Sue (dinosaur)

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Sues skeleton.jpg
Catalog no. FMNH PR 2081
Common name Sue
Species Tyrannosaurus rex
Age about 67 million years[1]
Place discovered Cheyenne River Indian Reservation, South Dakota
Date discovered August 12, 1990
Discovered by Susan Hendrickson

Sue[a] is the nickname given to FMNH PR 2081, which is the largest, most extensive and best preserved Tyrannosaurus rex specimen ever found at over 90% recovered by bulk.[2] It was discovered in August 1990, by Sue Hendrickson, an explorer and fossil collector, and was named after her. After ownership disputes were settled, the fossil was auctioned in October 1997, for US $8.3 million, the highest amount ever paid for a dinosaur fossil, and is now a permanent feature at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois.[3]


Black Hills Institute of Geological Research from Hill City, South Dakota

During the summer of 1990, a group of workers from the Black Hills Institute, located in Hill City, searched for fossils at the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota near the city of Faith. By the end of the summer, the group had discovered Edmontosaurus bones and was ready to leave. However, a flat tire was discovered on their truck before the group could depart on August 12.[4] While the rest of the group went into town to repair the truck, Sue Hendrickson decided to explore the nearby cliffs that the group had not checked. As she was walking along the base of a cliff, she discovered some small pieces of bone. She looked above her to see where the bones had originated, and observed larger bones protruding from the wall of the cliff. She returned to camp with two small pieces of the bones and reported the discovery to the president of the Black Hills Institute, Peter Larson.[5] He determined that the bones were from a T. rex by their distinctive contour and texture. Later, closer examination of the site showed many visible bones above the ground and some articulated vertebrae.[6] The crew ordered extra plaster and, although some of the crew had to depart, Hendrickson and a few other workers began to uncover the bones. The group was excited, as it was evident that much of the dinosaur had been preserved. Previously discovered T. rex skeletons were usually missing over half of their bones.[6] It was later determined that Sue was a record 90 percent complete by bulk,[7] and 73% complete counting the elements.[8] Scientists believe that this specimen was covered by water and mud soon after its death which prevented other animals from carrying away the bones.[9] Additionally, the rushing water mixed the skeleton together. When the fossil was found the hip bones were above the skull and the leg bones were intertwined with the ribs. The large size and the excellent condition of the bones were also surprising. The skull was 1,394 mm (54.9 in) long, and most of the teeth were still intact. After the group completed excavating the bones, each block was covered in burlap and coated in plaster, followed by a transfer to the offices of The Black Hills Institute where they began to clean the bones.

Dispute and auction[edit]

Field Museum Fossil Preparation Lab

Soon after the fossils were found, a dispute arose over their legal ownership. The Black Hills Institute had obtained permission from the owner of the land, Maurice Williams, to excavate and remove the skeleton, and had, according to Larson, paid Williams US$5,000 for the remains.[10] Williams later claimed that the money had not been for the sale of the fossil and that he had only allowed Larson to remove and clean the fossil for a later sale.[6] Williams was a member of the Sioux tribe, and the tribe claimed the bones belonged to them. However, the property that the fossil had been found within was held in trust by the United States Department of the Interior.

In 1992, the FBI and the South Dakota National Guard raided the site where The Black Hills Institute had been cleaning the bones and seized the fossil,[11] charging Larson on 158 points. The government transferred the remains to the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, where the skeleton was stored until the penal and civil legal disputes were settled. The United States Senate voted to not confirm the appointment of Kevin Schieffer as United States Attorney for the District of South Dakota after his controversial handling of the penal case. Larson was in 1996 convicted to a two year prison sentence on charges not directly related to Sue. After a lengthy civil case, the court decreed that Maurice Williams retained ownership, because as a beneficiary he was protected by the law against an impulsive selling of real property, and the remains were returned in 1995. Williams then decided to sell the remains, and contracted with Sotheby's to auction the property. Many were then worried that the fossil would end up in a private collection where people would not be able to observe it.[12][13] The Field Museum in Chicago was also concerned about this possibility, and decided to attempt to purchase Sue. However, the organization realized that they might have had difficulty securing funding and requested that companies and private citizens provide financial support. The California State University system, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, McDonald's, Ronald McDonald House Charities, and individual donors agreed to assist in purchasing Sue for The Field Museum. On October 4, 1997, the auction began at US$500,000; less than ten minutes later, The Field Museum had purchased the remains with the highest bid of US$7.6 million. The final cost with buyer's premium was US$8,362,500.[14][15][16] This is the highest amount ever paid for a dinosaur fossil.[17]


Sue's skull

The Field Museum hired a specialized moving company with experience in transporting delicate items to move the bones to Chicago. The truck arrived at the museum in October 1997. Two new research laboratories funded by McDonald's were created and staffed by Field Museum preparators whose job was to slowly and carefully remove all the rock, or "matrix", from the bones. One preparation lab was at the Field Museum itself, the other was at the newly opened Animal Kingdom in Disney World in Orlando. Millions of visitors observed the preparation of Sue's bones through glass windows in both labs. Footage of the work was also put on the museum's website. Several of the fossil's bones had never been discovered, so preparators produced models of the missing bones from plastic to complete the exhibit. The modeled bones were colored in a purplish hue so that visitors could observe which bones were real and which bones were plastic. The preparators also poured molds of each bone. All the molds were sent to a company outside Toronto to be cast in hollow plastic. Field Museum kept one set of disarticulated casts in its research collection. The other sets were incorporated into mounted cast skeletons. One set of the casts was sent to Disney's Animal Kingdom in Florida to be presented for public display. Two other mounted casts were placed into a traveling tour that was sponsored by the McDonald's Corporation.[9]

Once the preparators finished removing the matrix from each bone, it was sent to the museum's photographer who made high-quality photographs. From there, the museum's paleontologists began the study of the skeleton. In addition to photographing and studying each bone, the research staff also arranged for CT scanning of select bones. The skull was too large to fit into a medical CT scanner, so Boeing's Rocketdyne laboratory in California agreed to let the museum use their CT scanner that was normally used to inspect space shuttle parts.[18]

Bone damage[edit]

Front view of Sue's replacement skull

Close examination of the bones revealed that Sue was 28 years old at the time of death—the oldest T. rex known until Trix was found in 2013. A Nova episode said that the death occurred in a seasonal stream bed, which washed away some small bones. During life, this carnivore received several injuries and suffered from numerous pathologies.[9] An injury to the right shoulder region of Sue resulted in a damaged shoulder blade, a torn tendon in the right arm due most likely from a struggle with prey, and three broken ribs.[19] This damage subsequently healed (though one rib healed into two separate pieces), indicating Sue survived the incident. The left fibula is twice the diameter of the right one, likely the result of infection. Original reports of this broken bone were contradicted by the CT scans which showed no fracture. Multiple holes in the front of the skull were originally thought to be either from a bacterial infection or bite marks by some other tyrannosaur. A subsequent study found these to be areas of parasitic infection instead, possibly from an infestation of an ancestral form of Trichomonas gallinae, a protozoan parasite that infests birds and ultimately leads to death by starvation due to internal swelling of the neck.[20][21] Damage to the back end of the skull was interpreted early on as a fatal bite wound. Subsequent study by Field Museum paleontologists found no bite marks. The distortion and breakage seen in some of the bones in the back of the skull was likely caused by post-mortem trampling. Some of the tail vertebrae are fused in a pattern typical of arthritis due to injury. The animal is also believed to have suffered from gout.[22] Scholars debate exactly how the animal died; the cause of death is ultimately unknown.[6]


Side view of the display

After the bones were prepared, photographed and studied, they were sent to New Jersey where work began on making the mount. This work consists of bending steel to support each bone safely and to display the entire skeleton articulated as it was in life. The real skull was not incorporated into the mount as subsequent study would be difficult with the head 4 m (13 ft) off the ground. Parts of the skull had been crushed and broken, and thus appeared distorted. The museum made a cast of the skull, and altered this cast to remove the distortions, thus approximating what the original undistorted skull may have looked like. The cast skull was also lighter, allowing it to be displayed on the mount without the use of a steel upright under the head. The original skull is exhibited in a case that can be opened to allow researchers access for study.

The Sue exhibit opened on May 17, 2000, with more than 10,000 visitors.[23] John Gurche, a paleoartist, painted a mural of a Tyrannosaurus for the exhibit.[24]

New mount[edit]

Updated mount of Sue

The Field Museum is relocating Sue. The T. Rex's new location will be on the second floor, with a new exhibit dedicated to the specimen. Sue was moved in February 2018 and will be gone for about a year while the new exhibit is prepared.[25][26] In the place of Sue within Stanley Field Hall is a mounted cast of a titanosaur skeleton, a Patagotitan dubbed "Maximo".[27]

When Sue was originally mounted in 2000, scientists used a small part of gastralia as a hypothetical furcula.[citation needed] The new mount will not only correct this with the proper furcula, it will mount the entire gastralia to the rest of the skeleton.[28]


Sue has a length of 12.3 meters (40 ft), stands 3.7 m (12 ft) tall at the hips, and has been estimated at between 8.4–14 metric tons (9.26–15.4 short tons) in recent estimates.[29][30][31][better source needed] It has been estimated by Hutchinson et al. in 2011 at between 9.5–18.5 metric tons (10.5–20.4 short tons), though the authors stated that their upper and lower estimates were based on models with wide error bars and that they "consider them [these extremes] to be too skinny, too fat, or too disproportionate".[29] Another recent estimate portraying a leaner build placed the specimen at 8.4 metric tons (9.3 short tons).[30] Historically more out of date estimations placed this specimen as low as 5.7–6.4 metric tons (6.3–7.1 short tons) in weight.[32][33] Sue's skull, which is displayed separately from the whole body display, weighs in at over 270 kg (600 lb).[34] Of course, this weight represents the current mineralized fossil weight and the original weight would have been less. Currently this is the largest known complete tyrannosaur specimen on record.[35]

In the media[edit]

A 1997 episode of the PBS show Nova, "Curse of the T. Rex", discussed the history of the discovery and ensuing legal challenges.[36][37]

Director Todd Miller's documentary Dinosaur 13, which is about Sue's discovery and subsequent legal actions, appeared at the 2014 Sundance Film Festival.[38]

In 2015, an episode of NPR's Planet Money discussed the acquisition of Sue from a financial and legal perspective.[39]

The personified dinosaur, through Sue's official Twitter and Field Museum press releases, uses the singular they pronoun and identifies as non-binary, as the specimen's sex has not been determined.[40][41][28] This has led to some calling Sue a non-binary icon.[42]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The name officially is stylized in all capital letters: SUE.[43][44] This helps distinguish the specimen from its discoverer, Sue Hendrickson.[40]


  1. ^ "Sue the T. Rex". Field Museum. February 5, 2018. Retrieved July 20, 2018. 
  2. ^ "Unearthing the Secrets of Sue: Educators Guide" (PDF). The Field Museum (Second ed.). The Field Museum. pp. 3, 52. Retrieved July 9, 2016. 
  3. ^ "Sue at The Field Museum". The Field Museum. Retrieved December 19, 2014. 
  4. ^ Wright, Tommy: Unveiling Sue Archived April 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved on April 9, 2007
  5. ^ "T. rex dig goes online" (PDF). Retrieved December 1, 2007. 
  6. ^ a b c d Larson, Peter; Donnan, Kristin. Wex Appeal. 2002.
  7. ^ The Field Museum. "Unearthing the Secrets of Sue: Educator Guide" (PDF) (Second ed.). pp. 3, 52. Retrieved July 9, 2016. 
  8. ^ Larson, P, 2008, "One Hundred Years of Tyrannosaurus rex: The Skeletons", In: Larson and Carpenter (eds.). Tyrannosaurus rex: The Tyrant King. Indiana University Press
  9. ^ a b c Relf, Pat. A Dinosaur Named Sue: The Story of the Colossal Fossil. 2000.
  10. ^ Cherry, Miriam: A T-Rex Named Sue Archived April 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved on April 9, 2007
  11. ^ Cataldo, Rosie: Digging for dollars Archived February 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved on April 9, 2007
  12. ^ Monastersky, Richard: For the Sake of Sue Archived December 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved on December 6, 2007
  13. ^ Poling, Jeff: Reserving "Sue" Archived December 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved on December 6, 2007
  14. ^ Hoganson, John W. (Summer–Fall 1998). "The Selling of the Tyrannosaurus rex Named "Sue": Its Effect on North Dakota's Fossil Resource Management Program" (PDF). NDGS Newsletter. 25 (2). pp. 14–17. 
  15. ^
  16. ^ Freedom du Lac, J. (April 5, 2014). "The T. rex that got away: Smithsonian's quest for Sue ends with different dinosaur". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 12, 2014. 
  17. ^ Steve Fiffer (2000). Tyrannosaurus Sue. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York. ISBN 0-7167-4017-6.  Chapter 12 "Everything Changed that Day".
  18. ^ Lee, William: Dissecting a Dinosaur Mummy Archived December 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved on January 2, 2008
  19. ^ Rothschild, B., Tanke, D. H., and Ford, T. L., 2001, Theropod stress fractures and tendon avulsions as a clue to activity: In: Mesozoic Vertebrate Life, edited by Tanke, D. H., and Carpenter, K., Indiana University Press, p. 331-336.
  20. ^ Wolff, EDS; Salisbury, SW; Horner, JR; Varricci, DJ; Hansen, Davis Marinus; et al. (September 30, 2009). "Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs". PLOS ONE. doi:10.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007288. Retrieved July 9, 2016. 
  21. ^ Johnson, John, Jr. (September 30, 2009). "Throat infection may have brought down T. rex". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 21, 2018. 
  22. ^ Rothschild, BM; Tanke D; Carpenter K (1997). "Tyrannosaurs suffered from gout". Nature. 387 (6631): 357. doi:10.1038/387357a0. PMID 9163417. 
  23. ^ Hartman, Holly: Tyrannosaurus Sue, Retrieved on April 9, 2007
  24. ^ "Local artist honored for T-rex painting". Denver Post. November 12, 2000. A42.
  25. ^ Johnson, Steve (August 30, 2017). "Move Over, Sue: World's Largest Dinosaur Taking Center Stage at Field Museum". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  26. ^ Johnson, Steve; Geib, Phil (February 5, 2018). "The Dismantling of Sue". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 12, 2018. 
  27. ^ Bentle, Kyle (June 6, 2018). "How Big Is New Field Museum Dinosaur? See for Yourself". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 12, 2018. 
  28. ^ a b "I (SUE the T. rex) am moving to my own place and all y'all are invited". Field Museum. January 30, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018. 
  29. ^ a b Hutchinson, J. R.; Bates, K. T.; Molnar, J.; Allen, V.; Makovicky, P. J. (2011). "A Computational Analysis of Limb and Body Dimensions in Tyrannosaurus rex with Implications for Locomotion, Ontogeny, and Growth". PLoS ONE. 6 (10): e26037. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026037. PMC 3192160Freely accessible. PMID 22022500. 
  30. ^ a b Hartman, Scott (July 7, 2013). "Mass estimates: North vs South redux". Scott Hartman's Skeletal Retrieved August 24, 2013. 
  31. ^ "Sue Fact Sheet" (PDF). Sue at the Field Museum. Field Museum of Natural History. 
  32. ^ Erickson, Gregory M.; Makovicky, Peter J.; Currie, Philip J.; Norell, Mark A.; Yerby, Scott A.; Brochu, Christopher A. (2004). "Gigantism and comparative life-history parameters of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs". Nature. 430 (7001): 772–775. doi:10.1038/nature02699. PMID 15306807. 
  33. ^
  34. ^ "Sue Press Release". Field Museum of Natural History. Retrieved June 22, 2018. 
  35. ^ Socha, Vladimír (October 20, 2016). "Which T. rex specimen is the largest". Retrieved October 20, 2016. 
  36. ^ "Nova: January – December 1997". Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  37. ^ Gliatto, Tom (February 24, 1997), "Picks and Pans Review: Nova: Curse of T. Rex", People, 47 (7), retrieved August 12, 2015 
  38. ^ Means, Sean, "Sundance Film Festival: The 67 titles announced in competition categories, Next program". Retrieved December 5, 2013. 
  39. ^ Smith, Stacey Vanek (October 30, 2015). "Episode 660: The T-Rex In My Backyard". Planet Money (Podcast). NPR. 
  40. ^ a b Russell, Jesse (September 11, 2017). "Reports of SUE The T. Rex's Twitter Extinction Greatly Exaggerated". UpOut. Chicago. Retrieved July 21, 2018. 
  41. ^ Volpe, Theresa (February 6, 2018). "Sue the T. rex goes nonbinary". Windy City Times. Retrieved July 21, 2018. 
  42. ^ Fleenor, S.E. (May 4, 2018). "How a T. Rex Named SUE Became a Nonbinary Icon". them. Retrieved July 21, 2018. 
  43. ^ Grande, Lance (2017). Curators: Behind the Scenes of Natural History Museums. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-226-19275-8. 
  44. ^ Donald, Elizabeth (February 4, 2018). "Field Museum T. rex SUE making way for bigger dinosaur". Journal Star. Peoria, IL. Retrieved July 21, 2018. 

Further reading[edit]

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