hybrid that was classified as a distinct species by mistake.[122]

The taxonomic reference Mammal Species of the World (third edition, 2005) does not recognize Canis lycaon, however NCBI/Genbank lists it.[123]

Red wolf[edit]

The red wolf is an enigmatic taxon, of which there are two proposals over its origin. One is that the red wolf was a distinct species (C. rufus) that has undergone human-influenced admixture with coyotes. The other is that it was never a distinct species but was derived from admixture between coyotes and gray wolves, due to the gray wolf population being eliminated by humans.[122]

The taxonomic reference Mammal Species of the World (third edition, 2005) does not recognize Canis rufus, however NCBI/Genbank lists it.[124]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For a full set of supporting references refer to the note (a) in the phylotree at Evolution of the wolf#Wolf-like canids

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Linnæus, Carl (1758). Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I (in Latin) (10th ed.). Holmiæ (Stockholm): Laurentius Salvius. pp. 39–40. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
  2. ^ Mech, L.D.; Boitani, L. & IUCN SSC Wolf Specialist Group (2010). "Canis lupus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T3746A10049204. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T3746A10049204.en. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  3. ^ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. "ICZN Glossary". International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.
  4. ^ Peter J. Russell; Paul E. Hertz; Beverly McMillan (2011). "21-Speciation". Biology: The Dynamic Science. Brooks/Cole California. p. 456. ISBN 978-1133418849.
  5. ^ a b Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  6. ^ a b Smithsonian - Animal Species of the World database. "Canis lupus".
  7. ^ Canis lupus
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