Suicide among LGBT youth
|Part of a series on|
|Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people|
|Prejudice / Violence|
|Academic fields and
||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (January 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Researchers have found that attempted suicide rates and suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQQ) youth is comparatively higher than among the general population. LGBT teens and young adults have one of the highest rates of suicide attempts. According to some groups, this is linked to heterocentric cultures and institutionalised homophobia in some cases, including the use of rights and protections for LGBT people as a political wedge issue like in the contemporary efforts to halt legalising same-sex marriages. Depression and drug use among LGBT people have both been shown to increase significantly after new laws that discriminate against gay people are passed.
Research on completed suicides in sexual minorities is preliminary. Members of the LGBT community have higher rates of all-cause mortality, and those living in areas with a higher degree of social stigma towards homosexuality tend to complete suicide at a younger age.
Bullying of LGBT youth has been shown to be a contributing factor in many suicides, even if not all of the attacks have been specifically addressing sexuality or gender. Since a series of suicides in the early 2000s, more attention has been focused on the issues and underlying causes in an effort to reduce suicides among LGBTQ youth. The Family Acceptance Project's research has demonstrated that "parental acceptance, and even neutrality, with regard to a child's sexual orientation" can bring down the attempted suicide rate. Suicidal ideation and attempts seem to be roughly the same for heterosexual youth as for youth counterparts who have same-sex attractions and behavior but do not identify as being LGBTQ. This correlates with the findings of a large survey of US adults that found higher rates of "mood and anxiety disorders, key risk factors for suicidal behavior," are linked to people who identify as gay, lesbian, and bisexual, rather than sexual behaviors, especially for men.
The National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention notes there are no national data (for the U.S.) regarding suicidal ideation or suicide rates among the LGBT population as a whole or in part, for LGBT youth or LGBT seniors, for example. In part because there is no agreed percentage of the national population that is LGBTQ, or even identifies as LGBTQ, also death certificates do not include sexuality information. A 1986 study noted that previous large scale studies of completed suicides did not "consider sexual orientation in their data analyses."
Reports and studies
Clinical social worker Caitlin Ryan's Family Acceptance Project (San Francisco State University) conducted the first study of the effect of family acceptance and rejection on the health, mental health and well-being of LGBT youth, including suicide, HIV/AIDS and homelessness. Their research shows that LGBT youths "who experience high levels of rejection from their families during adolescence (when compared with those young people who experienced little or no rejection from parents and caregivers) were more than eight times likely to have attempted suicide, more than six times likely to report high levels of depression, more than three times likely to use illegal drugs and more than three times likely to be at high risk for HIV or other STDs" by the time they reach their early 20s.[dead link]
Numerous studies have shown that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth have a higher rate of suicide attempts than do heterosexual youth. The Suicide Prevention Resource Center synthesized these studies and estimated that between 30 and 40% of LGBT youth, depending on age and sex groups, have attempted suicide. A U.S. government study, titled Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide, published in 1989, found that LGBT youth are four times more likely to attempt suicide than other young people. This higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and overall mental health problems among gay teenagers compared to their heterosexual peers has been attributed to minority stress. "More than 34,000 people die by suicide each year," making it "the third leading cause of death among 15 to 24 year olds with lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth attempting suicide up to four times more than their heterosexual peers."
It is impossible to know the exact suicide rate of LGBT youth because sexuality and gender minorities are often hidden and even unknown, particularly in this age group. Further research is currently being done to explain the prevalence of suicide among LGBT youths.
In terms of school climate, "approximately 25 percent of lesbian, gay and bisexual students and university employees have been harassed due to their sexual orientation, as well as a third of those who identify as transgender, according to the study and reported by the Chronicle of Higher Education." Research has found the presence of gay-straight alliances (GSAs) in schools is associated with decreased suicide attempts; in a study of LGBTQ youth, ages 13–22, 16.9% of youth who attended schools with GSAs attempted suicide versus 33.1% of students who attended schools without GSAs.
"LGBT students are three times as likely as non-LGBT students to say that they do not feel safe at school (22% vs. 7%) and 90% of LGBT students (vs. 62% of non-LGBT teens) have been harassed or assaulted during the past year." In addition, "LGBQ students were more likely than heterosexual students to have seriously considered leaving their institution as a result of harassment and discrimination." Susan Rankin, a contributing author to the report in Miami, found that “Unequivocally, The 2010 State of Higher Education for LGBT People demonstrates that LGBTQ students, faculty and staff experience a ‘chilly’ campus climate of harassment and far less than welcoming campus communities."
The internet is also an important factor for LGBTQ. An international study found that suicidal LGBTQ showed important differences with suicidal heterosexuals, in a matched-pairs study. That study found suicidal LGBTQ were more likely to communicate suicidal intentions, more likely to search for new friends online, and found more support online than did suicidal heterosexuals.
According to a study in Taiwan, 1 in 5 or 20% of Taiwanese gay people have attempted suicide.
Developmental psychology perspectives
The diathesis-stress model suggests that biological vulnerabilities predispose individuals to different conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and mental health conditions like major depression, a risk factor for suicide. Varying amounts of environmental stress increase the probability that these individuals will develop that condition. Minority stress theory suggests that minority status leads to increased discrimination from the social environment which leads to greater stress and health problems. In the presence of poor emotion regulation skills this can lead to poor mental health. Also, the differential susceptibility hypothesis suggests that for some individuals their physical and mental development is highly dependent on their environment in a “for-better-and-for-worse” fashion. That is, individuals who are highly susceptible will have better than average health in highly supportive environments and significantly worse than average health in hostile, violent environments. The model can help explain the unique health problems affecting LGBT populations including increased suicide attempts. For adolescents, the most relevant environments are the family, neighborhood, and school. Adolescent bullying - which is highly prevalent among sexual minority youths - is a chronic stressor that can increase risk for suicide via the diathesis-stress model. In a study of American lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents, Mark Hatzenbuehler examined the effect of the county-level social environment. This was indexed by the proportion of same-sex couples and Democrats living in the counties. Also included were the proportions of schools with gay-straight alliances as well as anti-bullying and antidiscrimination policies that include sexual orientation. He found that a more conservative social environment elevated risk in suicidal behavior among all youth and that this effect was stronger for LGB youth. Furthermore, he found that the social environment partially mediated the relation between LGB status and suicidal behaviour. Hatzenbuehler found that even after such social as well as individual factors were controlled for, however, that "LGB status remained a significant predictor of suicide attempts."
Institutionalized and internalized homophobia
Institutionalized and internalized homophobia may also lead LGBT youth to not accept themselves and have deep internal conflicts about their sexual orientation. Parents may force children out of home after the child's coming out.
Homophobia arrived at by any means can be a gateway to bullying which can take many forms. Physical bullying is kicking, punching, while emotional bullying is name calling, spreading rumors and other verbal abuse. Cyber bullying involves abusive text messages or messages of the same nature on Facebook, Twitter, and other social media networks. Sexual bullying is inappropriate touching, lewd gestures or jokes.
Bullying may be considered a "rite of passage", but studies have shown it has negative physical and psychological effects. "Sexual minority youth, or teens that identify themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual, are bullied two to three times more than heterosexuals", and "almost all transgender students have been verbally harassed (e.g., called names or threatened in the past year at school because of their sexual orientation (89%) and gender expression (89%)") according to GLSEN's Harsh Realities, The Experiences of Transgender Youth In Our Nation’s Schools.
This issue has been a hot topic for media outlets over the past few years, and even more so in the months of September and October 2010. President Barack Obama has posted an "It Gets Better" video on The White House website as part of the It Gets Better Project. First lady Michelle Obama attributes such behaviors to the examples parents set as, in most cases, children follow their lead.
The Trevor Project
"The Trevor Project was founded by director/producer Peggy Rajski, producer Randy Stone and screenwriter James Lecesne, creators of the 1994 Academy Award-winning short film, Trevor, a comedy/drama about a gay 13-year-old boy who, when rejected by friends because of his sexuality, makes an attempt to take his life." They are an American non-profit organization that operates the only nationwide, offering around-the-clock crisis and suicide prevention helpline for LGBTQ youth, the project "is determined to end suicide among LGBTQ youth by providing life-saving and life-affirming resources including our nationwide, 24/7 crisis intervention lifeline, digital community and advocacy/educational programs that create a safe, supportive and positive environment for everyone."
It Gets Better Project
It Gets Better Project is an Internet-based campaign founded in the US by Dan Savage and his partner Terry Miller in September 2010, in response to the suicides of teenagers who were bullied because they were gay or because their peers suspected that they were gay. Its goal is to prevent suicide among LGBT youth by having gay adults convey the message through social media videos that these teens' lives will improve. The project has grown rapidly: over 200 videos were uploaded in the first week, and the project's YouTube channel reached the 650 video limit in the next week. The project is now organized on its own website, the It Gets Better Project, and includes more than 30,000 entries, with more than 40 million views, from people of all sexual orientations, including many celebrities. A book of essays from the project, It Gets Better: Coming Out, Overcoming Bullying, and Creating a Life Worth Living, was released in March 2011.
A number of policy options have been repeatedly proposed to address this issue. Some advocate intervention at the stage in which youth are already suicidal (such as crisis hotlines), while others advocate programs directed at increasing LGBT youth access to factors found to be “protective” against suicide (such as social support networks or mentors).
One proposed option is to provide LGBT-sensitivity and anti-bullying training to current middle and high school counselors and teachers. Citing a study by Jordan et al., school psychologist Anastasia Hansen notes that hearing teachers make homophobic remarks or fail to intervene when students make such remarks are both positively correlated with negative feelings about an LGBT identity Conversely, a number of researchers have found the presence of LGBT-supportive school staff to be related to “positive outcomes for GLBT youth.” Citing a 2006 Psychology in the Schools report, The Trevor Project notes that “lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth who believe they have just one school staff member with whom they can talk about problems are only 1/3 as likely as those without that support to… report making multiple suicide attempts in the past year.”
Another frequently proposed policy option involves providing grant incentives for schools to create and/or support Gay-Straight Alliances, student groups dedicated to providing a social support network for LGBT students. Kosciw and Diaz, researchers for the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network, found in a nationwide survey that “students in schools with a GSA were less likely to feel unsafe, less likely to miss school, and more likely to feel that they belonged at their school than students in schools with no such clubs.” Studies have shown that social isolation and marginalization at school are psychologically damaging to LGBT students, and that GSAs and other similar peer-support group can be effective providers of this “psychosocial support.”
Early Interventions for LGBT Youth
Be Proactive and Understanding
Educators can be proactive in helping adolescents with gender identity and the questions/ issues that sometimes come that can help teens so that they do not resort to suicide, drug abuse, homelessness, and many psychological problems. Van Wormer & McKinney (2003), relate that understanding LBGT students is the first step to suicide prevention. They use a harm reduction approach, which meets students where they are to reduce any continued harm linked with their behaviors. They relate that creating a supportive and culturally diverse environment is crucial to social acceptance in an educational setting.
LGBT Role Models/Resources
It is beneficial to hire LGBT teachers to serve as role models and support LGBTQ students. Many of the resources in the U.S. are crisis driven not prevention driven which needs to be the other way around in order to prevent suicide for LGBT adolescents. Furthermore, studies show that counselors and teachers need to be trained in self-awareness, sexuality and sexual diversity with themselves and with students. Researchers also suggest inviting gay/lesbian and bisexual panels from colleges or universities to conduct classroom discussions. Education and resources is key to helping LGBT students and families.
Having a PFLAG (Parents Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays) and GSA Club are great resources to promote discussions and leadership roles to LBGT students. These resources extend outside of school and in the community. (Greytak, E. A., Kosciw, J. G., & Boesen, M. J. 2013) report that when schools have a GSA or Gay Straight Alliance club or a club promoting social awareness and camaraderie of sorts, supportive educators, inclusive curricula, and comprehensive policies that LGBT students were victimized less and had more positive school experiences. Students will feel positive and want to be in school. Educators must communicate the values of diversity in the school community with students and parents. They also must be role models in promoting understanding and social awareness.
Teach Tolerance and Examine a School’s Climate
Examine a school’s climate and teach tolerance – Teaching Tolerance is a movement, magazine and website which gives many useful tools and ideas to help people be tolerant of one another. It demonstrates that the classroom is a reflection of the world around us. Educators can use Teach Tolerance’s website and book to download resources and look up creative ways to learn more about LBGT students and teaching tolerance to their students in the classroom. It helps schools get started with anti-bullying training and professional development and resource suggestions. It even relates common roadblocks and tips to starting a GSA club.
Research shows that a collaborative effort must be made in order to prevent LGBT students from being bullied and/or committing suicide. Teachers, administrators, students, families, and communities need to come together to help LGBT students be confident. Each school has its own individuality, its own sense of “self”, whether it be the teachers, administrators, students, or the surrounding community. In order to tackle the issue of bullying for LGBT students it needs to start with understanding the student population and demographic where the school lies. Educating students, faculty, staff, and school boards on LGBT issues and eliminating homophobia and trans phobia in schools, training staff on diversity acceptance and bullying prevention, and implementing Gay-Straight Alliances is key to suicide prevention for LGBT students (Bacon, Laura Ann 2011). Adolescents grow and are shaped by many factors including internal and external features (Swearer, Espelage, Vaillancourt, & Hymel, 2010).
The school climate must foster respect. Thus, setting the tone for administration, teachers, professionals who enter the building, parents and most importantly the students. People, in general, need to understand their own misconceptions and stereotypes of what being LGBT is. Unless students and adults are educated on the LGBT community, than stereotypes and negative attitudes will continue to exist (Knotts, G., & Gregorio, D. 2011). The GMCLA (Gay Men’s Chorus of Los Angeles) use music and singing as a vehicle for changing the attitudes and hearts of people in schools nationwide. Their goal is to bring music to standards-driven curriculum to youth with the purpose of teaching content in innovative and meaningful ways. They instill in students and staff techniques to foster positive meaning of the social and personal issues dealt with in school and society.
(Gay, L. 2009) has generated a guide to helping school safety/climate and fostering positive interpersonal relationships through "The Safe Space Kit." This tool helps teachers create a safe space for LGBT students. One of the most effective ways for an educator to create a safe space is to be a supportive ally to LGBT students. This kit has numerous tools for teachers and schools to utilize, including: a hard copy of "The Safe Space Kit" includes the "Guide to Being an Ally," stickers and two Safe Space posters. Even utilizing something just to promote awareness, such as using “The Safe Space Kit” could be a good first step for schools to promote responsiveness to LGBT students. Providing some supports rather than none at all can benefit LGBT youth tremendously now and in the future (Greytak, et al. 2013).
OBPP (Olweus Bullying Prevention Program)
OBPP is an anti-bullying program utilized in schools in Europe, Canada and the U.S. Reductions in bullying were due to parent training, playground supervision, home-school communication, classroom rules, and training videos. Furthermore, Swearer, et al. (2010) discuss a “dosage effect” in which the more positive and consistent elements included in a program, the more the likelihood that bullying would decrease. Success in one school does not guarantee success in another because each school has its own social climate. The OBPP is effective but still needs to be analyzed further, since there are many things to consider when implementing this technique within a large school.
Steps To Respect
Steps To Respect is an anti-bullying campaign which can be beneficial in schools as well- it is a comprehensive guide for teachers, administrators, and students utilizing in class lessons and training helping schools foster positive social- emotional skills and conflict resolution. If schools are able to change peer conduct and norms, increase student communication skills, and maintain adult prevention and intervention efforts, the positive effects of their work will strengthen over time (Frey, Edstrom & Hirschstein 2005) and continue to grow as each class progresses through the school system.
Make Curriculum Changes
According to Russell, S. T., McGuire, J. K., Laub, C., & Manke, E. (2006), it is imperative for educators to make subject and age appropriate lessons with LGBT issues incorporated into the curriculum on a consistent basis utilizing current events, history, literature, or social sciences. Teachers should be trained each year on new practices to employ in their classrooms and in school in general. They should be taught how to handle situations they may face with LGBT students, so that if a problem should arise, they will be confident in their own understandings of the LGBT community and know how to handle any question or situation professionally and empathetically. Russell, et al. (2006) report that state policy and government officials need to be mindful of this ever changing culture we live in by enforcing and including material appropriate in schools to educate educators on LGBT people in our world.
(Burdge, H., Sinclair, K., Laub, C., Russell, S. T. 2012) relate numerous lessons, which each subject area teacher can teach to enforce LGBT inclusivity and school safety. They report that lessons, which promote LGBT inclusivity, can have the greatest impact on school safety. Physical education, health, history, and social studies teachers can educate all students to have more social awareness and create a positive school climate. They continue to note that inviting parents, teachers, administrators and other key stakeholders to identify and/or participate in the development of age-appropriate LGBT-inclusive lessons that teachers can use in their classrooms is most beneficial.
Educators must continue to try new trends, constantly assessing the environment of their school. The best policies and interventions are those, which show positive growth across grade levels. Research should continue to see which programs suit the needs of different schools over a period of time. Since each school varies in many ways, it may be hard to report positive trends. One technique that works in one school may or may not work for another. Therefore, taking pieces of one technique and making it into something that molds best to each school and environment is key.
- List of LGBT-related suicides
- List of suicides which have been attributed to bullying
- Coming out
- LGBT community
- Day of Silence
- Minority Stress
- Suicide intervention
- Transgender youth
- Violence against LGBT people
- The Yogyakarta Principles
- Jadin Bell
- Suicide of Jamey Rodemeyer
- Kenneth Weishuhn
- Death of Leelah Alcorn
- Suicide of Tyler Clementi
- Death of Blake Brockington
- Haas, Ann P.; Eliason, Mickey; Mays, Vickie M.; Mathy, Robin M.; Cochran, Susan D.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.; Silverman, Morton M.; Fisher, Prudence W.; Hughes, Tonda; Rosario, Margaret; Russell, Stephen T.; Malley, Effie; Reed, Jerry; Litts, David A.; Haller, Ellen; Sell, Randall L.; Remafedi, Gary; Bradford, Judith; Beautrais, Annette L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Diamond, Gary M.; Friedman, Mark S.; Garofalo, Robert; Turner, Mason S.; Hollibaugh, Amber; Clayton, Paula J. (30 December 2010). "Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations". Journal of Homosexuality. 58 (1): 10–51. doi:10.1080/00918369.2011.534038. PMC . PMID 21213174.
- Proctor, Curtis D.; Groze, Victor K. (1994). "Risk Factors for Suicide among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths". Social Work. 39 (5): 504–513. doi:10.1093/sw/39.5.504.
- Remafedi, Gary; Farrow, James A.; Deisher, Robert W. (1991). "Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Gay and Bisexual Youth". Pediatrics. 87 (6): 869–875.
- Russell, Stephen T.; Joyner, Kara (2001). "Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk: Evidence From a National Study". American Journal of Public Health. 91 (8): 1276–1281. doi:10.2105/AJPH.91.8.1276.
- Hammelman, Tracie L. (1993). "Gay and Lesbian Youth". Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy. 2 (1): 77–89. doi:10.1300/J236v02n01_06.
- Johnson, R. B.; Oxendine, S.; Taub, D. J.; Robertson, J. (2013). "Suicide Prevention for LGBT Students". New Directions for Student Services. 2013: 55–69. doi:10.1002/ss.20040.
- Study: Tolerance Can Lower Gay Kids' Suicide Risk, Joseph Shapiro, All Things Considered, National Public Radio, December 29, 2008. 
- Bagley, Christopher; Tremblay, Pierre (2000). "Elevated rates of suicidal behavior in gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth". Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention. 21 (3): 111–117. doi:10.1027/0227-5910.21.3.111.
- National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention Tackles LGBT Suicide, April 26, 2012, Kellan Baker and Josh Garcia. 
- Simone, Mark J.; Appelbaum, Jonathan S. (2011). "Addressing the Needs of Older Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults". Clinical Geriatrics. 19 (2): 38–45.
- Research exposes negative effects of anti-gay legislation - The Michigan Daily
- "The Impact of Institutional Discrimination on Psychiatric Disorders in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: A Prospective Study by Mark L. Hatzenbuehler, MS, MPhil, Katie A. McLaughlin, PhD, Katherine M. Keyes, MPH and Deborah S. Hasin, PhD". Ajph.aphapublications.org. 2010-01-14. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.168815. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- Hatzenbuehler, ML; et al. (Feb 2014). "Structural stigma and all-cause mortality in sexual minority populations". Soc Sci Med. 103: 33–41. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.06.005. PMID 23830012.
- Savin-Williams, Ritch C (1994). "Verbal and physical abuse as stressors in the lives of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths: Associations with school problems, running away, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 62 (2): 261–269. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.62.2.261.
- Zhao, Y.; Montoro, R.; Igartua, K.; Thombs (2010). "unsure" sexual identity or heterosexual identity plus same-sex attraction or behavior: Forgotten groups?". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 49 (2): 104–113. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2009.11.003.
- Bostwick W. B., Boyd C. J., Hughes T. L., McCabe S. E. Dimensions of sexual orientation and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in the United States" American Journal of Public Health2010;100(3):468–475.
- National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention Tackles LGBT Suicide, April 26, 2012, Kellan Baker and Josh Garcia. National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention
- Rich, C. L.; Fowler, R. C.; Young, D.; Blenkush, M. (1986). "San Diego Suicide Study: Comparison of Gay to Straight Males". Suicide and Life-Threat Behavior. 16: 448–457. doi:10.1111/j.1943-278X.1986.tb00730.x.
- Helping LGBT youth, others learn to cope, April 27, 2012, Visalia Times-Delta. 
- "Preventing Suicide among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Questioning Youth and Young Adults" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- "Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide". Eric.ed.gov. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- August 21, 2011 (1999-10-27). "Definition of Bisexual suicide risk". Medterms.com. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- Meyer IH (September 2003). "Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence". Psychological Bulletin. 129 (5): 674–97. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674. PMC . PMID 12956539.
- "Additional Facts about Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth". Thetrevorproject.org. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- "Sexual Orientation and Youth Suicide" by Dr. Gary Remafedi, October 6, 1999, retrieved 2 May 2006.
- "Youth suicide risk and sexual orientation - Statistical Data Included" by Rutter, Philip A & Soucar, Emil, Summer 2002, retrieved 2 May 2006.
- Articles Relating to Suicide by GLB Youth, retrieved 3 May 2006.
- Wienerbronner, Danielle (2010-09-15). "LGBT Students Harassed At Colleges Nationwide, New Report Says". Huffington Post.
- Walls, N. Eugene; Wisneski, Hope; Kane, Sarah (March 2013). "School climate, individual support, or both? Gay straight alliances and the mental health of sexual minority youth". School Social Work Journal. 37 (2): 88–111.
- "Additional Facts About Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth". Thetrevorproject.org. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- Rothaus, Steve (2010-09-15). "Steve Rothaus' Gay South Florida". Miamiherald.typepad.com. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- Harris, K. M. (2013). "Sexuality and suicidality: Matched-pairs analyses reveal unique characteristics in non-heterosexual suicidal behaviors". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 42 (5): 729–737. doi:10.1007/s10508-013-0112-2.
- Lloyd, Peter. "Nearly 20 per cent of Taiwan's gay population have attempted suicide, report claims". Pink Paper. Archived from the original on 14 July 2012.
- "The Social Environment and Suicide Attempts inLesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth", Pediatrics., 127 (5): 896–903, 2011, doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3020
- Gibson, P. (1989), “Gay and Lesbian Youth Suicide”, in Fenleib, Marcia R. (ed.), Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide, United States Government Printing Office, ISBN 0-16-002508-7
- Adler, Margot (November 20, 2011). "Young, Gay And Homeless: Fighting For Resources". NPR.
- Janice L. Habuda (2010-10-29). "Students learn about bullying". Buffalonews.com. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- Levinson, David. Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, Volumes 1-4. p. 137. ISBN 9780761922582.
- "Michelle Obama On Bullying: Adults Need To Set Example". Huffingtonpost.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- About Trevor Archived October 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- Wyatt Buchanan (October 21, 2005). "Marriage can be right for us all, says Dan Savage. But let's not get carried away with monogamy". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
- "Video: Authors @Google: Dan Savage and Terry Miller on the It Gets Better Project | It Gets Better Project". Itgetsbetter.org. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- Parker-Pope, Tara (September 22, 2010). "Showing Gay Teens a Happy Future". The New York Times.
- Savage, Dan. "Welcome to the It Gets Better Project". Retrieved 2010-10-12.
- Hartlaub, Peter (2010-10-08). "Dan Savage overwhelmed by gay outreach's response". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
- Noreen Fagan (8 February 2011). "Dan Savage talks teens, straight people and It Gets Better". Xtra!. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- Furlan, Julia (March 22, 2011). "The 'It Gets Better Project' Turns the Spotlight on Anti-Gay Bullying". WNYC. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
- "Hansen, Anastasia. "School-Based Support for GLBT Students: A Review of Three Levels of Research." Psychology in the Schools. 44.8(2007). 839-848". Eric.ed.gov:80. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- Empty citation (help)
- Diamond, L (2003). "Was it a phase? Young women's relinquishment of lesbian/bisexual identities over a 5-year period". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 84 (2): 352–364. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1682. PMID 12585809.
- Diamond, L (2008). "Female Bisexuality From Adolescence to Adulthood: Results From a 10-Year Longitudinal Study". Developmental Psychology. 44 (1): 5–14. doi:10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.124. PMID 18194000.
- Haas, A. P.; Eliason, M.; Mays, V. M.; Mathy, R. M.; Cochran, S. D.; D'Augelli, A. R.; Silverman, M. M.; et al. (2011). "Suicide and suicide risk in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations: review and recommendations". Journal of Homosexuality. 58 (1): 10–51. doi:10.1080/00918369.2011.534038. PMC . PMID 21213174.
- Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2009). "How does sexual minority stigma "get under the skin"? A psychological mediation framework". Psychological Bulletin. 135 (5): 707–730. doi:10.1037/a0016441.
- Helling, S., Levy, D. S., & Herbst, D. (2010, October). Tormented to Death? People Magazine, 56. New York, NY.
- Kann, L., Olsen, E. O., McManus, T., Kinchen, S., Chyen, D., Harris, W. A., & Wechsler, H. (2011). Sexual identity, sex of sexual contacts, and health-risk behaviors among students in grades 9--12 --- youth risk behavior surveillance, selected sites, United States, 2001–2009. * MMWR Surveillance summaries Morbidity and mortality weekly report Surveillance summaries CDC, 60(7), 1-133.
- Marshal, M. P.; Dietz, L. J.; Friedman, M. S.; Stall, R.; Smith, H. A.; McGinley, J.; Thoma, B. C.; et al. (2011). "Suicidality and Depression Disparities Between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review". The Journal of Adolescent Health. 49 (2): 115–23. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.02.005.
- Mayock, P.; Bryan, A.; Carr, N. & Kitching, K. (2009) "Supporting LGBT Lives: A Study of the Mental Health and Well-Being of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People" Dublin: BeLonG To Youth Services
- O'Donnell, S.; Meyer, I. H.; Schwartz, S. (2011). "Increased risk of suicide attempts among Black and Latino lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals". American Journal of Public Pealth. 101 (6): 1055–9. doi:10.2105/ajph.2010.300032.
- Russell, S. T.; Clarke, T. J.; Clary, J. (2009). "Are Teens "'Post-Gay'"? Contemporary Adolescents' Sexual Identity Labels". Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 38: 884–90. doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9388-2.
- Savin-Williams, R. (2005). The New Gay Teenager. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
- Savin-Williams, R. C. (2008). "Then and Now: Recruitment, Definition, Diversity, and Positive Attributes of Same-Sex Populations". Developmental Psychology. 44 (1): 135–138. doi:10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.199.
- Savin-Williams, R. C.; Ream, G. L. (2003). "Suicide attempts among sexual-minority male youth". Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 32 (4): 509–522. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3204_3.
- Savin-Williams, R. C.; Ream, G. L. (2007). "Prevalence and stability of sexual orientation components during adolescence and young adulthood". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 36 (3): 385–94. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9088-5.
- Savin-williams, R. C. (2006). "Who' s Gay ? Does It Matter ?". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 15 (1): 40–45. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006.00403.x.
- Savin-williams, R. C., Cohen, K. M., & Youth, G. (2005). Development of Same-Sex Attracted Youth. Development, 1979(2004).
- Schwartz, S.; Meyer, I. H. (1982). "Mental health disparities research: the impact of within and between group analyses on tests of social stress hypotheses". Social science & medicine. 70 (8): 1111–8. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.11.032.
- Selby, E. A.; Anestis, M. D.; Bender, T. W.; Ribeiro, J. D.; Nock, M. K.; Rudd, M. D.; Bryan, C. J.; et al. (2010). "Clinical Psychology Review Overcoming the fear of lethal injury : Evaluating suicidal behavior in the military through the lens of the Interpersonal – Psychological Theory of Suicide". Clinical Psychology Review. 30 (3): 298–307. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.12.004.
- Orden, Van; Witte, T. K.; Cukrowicz, K. C.; Braithwaite, S. R.; Selby; Joiner, T. E. (2010). "The interpersonal theory of suicide". Psychological Review. 117 (2): 575–600. doi:10.1037/a0018697.
- Young, R. M.; Meyer, I. H. (2005). "The trouble with "MSM" and "WSW": erasure of the sexual-minority person in public health discourse". American Journal of Public Health. 95 (7): 1144–9. doi:10.2105/ajph.2004.046714.
- One of the two most complete Internet Resource on gay and bisexual male suicide problems
- Tabulated basic results of about 150 LGBT suicidality studies from 1970 to 2013
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
- Bacon, Laura Ann, “A Study of Effective Strategies, Programs, and Policies for School Leaders in Protecting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth from Peer Victimization” (2011). Electronic Theses & Dissertations. Paper 380.
- Best Practices: Creating an LGBT-inclusive School Climate. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2016, from http://www.tolerance.org/lgbt-best-practices
- Burdge, H., Sinclair, K., Laub, C., Russell, S. T. (2012). Lessons That Matter: LGBTQ Inclusivity and School Safety. (GayStraight Alliance Network and California Safe Schools Coalition Research Brief No. 14). San Francisco, CA: Gay-Straight Alliance Network.
- Gay, L. (. (2009). The Safe Space Kit: Guide to Being an Ally to LGBT Students. Gay, Lesbian And Straight Education Network (GLSEN)
- Greytak, E. A., Kosciw, J. G., & Boesen, M. J. (2013). Putting the "T" in "Resource": The Benefits of LGBT-Related School Resources for Transgender Youth. Journal Of LGBT Youth, 10(1-2), 45- 63.
- Knotts, G. , & Gregorio, D. (2011). Confronting homophobia at school: High school students and the gay men's chorus of Los Angeles. Journal of LGBT Youth, 8(1), 66-83.
- Russell, S. T., McGuire, J. K., Laub, C., & Manke, E. (2006). LGBT Student Safety: Steps Schools Can Take. (California Safe Schools Coalition Research Brief No. 3) San Francisco, CA: California Safe Schools Coalition
- Steps to Respect (Frey, Edstrom and Hirschstein 2005; Frey et al. 2005; Hirschtein et al. 20070; category 6
- Van Wormer, K & McKinney, R. (2003). What schools can do to help gay/lesbian/bisexual youth: A harm reduction approach. Adolescence, 38(151), p. 409-420.