Suicide in South Korea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Suicide in South Korea is the 10th highest rate in the world according to the World Health Organization, as well as the second highest suicide rate in the OECD after Lithuania.[1][2] In 2012, suicide was the fourth-highest cause of death among South Koreans.[3]

The high suicide rates compared to other countries in the developed world is exacerbated by the large amount of suicide among the elderly. One factor of suicide among elderly South Koreans is due to the amount of widespread poverty among senior citizens in South Korea, with nearly half of the country's elderly population living below the poverty line. Combined with a poorly-funded social safety net for the elderly, this can result in them killing themselves not to be a financial burden on their families, since the old social structure where children looked after their parents has largely disappeared in the 21st century.[4][5] As a result, people living in rural areas tend to have higher suicide rates. This is due to extremely high rates of elderly discrimination, especially when applying for jobs, with 85.7% of those in their 50s experiencing discrimination.[6] Age discrimination also directly correlates to suicide, on top of influencing poverty rates.[7] Suicide is the number one cause of death among South Koreans aged 10 to 39.[8]

However, proactive government efforts to decrease the rate have shown effectiveness in 2014, when there were 27.3 suicides per 100,000 people, a 4.1% decline from the previous year (28.5 people) and the lowest in 6 years since 2008's 26.0 people.[9][10]


Suicide is the biggest cause of death to those in their 10s, 20s and 30s
Suicide rate by gender and age in South Korea 2012, per 100,000 people
The poverty rate of elderly people in South Korea is the highest among the OECD countries


An extremely high suicide rate among the elderly is a major contributing factor to South Korea's overall suicide rate. Many impoverished elderly people kill themselves as to not be a burden on their families, since the South Korean welfare system is poorly funded[4] and the tradition of children caring for their parents in old age has largely disappeared in the 21st century.[5] As a result, people living in rural areas have higher suicide rates.

Although lower than the rate for the elderly, grade school and college students in Korea have a higher than average suicide rate.[11]


On average, men have a suicide rate that is twice as high as women.[10] However, the suicide attempt rate is higher for women than men.[11] According to a study, because men use more severe and lethal suicide methods, men have higher suicidal completion rate than women. The Risk-Rescue Rating Scale (RRRS), which measures the lethality of the suicidal method by gauging the ratio between five risk and five rescue factors, averaged out to be 37.18 for men and 34.00 for women.[12] One study has translated this to the fact that women attempt to commit suicide more as a demonstration, while men commit suicide with a determined purpose.[13]

Compared to other OECD countries, South Korea's female suicide rate is highest with 15.0 deaths by suicide per 100,000 deaths according to the suicidal rate list, while the male suicide rate is third highest with 32.5 per every 100,000 deaths.[14] Women also had a higher increase of proportional suicide rate over men between 1986 and 2005. Men increased by 244%, while women increased by 282%.[14]

Socioeconomic status[edit]

Socioeconomic status is measured by a population's level of education, degree of urbanity and deprivation of the residence.[15] Low socioeconomic status, high stress, inadequate sleep, alcohol use, and smoking are associated with suicidal tendencies among adolescents.[16] The economic hardship factor is noted as the most frequently referred cause for elderly suicides. As 71.4% of the elderly population is uneducated and 37.1% of them live in rural areas, they are more likely to face economic hardship, which can lead to health problems and family conflicts.[15] All these factors together lead to an increase in suicidal ideation and completion.[15]


Gangwon has a 37.84% higher suicide rate than the rate for all of South Korea.[17] Following Gangwon, Chungnam rates second and Jeonbuk rates third.[17] Ulsan, Gangwon, and Incheon have the highest suicide rate for people above age 65.[17] Daegu has the highest suicide rate for those ages 40 to 59.[17] Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Chungnam have the highest suicide rates for those ages 20 to 39.[17]


Yeontan burning has been used as a suicide method in South Korea.
The Mapo Bridge in Seoul, South Korea has been nicknamed "Suicide Bridge" and "The Bridge of Death" due to its frequent usage as a suicide hotspot amidst South Korea's ongoing suicide epidemic.

Because South Korean law heavily restricts firearms possession, only one third of South Korean women use violent methods to commit suicide. Poisoning is the most commonly used method for South Korean women, with pesticides accounting for half of suicide deaths among that population.[18] 58.3% of suicides from 1996 to 2005 used pesticide poisoning.[19] Another prevalent method by which South Koreans die by suicide is hanging.[20] A study by Jeon et al. has shown a difference between the methods used by suicide attempters who did plan and did not plan their attempt. Unplanned suicide attempters tend to use chemical agents or falling three times more than planned suicide attempters.[21]

A study by Subin Park et al. states that a major reason for the general upward trend in the South Korean suicide rate from 2000 to 2011 was the increase in suicides by hanging. Throughout that time period, hanging grew to be perceived as more painless, socially acceptable, and accessible, and thus became a much more common method throughout the first decade of the 21st century.[22]

Carbon monoxide poisoning[edit]

In recent years amid South Korea's suicide epidemic, yeontan burning has been used as a method of suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning.[23]

Bridge jumping[edit]

Bridge jumping has also been used as a method of suicide by suicidal South Koreans. The Mapo Bridge in Seoul, South Korea has been used for suicides frequently,[24][25] leading to its nicknames of "Suicide Bridge" and "The Bridge of Death".[26][27][28][29][30][31][32] South Korean authorities have tried to counter this by nicknaming the bridge "The Bridge of Life" and posting reassuring messages on the ledges.[33]

Notable cases[edit]

Lee Eun-ju died by suicide at age 24
President Roh Moo-Hyun died by suicide 23 May 2009 after jumping from a 45-meter cliff known behind his house in his home village of Bongha Maeul

Over the last 15 years, there have been at least 18 notable cases, as follows:

  • On 22 February, 2005, actress Lee Eun-ju, the star of hit films including Taegukgi and The Scarlet Letter, died by suicide at the age of 24.[34]
  • On 21 January 2007, performance artist U;Nee died by hanging at the age of 25.[35]
  • On 10 February 2007, actress Jeong Da-bin committed suicide at the age of 26. She left a suicide message on her blog a day earlier.
  • On 2 October 2008, "The Nation's Actress" Choi Jin-sil died by suicide at the age of 39.[36] Her ex-husband, baseball player Cho Sung-min committed suicide on 6 January 2013, also at the age of 39.
  • On 7 March 2009, actress Jang Ja-yeon died by suicide at the age of 29. She left a letter alleging violence, abuse, and sexual exploitation by several people in the entertainment industry.[37]
  • On 23 May 2009, former president Roh Moo-hyun died by suicide at the age of 62, by jumping from a mountain cliff.
  • On 19 November 2009, supermodel Daul Kim committed suicide in Paris at the age of 20.[38]
  • On 30 June 2010, actor and singer Park Yong-ha committed suicide at the age of 32. He did not leave a suicide note, but had been suffering from the pressures of managing his entertainment company.
  • On 18 April 2014, two days after the sinking of MV Sewol, a high school principal who had been rescued died by suicide. He had organized the trip for the students. The president of the ferry company was also later found dead in a suspected suicide.
  • In 18 October 2014, a 37-year-old government safety official who oversaw organization of the 17 October concert of the K-pop group 4Minute died by suicide, after 16 people had been killed and 11 injured by a faulty ventilation grate at that concert.[39]
  • On 9 April 2015, construction tycoon Sung Wan-jong died by suicide amid allegations of corruption and left a suicide note in which he named persons he claimed had been involved in corruption.[40]
  • On 5 July 2015, four days after the fatal bus crash of South Korean civil servants visiting China in which 11 persons were killed and 17 injured, a government official involved with the organization died by suicide by jumping out of his hotel room in China.
  • On 26 August 2016, Lotte vice-chairman Lee In-won committed suicide at the age of 69. He had been scheduled to provide information to the police later that day regarding possible corruption of company officials and company's financial irregularities.
  • On 18 December 2017, Kim Jonghyun, a main vocalist of South Korean group Shinee, died by suicide at the age of 27. He was found unconscious in a hotel room by paramedics after sending a suicide note to his sister and was later pronounced dead on arrival at the hospital.[41] A suicide note was found highlighting his struggle with depression that he had spoken about over many years. In it were words such as "I am broken inside", "I hate myself", and references to a doctor who blamed his depression on his personality.[42][43]
  • On 21 January 2018, actor Jun Tae-soo committed suicide at the age of 33, after having battled a serious bout of depression.
  • On 29 June 2019, actress Jeon Mi-seon committed suicide at the age of 48.
  • On 14 October 2019, Sulli, an actress and former member of f(x), died by suicide at the age of 25. She was found dead in her home by her manager.[44]
  • On 24 November 2019, Goo Hara, an actress and former member of Kara, died by suicide at the age of 28. She had attempted to end her own life once before, on 26 May 2019, but was found in time and taken to hospital.
  • On 3 December 2019, Cha In-ha, a rookie actor and member of Surprise U, died by suicide at the age of 27.



According to the Werther effect, some people commit suicide as reaction to another suicide. This applies also for South Korea.[45] According to a study, South Korea experiences a surge of suicides after deaths of celebrities.[46] The study has found three out of eleven cases of celebrity suicide resulted in a higher suicide rate of the population.[46] The study controlled for the potential effects of confounding factors, such as seasonality and unemployment rates, and yet celebrity suicides still had a strong correlation to increased rate of suicide rates for nine weeks.[46] The degree of media coverage of celebrity suicides impacts the degree of increase of suicide rates. In the study, the three celebrity suicides that received wide media coverage led to a surge in suicide rates, and the other celebrity suicides with low media coverage did not lead to an increase in suicide rate.[46] In addition to the increased suicidal ideation, celebrity suicides lead people to use the same methods to commit suicide.[47] Following actress Lee Eun-ju's death in 2005, more people used the same method of hanging.[47]

An ongoing study has also suggested that high use of the Internet be associated with suicides.[48] Among 1,573 high school students, 1.6% of the population suffered from Internet addiction and 38.0% had a risk of Internet addiction.[48] The students with, or at risk of, Internet addiction had a higher rate of suicidal ideation compared to those without Internet addiction.[48] However, the correlational nature of the study makes it difficult to determine the causal direction of this relationship.


Many people have been left orphaned or have lost a parent due to the Korean War. Within a random group of 12,532 adults, 18.6% of the respondents have lost their biological parent(s), with maternal death having a bigger impact on the rate of suicide attempts than paternal death.[49] A study has shown that men have highest rate of suicide attempts when they experience maternal death from the ages of 0–4 and 5–9. Women have the highest suicide attempt rate when they experience maternal death from the ages of 5–9.[49]


In 1997 and 1998, the 1997 Asian financial crisis hit South Korea.[50] During and after the economic recession of 1998, South Korea experienced a sharp economic recession of −6.9% and a surge of unemployment rate of 7.0%.[50] A study has shown that this economic downfall had a strong correlation with an increase in suicide rates.[50] Increase in unemployment and higher divorce rate during the economic downturn lead to clinical depression, which is a common factor that leads to suicide.[50] Moreover, according to Durkheim, economic downfall disturbs the social standing of an individual, meaning that the individual's demands and expectations can no longer be met. Thus, a person who cannot readjust to the deprived social order caused by economic downfall is more likely to commit suicide.[50]

Analyzing the suicides up to 2003, Park and Lester[51] note that unemployment is a major factor of high suicide rate. In South Korea, it has been the traditional duty of children to take care of their parents.[51] However, as "cultural tradition of filial obligation is not congruent with the increasingly competitive, specialized labor market of the modern era", the elderly are sacrificing themselves by committing suicide so as to lessen the burden on their children.[51]


In South Korea, every student is obligated to take the College Scholastic Ability Test (CSAT). On this day, underclassmen gather and cheer on their seniors as they enter the school to take their exam. The government has also mandated to forbid planes from flying during this time to make sure there are no distractions to these students.[52]

Education in South Korea is extremely competitive, making it difficult to get into an esteemed university. A South Korean student's school year lasts from March to February. The year divides into two semesters: one from March until July, and another from August to February. The average South Korean high school student also spends roughly 16 hours a day on school and school-related activities. They attend after school programs called hagwons and there are over 100,000 of them throughout South Korea, making them a 20 billion dollar industry.[53] Again, this is because of the competitiveness of acceptance into a good university. Most South Korean test scores are also graded on a curve, leading to more competition. Since 2012, students in South Korea go to school from Monday to Friday. Before 2005, South Korean students went to school every day from Monday to Saturday.

Although South Korean education consistently ranks near the top in international academic assessments such as PISA,[16] the enormous stress and pressure[54] on its students is considered by many to constitute child abuse.[55][56] It has been blamed for high suicide rates in South Korea among those aged 10–19.[57]

Mental illness[edit]

In South Korea, mental illness is taboo, even within a family. Over 90% of suicide victims could be diagnosed with a mental disorder, but only 15% of them received proper treatment. Over two million people suffer with depression annually in South Korea, but only 15,000 choose to receive regular treatment. Because mental illnesses are looked down upon in Korean society, families often discourage those with mental illnesses from seeking treatment.[58] Since there is such a strong negative stigma on the treatment of mental illnesses, many symptoms go unnoticed and can lead to many irrational decisions including suicide. Additionally, alcohol is often used to self-medicate, and a significant percentage of attempted suicides occur while drunk.[59]


South Korea has implemented the Strategies to Prevent Suicide (STOPS), a project whose "initiatives aimed at increasing public awareness, improving media reporting of suicide, screening for persons at high risk of suicide, restricting access to means, and improving treatment of suicidally depressed patients". All of these methods strive to increase public awareness and governmental support for suicide prevention. Currently, South Korea and other countries that have implemented this initiative are in the process of evaluating how much influence this initiative has on the suicide rate.[60] The education ministry created a smartphone app to check students' social media posts, messages and web searches for words related to suicide.[61]

Because the media coverage and portrayal of suicide influence the suicide rate, the government has "promulgated national guidelines for reporting on suicide in print media". The national guideline helps the media coverage to focus more on warning signs and possibilities of treatment, rather than factors that lead to the suicide.[60]

Another method that South Korea has implemented is educating gatekeepers.[60] The gatekeeper education primarily consists of knowledge of suicide and dealing with suicidal individuals, and this education is provided to teachers, social workers, volunteers and youth leaders.[60] The South Korean government educates gatekeepers within the at-risk communities, such as female elders or low-income families. To maximize the effect of gatekeepers, the government has also implemented evaluation programs to report the results.[60] Physical measures are also taken to prevent suicide. The government has reduced "access to lethal means of self-harm". As mentioned above in the methods, the government has reduced access to poisoning agents, monoxide from charcoal, and finally train platforms. This helps to decrease the impulsive suicidal behavior.[60]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Suicide rates, age standardized - Data by country". World Health Organization. 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  2. ^ Evans, Stephen (5 November 2015). "Korea's hidden problem: Suicidal defectors". BBC News. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved May 17, 2016. South Korea consistently has the highest suicide rate of all the 34 industrialized countries in the OECD.
  3. ^ "Why South Koreans are killing themselves in droves". Salon. March 16, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Se-woong Koo, "No Country For Old People" (24 September 2014), Korea Exposé.
  5. ^ a b Kathy Novak (October 23, 2015). "'Forgotten': South Korea's elderly struggle to get by". CNN. Retrieved August 8, 2016.
  6. ^ "Age discrimination rife in Korea despite legislation". The Korea Herald. March 27, 2012.
  7. ^ J. Lee; J. Yang; J. Lyu (June 30, 2017). "SUICIDE AMONG THE ELDERLY IN KOREA: A META-ANALYSIS". Innovation in Aging. 1 (suppl_1): 419. doi:10.1093/geroni/igx004.1507. PMC 6244789.
  8. ^ Kirk, Donald. "What 'Korean Miracle'? 'Hell Joseon' Is More Like It As Economy Flounders".
  9. ^ "지난해 한국 자살률 소폭 감소...여전히 OECD 1위". 2015-09-23.
  10. ^ a b Kim, Kristen (12 June 2015). "International Journal of Mental Health Systems. 2014, Vol. 8 Issue 1, preceding p1-8. 9p. DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-8-17. KIM KRISTEN". International Journal of Mental Health Systems. 8: 17. doi:10.1186/1752-4458-8-17. PMC 4025558. PMID 24843383.
  11. ^ a b "International Journal of Mental Health Systems. 2014, Vol. 8 Issue 1". 12 June 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ Hur, Ji-Won, Bun-Hee Lee, Sung-Woo Lee, Se-Hoon Shim, Sang-Woo Han, and Yong-Ku Kim. "Gender Differences in Suicidal Behavior in Korea." Psychiatry Investigation, 2008, 28.
  13. ^ Cheong, Kyu-Seok, Min-Hyeok Choi, Byung-Mann Cho, Tae-Ho Yoon, Chang-Hun Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, and In-Kyung Hwang. "Suicide Rate Differences by Sex, Age, and Urbanicity, and Related Regional Factors in Korea." Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 2012, 70.
  14. ^ a b Kwon, Jin-Won, Heeran Chun, and Sung-Il Cho. "A Closer Look at the Increase in Suicide Rates in South Korea from 1986–2005." BMC Public Health, 2009, 72.
  15. ^ a b c Kim, Myoung-Hee, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hee-Jin Jun, and Ichiro Kawachi. "Socioeconomic Inequalities in Suicidal Ideation, Parasuicides, and Completed Suicides in South Korea."Social Science & Medicine 70, no. 8 (2010): 1254-261.
  16. ^ a b "Lee, Gyu‐Young; Choi, Yun‐Jung; Research in Nursing & Health, Vol 38(4), Aug, 2015 pp. 301-310". 12 June 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  17. ^ a b c d e Park, E, Hyun, Cl Lee, EJ Lee, and SC Hong. "A Study on Regional Differentials in Death Caused by Suicide in South Korea." Europe PubMed Central, 2007.
  18. ^ Chen, Ying-Yeh, Nam-Soo Park, and Tsung-Hsueh Lu. "Suicide Methods Used by Women in Korea, Sweden, Taiwan and the United States." Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 108, no. 6 (2009): 452-59.
  19. ^ Lee, Won Jin, Eun Shil Cha, Eun Sook Park, Kyoung Ae Kong, Jun Hyeok Yi, and Mia Son. "Deaths from Pesticide Poisoning in South Korea: Trends over 10 years." International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 82, no. 3 (2008): 365-71.
  20. ^ Kim, Seong Yi, Myoung-Hee Kim, Ichiro Kawachi, and Youngtae Cho. "Comparative Epidemiology of Suicide in South Korea and Japan: Effects of Age, Gender and Suicide Methods." Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 2011, 5-14.
  21. ^ Jeon, Hong Jin, Jun-Young Lee, Young Moon Lee, Jin Pyo Hong, Seung-Hee Won, Seong-Jin Cho, Jin-Yeong Kim, Sung Man Chang, Hae Woo Lee, and Maeng Je Cho. "Unplanned versus Planned Suicide Attempters, Precipitants, Methods, and an Association with Mental Disorders in a Korea-based Community Sample." Journal of Affective Disorders 127, no. 1-3 (2010): 274-80.
  22. ^ Park, Subin; Ahn, Myung-Hee; Lee, Ahrong; Hong, Jin-Pyo (4 June 2014). "Associations between changes in the pattern of suicide methods and rates in Korea, the US, and Finland". International Journal of Mental Health Systems. 8: 22. doi:10.1186/1752-4458-8-22. PMC 4062645. PMID 24949083.
  23. ^ "Jong-hyun Dead, K-Pop SHINee Singer Dies, Apparent Suicide". 18 December 2017.
  24. ^ "Bridge Signs Used in South Korea Anti-Suicide Efforts".
  25. ^ "Seoul anti-suicide initiative backfires, deaths increase by more than six times". 26 February 2014.
  26. ^ Mission Field Media (27 June 2014). "Mapo Bridge a.k.a. "Suicide Bridge" - Seoul, South Korea" – via YouTube.
  27. ^ Luke Williams (1 September 2015). "Went To Mapo Bridge!" – via YouTube.
  28. ^ VICE (2 May 2016). "On Patrol with South Korea's Suicide Rescue Team" – via YouTube.
  29. ^ LarrySeesAsia (10 October 2014). "The Mapo "Suicide" Bridge. Seoul, SK. (Video 1 of 4)" – via YouTube.
  30. ^ Oussayma Canbarieh (31 January 2015). "Mapo - The Bridge of Death 마포대교" – via YouTube.
  31. ^ futuexfuture (22 December 2016). "생명의 다리 (Bridge of Life) - 마포대교 Mapo Bridge & Suicide Prevention (ENG)" – via YouTube.
  32. ^ "The bridge between suicide and life".
  34. ^ "Grief, Speculation Greet Mysterious Lee Eun-ju Suicide". The Chosun Ilbo. 2005-02-24. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
  35. ^ Looi, Elizabeth, "Korean singer found hanged Archived 2011-10-17 at the Wayback Machine", Malaysia Star, January 25, 2007.
  36. ^ Yi, Whan-woo (6 January 2013). "Choi Jin-sil tragedy relived". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
  37. ^ McCurry, Justin (1 April 2009). "Storm in South Korea over Jang Ja-yeon's suicide". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  38. ^ Henry Samuel, Daul Kim found hanged after posting web messages 20 Nov 2009
  39. ^ Kreps, Daniel (18 October 2014). "Korean Safety Official Commits Suicide Following Concert Tragedy". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  40. ^ BBC News South Korea in turmoil over corruption scandal Stephen Evans, 4/21/2015
  41. ^ "[Update] SHINee's Jonghyun dies in hospital". 2017-12-18. Archived from the original on 2017-12-18. Retrieved 2017-12-19.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  42. ^ "The Full Text Of Jonghyun's Suicide Note". 19 December 2017.
  43. ^ "Wailing fans bid farewell to South Korean singer, officials flag suicide concerns". 21 December 2017.
  44. ^
  45. ^ Hahn Yi, Jeongeun Hwang, Hyun-Jin Bae & Namkug Kim (2019): Age and sex subgroups vulnerable to copycat suicide: evaluation of nationwide data in South Korea, Scientific Reports.
  46. ^ a b c d Fu, King-Wa, C. H. Chan, and Michel Botbol. "A Study of the Impact of Thirteen Celebrity Suicides on Subsequent Suicide Rates in South Korea from 2005 to 2009." PLoS ONE, 2013, E53870.
  47. ^ a b Ji, Nam Ju, Weon Young Lee, Maeng Seok Noh, and Paul S.f. Yip. "The Impact of Indiscriminate Media Coverage of a Celebrity Suicide on a Society with a High Suicide Rate: Epidemiological Findings on Copycat Suicides from South Korea." Journal of Affective Disorders 156 (2014): 56-61.
  48. ^ a b c Kim, K., E. Ryu, M. Chon, E. Yeun, S. Choi, J. Seo, and B. Nam. "Internet Addiction In Korean Adolescents And Its Relation To Depression And Suicidal Ideation: A Questionnaire Survey." International Journal of Nursing Studies 43, no. 2 (2006): 185-92.
  49. ^ a b Jeon, Hong Jin, Jin Pyo Hong, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Maren Nyer, Aya Inamori, Jee Hoon Sohn, Sujeong Seong, and Maeng Je Cho. "Childhood Parental Death and Lifetime Suicide Attempt of the Opposite-Gender Offspring in a Nationwide Community Sample of Korea." Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 43, no. 6 (2013): 598-610.
  50. ^ a b c d e Chang, Shu-Sen, David Gunnell, Jonathan A.c. Sterne, Tsung-Hsueh Lu, and Andrew T.a. Cheng. "Was the Economic Crisis 1997–1998 Responsible for Rising Suicide Rates in East/Southeast Asia? A Time–trend Analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand." Social Science & Medicine 68, no. 7 (2009): 1322-331.
  51. ^ a b c B. C. Ben Park; David Lester (2008). "South Korea". In Paul S. F. Yip (ed.). Suicide in Asia: Causes and Prevention. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 27–30. ISBN 978-962-209-943-2. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
  52. ^ Hu, Elise (November 12, 2015). "Even The Planes Stop Flying For South Korea's National Exam Day".
  53. ^ Chakrabarti, Reeta (December 2, 2013). "South Korea's schools: Long days, high results". BBC News.
  54. ^ Kang, Yewon (March 20, 2014). "Poll Shows Half of Korean Teenagers Have Suicidal Thoughts". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
  55. ^ Koo, Se-Woong (August 1, 2014). "An Assault Upon Our Children". The New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 2015.
  56. ^ Ravitch, Diane (August 3, 2014). "Why We Should Not Copy Education in South Korea". Archived from the original on September 19, 2014. Retrieved November 25, 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  57. ^ Carney, Matthew (June 16, 2015). "South Korean education success has its costs in unhappiness and suicide rates". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
  58. ^ Lee, Claire (Jan 27, 2016). "Avoiding psychiatric treatment linked to Korea's high suicide rate".
  59. ^ "The "Scourge of South Korea": Stress and Suicide in Korean Society". Retrieved 2018-06-21.
  60. ^ a b c d e f Hendin, Herbert, Shuiyuan Xiao, Xianyun Li, Tran Thanh Huong, Hong Wang, and Ulrich Hegerl. "Suicide Prevention in Asia: Future Directions." WHO. Accessed November 4, 2014.
  61. ^ South Korea announces app to combat student suicide DANIEL COSTA-ROBERTS March 15, 2015