Sudan Liberation Movement/Army

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Sudan Liberation Movement
Participant in Darfur conflict and the Sudan internal conflict
Sudan Liberation Movement logo.gif
Flag of Darfur.svg
Logo and flag of the SLM/A
LeadersMinni Minnawi - SLM (Minnawi)
Abdul Wahid al Nur - SLM (al-Nur)
Area of operationsDarfur, Sudan
Part ofSudan Revolutionary Front

The Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (Arabic: حركة تحرير السودانḤarakat Taḥrīr Al-Sūdān; abbreviated SLM, SLA, or SLM/A) is a Sudanese rebel group active in Darfur, Sudan. It was founded as the Darfur Liberation Front[1] by members of three indigenous ethnic groups in Darfur: the Fur, the Zaghawa, and the Masalit,[2] among whom were the leaders Abdul Wahid al Nur of the Fur and Minni Minnawi of the Zaghawa.[2]


General Omar al-Tsim and the National Islamic Front headed by Dr. Hassan al-Turabi overthrew the Sudanese government led by Ahmed al-Mirghani in 1989. A large section of the population in Darfur, particularly the non-Arab ethnicities in the region, became increasingly marginalized.[3][4] These feelings were crystallized by the publication in 2000 of The Black Book, which detailed the structural inequity in the Sudan that denies non-Arabs equal justice and power sharing. In 2002 Abdul Wahid al Nur, a lawyer, Ahmad Abdel Shafi Bassey, an education student, and a third man founded the Darfur Liberation Front, which subsequently evolved into the Sudan Liberation Movement and claimed to represent all of the oppressed in the Sudan.[1]

Groups and factions[edit]

Main factions[edit]

In 2006, the Sudan Liberation Movement split into two main factions, divided on the issue of the Darfur Peace Agreement:

  • Sudan Liberation Movement (Minnawi) - this group is led by Minni Minnawi and signed the Darfur Peace Agreement in May 2006. Minnawi served as the Chairperson of the Transitional Darfur Regional Authority from its formation in 2007 to his dismissal in December 2010. The SLM-Minnawi faction formally withdrew from the peace agreement in February 2011.[5][6]
  • Sudan Liberation Movement (al-Nur) - this group was formed in 2006 and is led by Abdul Wahid al Nur. It has rejected the Darfur Peace Agreement.[7]

Other smaller splinter groups[edit]

  • Sudan Liberation Movement (Historic Leadership) - this group split from the al-Nur faction and is led by Osman Ibrahim Musa. It signed a peace agreement with the government of South Darfur in January 2011.[8]
  • Sudan Liberation Movement (General Command) - formed in November 2010 by former members of the SLM factions and the former members of the Justice and Equality Movement. It is led by Adam Ali Shogar.[9][10]
  • Sudan Liberation Movement (Mainstream) - this group is led by Mohamed Al Zubeir Khamis.[11]


  1. ^ a b Flint, Julie and De Waal, Alexander (2008) Darfur: A New History of a Long War Zed Books, London, p. 90, ISBN 978-1-84277-949-1
  2. ^ a b "BBC News - Who are Sudan's Darfur rebels?". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  3. ^ Flint, Julie and De Waal, Alexander (2008) Darfur: A New History of a Long War Zed Books, London, pp. 16-17, ISBN 978-1-84277-949-1
  4. ^ Jok, Jok Madut (2007) Sudán: Race, Religion and Violence Oneworld, Oxford, p. 4 ISBN 978-1-85168-366-6
  5. ^ "Darfur Peace Agreement Fact Sheet" Office of the Spokesman, U.S. Department of State, May 2006, from Internet Archives
  6. ^ "Minawi announces withdrawal from Abuja Agreement". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  7. ^ Staff (December 2006) "No Dialogue, No Commitment: The Perils of Deadline Diplomacy for Darfur" Sudan Issue Brief Number 4, p. 3, Human Security Baseline Assessment, Small Arms Survey, Geneva, Switzerland, from Internet Archives
  8. ^ "Account Suspended". Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  9. ^ "مفكرة الإسلام : قيادات ميدانية بدارفور تنشق عن حركة الع". 10 November 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  10. ^
  11. ^ "Account Suspended". Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2014.

External links[edit]