Sudden unexpected death syndrome
|Classification and external resources|
Sudden unexpected death syndrome (SUDS), sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS), sudden adult death syndrome (SADS), or bed death is sudden unexpected death of adolescents and adults, many during sleep. Sudden unexplained death syndrome was first noted in 1977 among Hmong refugees in the US. The disease was again noted in Singapore, when a retrospective survey of records showed that 230 otherwise healthy Thai men died suddenly of unexplained causes between 1982 and 1990: In the Philippines, where it is referred to in the vernacular as bangungot, SUNDS affects 43 per 100,000 per year among young Filipinos. Most of those affected are young males.
No cause of death is found, even after extensive examination in 5% of cases.
A sudden death in a young person can be caused by heart disease (including cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, myocarditis, genetic connective tissue disorders, mitral valve prolapse or conduction disease), medication-related causes or other causes.
Rare diseases called channelopathies may play a roles such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada syndrome CPVT (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia), PCCD (progressive cardiac conduction defect), early repolarisation syndrome, mixed sodium channel disease, and short QT syndrome.
In some cultures, SUNDS has been cloaked in superstition. Many Filipinos believe ingesting high levels of carbohydrates just before sleeping causes bangungot. It has only been recently that the scientific world has begun to understand this syndrome. Victims of bangungot have not been found to have any organic heart diseases or structural heart problems. However, cardiac activity during SUNDS episodes indicates irregular heart rhythms and ventricular fibrillation. The victim survives this episode if the heart's rhythm goes back to normal. Older Filipinos recommend wiggling the big toe of people experiencing this to encourage their heart to snap back to normal.
In the Philippines, most cases of "bangungot" have been linked with acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis by Filipino medical personnel although the effect might have been due to changes in the pancreas during post-mortem autolysis. In Thailand and Laos, bangungot (or in their term, sudden adult death syndrome) is caused by the Brugada syndrome.
This phenomenon is well known among the Hmong people of Laos, who ascribe these deaths to a malign spirit, dab tsuam (pronounced "da cho"), said to take the form of a jealous woman. Hmong men may even go to sleep dressed as women so as to avoid the attentions of this spirit.
Hmong people believed that rejecting the role of becoming a shaman, they are taken into the spirit world.
Bangungot is depicted in the Philippines as a mythological creature called batibat or bangungot. This hag-like creature sits on the victim's face or chest so as to immobilize and suffocate him. When this occurs, the victim usually experiences paralysis. It's said that one should bite their tongue and wiggle their toes to try to get out of this paralysis or they may die from suffocation.
Name variations in English
|sudden unexpected death syndrome||SUDS|
|sudden unexplained death syndrome||SUDS|
|sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome||SUNDS|
|sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome||SUNDS|
|sudden adult death syndrome||SADS||(parallel in form with SIDS)|
|sudden arrhythmia death syndrome||SADS|
|sudden arrhythmic death syndrome||SADS|
|sudden arrhythmic cardiac death syndrome||—|
Names in different languages
|bangungot or uom||Filipino||The term originated from the Tagalog word meaning "to rise and moan in sleep". It is also the Tagalog word for nightmare.|
|lai tai||Thai||(Thai: ใหลตาย; meaning "sleep and die")|
|albarsty (Kyrgyz: албарсты)||Kyrgyz|
- Brugada syndrome
- Sudden infant death syndrome
- Yunnan sudden death syndrome
- Sleep paralysis
- Freddy Krueger
- "Documentary maker died of sudden adult death syndrome, coroner rules" by Caroline Davies, The Guardian, December 12, 2013, Retrieved 2013-12-31
- Also known as SUDS. See: Reddy PR, Reinier K, Singh T, Mariani R, Gunson K, Jui J, Chugh SS. Physical activity as a trigger of sudden cardiac arrest: The Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study. Int J Cardiol. 2008
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- Ramos, Maximo D. (1971). Creatures of Philippine Lower Mythology. Philippines: University of the Philippines Press.
- . Munger, Ronald G.; Booton, Elizabeth A. (1998). "Bangungut in Manila: sudden and unexplained death in sleep of adult Filipinos" (PDF). International Journal of Epidemiology 27 (4): 677–684. doi:10.1093/ije/27.4.677. PMID 9758125. Retrieved 2011-07-29.[dead link]
- http://www.inq7.net/lif/2004/jun/19/lif_7-1.htm (link broken as of 3 October 2007).
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- Gotoh K (1976). "A histopathological study on the conduction system of the so-called "Pokkuri disease" (sudden unexpected cardiac death of unknown origin in Japan". Jpn Circ J 40 (7): 753–68. doi:10.1253/jcj.40.753. PMID 966364.
- Agence France Presse (8 April 2002). "Sleeping death syndrome terrorises young men". The Borneo Post.
- Center for Disease Control (23 September 1988). "Sudden Unexplained Death Syndrome Among Southeast Asian Refugees". MMWR.