Suicide in the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Suicide is a significant national social issue in the United Kingdom; 5,965 people aged 10 and over died by suicide in 2016, a decrease from 6,188 deaths in 2015.[1] In January 2013, MPs expressed concern at a rise in the number of suicides over the preceding years.[2]

Governmental and other organisations have created different initiatives to attempt to prevent suicides in the country.

Dynamics[edit]

Researchers and sociologists have identified several causes for the high rate of suicide in the country; these include recent recessions, unemployment, austerity measures and loneliness. Research undertaken by The Samaritans suggested that mental-health issues of middle-aged men and loss of masculine pride and identity are also major factors behind the high rate of suicide.[3]

Common methods[edit]

The most common method used in the United Kingdom is hanging. Other suicides reported often include self-poisoning.[4] Suicide using firearms accounts for only a very small fraction, possibly due to tight gun control meaning very few households in the UK possess them (4 per cent).[5] Self poisoning and overdosing are the common methods used by women.[6]

Inhalation of domestic gas was the most common method of suicide during the mid-twentieth century. It was completely eliminated by the 1990s as a result of the replacement of coal gas containing toxic carbon monoxide by the non-poisonous natural gas.[7][8][9] Later, suicide by inhalation of carbon monoxide from car exhausts became common, but has declined since the introduction of catalytic converters.[10]

Statistics[edit]

A map showing the prevalence of suicide in England and Wales, 1872-1876.

Age-standardised rates generally fell between 1981 and 2007, with rates in subsequent years increasing to reach a peak of 11.1 deaths per 100,000 in 2013, though this was still substantially less than the rates seen in the 1980s and 1990s.[1]

Suicide rate
By gender; United Kingdom (1981–2016), rate per 100,000 people
Year All Male Female
1981 14.7 19.5 10.6
1982 14.4 19.3 10.2
1983 14 19.1 9.6
1984 14 19.2 9.5
1985 14.7 20.1 9.8
1986 14.2 20.4 8.9
1987 13.4 19.6 8.2
1988 14.4 21.4 8.3
1989 12.7 19 7.2
1990 13.2 20.2 6.9
1991 12.8 19.7 6.6
1992 12.9 19.9 6.6
1993 12.5 19.2 6.4
1994 12.1 18.8 6.1
1995 12.1 18.9 6
1996 11.6 18.1 5.8
1997 11.4 17.6 5.8
1998 12.4 19.3 6
1999 12.2 19.3 5.8
2000 11.9 18.4 5.9
2001 11.5 17.9 5.5
2002 11.2 17.1 5.6
2003 10.9 16.9 5.5
2004 11.1 16.9 5.8
2005 10.7 16.4 5.5
2006 10.4 16.2 5
2007 10 15.6 4.7
2008 10.5 16.3 5
2009 10.3 16.1 4.9
2010 10.2 15.8 4.9
2011 10.9 16.8 5.3
2012 10.7 16.8 4.9
2013 11.1 17.8 4.8
2014 10.8 16.8 5.2
2015 10.9 16.6 5.4
2016 10.4 16 5
Source: Office for National Statistics, National Records of Scotland, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency[1]
Age standardised suicide rate
By gender and age group, United Kingdom (1981–2016), rate per 100,000 people
Males Aged Females Aged
Year 10–29 30–44 45–59 60–74 75+ 10–29 30–44 45–59 60–74 75+
1981 9.8 19.5 23.1 22.0 28.6 3 8.5 15 16.2 13.6
1982 9.1 19.0 23.6 22.0 28.1 3.2 8.4 13.9 15.4 14.2
1983 9.0 19.7 22.5 22.5 28.6 2.9 8 12.8 14.8 13.4
1984 9.5 20.4 23.0 21.3 27.9 2.7 7.7 13.1 14.4 13.5
1985 10.8 21.6 23.2 22.6 29.1 2.7 7.5 13.7 15.9 13.5
1986 11.5 20.9 22.5 23.5 31.3 3.2 7 11.3 13.8 13.3
1987 12.3 21.0 21.1 21.5 27.7 3.6 7 10.5 11.8 10.8
1988 14.5 24.0 21.2 21.8 33.8 3.5 7.7 10.2 11.2 12.5
1989 13.8 21.4 21.1 16.9 26.8 3.7 6.4 9 9.3 10.6
1990 15.8 23.0 21.9 18.0 25.4 3.3 6.8 8.2 9.5 9.5
1991 15.1 25.0 21.5 15.6 24.0 3.4 6.4 8.4 8.1 9
1992 15.5 24.3 21.6 17.2 22.7 3.8 6.2 8.1 8.4 8.3
1993 15.9 23.3 21.4 15.2 21.2 3.6 6.6 7.5 7 9.5
1994 15.8 23.0 18.6 15.4 24.2 3.4 6.4 6.7 7.1 9.3
1995 15.3 24.8 19.5 14.2 21.2 3.3 6.5 7 6.3 8.3
1996 14.2 23.7 18.6 14.2 21.3 3.7 6.4 6.8 5.8 7.5
1997 15.1 22.1 18.6 13.0 20.0 3.5 6.5 7.2 6.3 6
1998 16.8 26.0 20.1 13.6 17.8 3.9 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.9
1999 14.9 25.7 19.9 15.1 20.6 3.6 6.7 6.4 6 7
2000 14.9 24.4 19.3 13.6 18.7 3.9 6.4 7.5 5.6 6.5
2001 13.0 23.4 20.4 13.5 18.1 3 6.7 6.7 5.7 6.2
2002 12.4 24.2 19.1 13.0 14.2 3.7 6.1 6.6 5.4 6.8
2003 11.3 23.8 18.2 13.1 16.8 3 6.5 7.1 4.9 6.4
2004 10.6 23.7 19.1 12.7 18.2 3.1 6.6 7.5 5.9 7
2005 9.8 23.0 18.9 13.1 16.3 3.1 6.2 7.7 4.9 5.5
2006 9.6 22.7 19.6 13.1 14.9 2.8 5.2 7.5 5 4.7
2007 9.8 22.3 18.3 12.0 15.4 2.2 5.4 6.8 5.1 4.4
2008 10.7 23.4 19.3 12.8 14.3 2.8 6.1 7.1 4.4 4.5
2009 10.5 22.4 20.6 11.6 13.9 3 5.9 6.5 4.6 4.8
2010 9.4 21.3 20.7 12.4 15.0 3 5.8 6.8 4.7 4.3
2011 10.4 23.5 22.1 12.7 13.8 3.3 6.4 7.3 4.6 4.8
2012 10.6 23.0 23.0 12.3 13.2 2.7 5.7 7.4 4.2 4.4
2013 9.8 23.4 25.1 14.5 15.4 2.3 6.3 7 3.9 4.7
2014 9.9 21.3 23.9 13.6 14.4 3.2 6.1 7.3 4.6 4.6
2015 10.6 21.0 22.3 13.8 14.8 3.2 6 7.6 5.4 4.8
2016 10.5 20.7 21.8 12.3 13.4 3.4 5.5 7.3 4.6 3.5
Source: Office for National Statistics, National Records of Scotland, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency[1]

Suicide prevention[edit]

The UK is home to the Samaritans, one of the first charities focused on suicide prevention. Anyone can call the Samaritans free of charge at any time.

The government of the United Kingdom and a number of international and national organizations have undertaken a variety of efforts and initiatives to prevent suicides. There are different associations that provide help and suggestions to suicidal people. Some notable organisations include Papyrus (a suicide prevention group founded in 1995 by a group of parents whose own children committed suicide), Maytree (a sanctuary for the suicidal), and U can cope.[11]

In 2012, the United Kingdom government decided to spend £1.5 million to develop planning and strategies on preventing suicides.[12] In January 2013, the social networking site Facebook started a partnership with suicide-prevention organisation "Save.org" to provide data that will be used to identify warning signs of people at risk of suicide.[13]

See also[edit]

General:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Suicides in the UK: 2016 registrations". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 May 2018. 
  2. ^ Meikle, James (22 January 2013). "Alarm at rise in UK suicide rate". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  3. ^ "UK Suicide Rate Amongst Males Reaches 10-Year High In 2011 And Overall Number Rises 'Significantly'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  4. ^ "Suicide methods". University of Oxford (Centre for Suicide Research). Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  5. ^ Professor of Health and Mental Health Columbia University Barbara Berkman Helen Rehr/Ruth Fizdale Chair (11 January 2006). Handbook of Social Work in Health and Aging. Oxford University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-19-803873-3. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  6. ^ Alison Wertheimer (9 March 2004). A Special Scar: The Experiences of People Bereaved by Suicide, 2e. Routledge. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-203-36107-8. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  7. ^ Nancy J. Osgood (1992). Suicide in Later Life: Recognizing the Warning Signs. Lexington Books. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-669-21214-3. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  8. ^ J. Mark G. Williams (2001). Suicide and Attempted Suicide: Understanding the Cry of Pain. Mark Williams. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-14-100561-4. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  9. ^ N Kreitman (June 1976). "The coal gas story. United Kingdom suicide rates, 1960-71". Br J Prev Soc Med. 30: 86–93. doi:10.1136/jech.30.2.86. PMC 478945Freely accessible. PMID 953381. 
  10. ^ International Association for Suicide Prevention. Congress (1 January 2004). Suicide Prevention: Meeting the Challenge Together. Orient Blackswan. p. 66. ISBN 978-81-250-2553-5. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  11. ^ "Suicide prevention groups". patient.info. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  12. ^ "Suicide prevention strategy backed by £1.5m". The Guardian. London. 10 September 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  13. ^ "Facebook partners with suicide prevention project". Wired. Retrieved 19 March 2013.