Suillus granulatus

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Suillus granulatus
Körnchen-Röhrling Suillus granulatus 1.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Boletales
Family: Suillaceae
Genus: Suillus
Species: S. granulatus
Binomial name
Suillus granulatus
(L.) Roussel (1796)
Synonyms[1]
  • Boletus granulatus L. (1753)
  • Boletus lactifluus Sowerby (1809)
  • Suillus lactifluus A.H. Sm. & Thiers (1968)
Suillus granulatus
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
pores on hymenium
cap is flat or convex
hymenium is adnate or decurrent
stipe is bare
spore print is brown
ecology is mycorrhizal
edibility: edible

Suillus granulatus is a pored mushroom of the genus Suillus in the family Suillaceae. It is similar to the related S. luteus, but can be distinguished by its ringless stalk. Like S. luteus, it is an edible mushroom that often grows in a symbiosis (mycorrhiza) with pine. It has been commonly known as the weeping bolete,[2] or the granulated bolete.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

Suillus granulatus was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 as a species of Boletus.[4] It was given its current name by French naturalist Henri François Anne de Roussel when he transferred it to Suillus in 1796.[1] Suillus is an ancient term for fungi, and is derived from the word "swine". Granulatus means "grainy" and refers to the glandular dots on the upper part of the stem.[5][6] However in some specimens the glandular dots may be inconspicuous and not darkening with age;[7] thus the name S. lactifluus, "oozing milk" was formerly applied to this form as it is not notably characterized by glandular dots.[6]

Description[edit]

Suillus granulatus showing 'milky droplets' on pores.

The orange-brown, to brown-yellow cap is viscid (sticky) when wet, and shiny when dry, and is usually 3 to 9 cm in diameter. The stem is pale yellow, of uniform thickness, with tiny brownish granules at the apex. It is without a ring. The tubes and pores are small, pale yellow, and exude pale milky droplets when young. The flesh is also pale yellow.

Suillus granulatus is often confused with Suillus luteus, which is another common and widely distributed species occurring in the same habitat. S. luteus has conspicuous a partial veil and ring, and lacks the milky droplets on the pores.[8] Also similar is Suillus brevipes, which has a short stipe in relation to the cap, and which does not ooze droplets from the pore surface.

Bioleaching[edit]

Bioleaching is the industrial process of using living organisms to extract metals from ores, typically where there is only a trace amount of the metal to be extracted. It has been found that Suillus granulatus can extract trace elements (Titanium, Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium and Lead) from wood ash and apatite.[9]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Grows with Pinus (pine trees) on both calcareous and acid soils, and sometimes occurs in large numbers. Suillus granulatus is the most widespread pine-associating Suillus species in warm climates.[10] It is common in Britain, Europe, and North America. It is associated with Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) in South Korea.[8] A native to the Northern Hemisphere, the fungus has been introduced into Australia under Pinus radiata. It is also found in Africa, New Zealand, Hawaii, and southern Chile.[11]

Edibility[edit]

Suillus granulatus is edible and fair. Like all Suillus species, the tubes are best removed before cooking. It is sometimes included in commercially produced mushroom preserves. Has been known to cause mild stomach upsets. The fruit bodies—low in fat, high in fiber and carbohydrates, and a source of nutraceutical compounds—can be considered a functional food.[12]

Toxicity[edit]

Suillus granulatus sometimes causes contact dermatitis to those who handle it.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • R.Phillips-Mushrooms 2006
  • Marcel Bonn-Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and North West Europe.
  1. ^ a b "GSD Species Synonymy: Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel". Species Fungorum. CAB International. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  2. ^ Eppinger M. (2006). Field Guide to Mushrooms and Other Fungi of Britain and Europe. New Holland Publishers. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-84537-474-7.
  3. ^ McKnight VB, McKnight KH (1987). A Field Guide to Mushrooms: North America. Peterson Field Guides. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-395-91090-0.
  4. ^ Linnaeus C (1753). "Tomus II". Species Plantarum (in Latin). Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii. p. 1177.
  5. ^ O'Reilly, Pat. "Fascinated by Fungi". First Nature. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  6. ^ a b Kuo, Michael. "Suillus granulatus". Mushroom Expert. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  7. ^ Kuo, Michael. "The Genus Suillus". Mushroom Expert. Key 83. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  8. ^ a b Min YJ, Park MS, Fong JJ, Seok SJ, Han S-K, Lim YW (2014). "Molecular Taxonomical Re-classification of the Genus Suillus Micheli ex S. F. Gray in South Korea". Mycobiology. 42 (3): 221–28. doi:10.5941/MYCO.2014.42.3.221. PMC 4206787. PMID 25346598.
  9. ^ Gadd, Geoffrey Michael (2010). "Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation". Microbiology. 156 (3): 609–643. doi:10.1099/mic.0.037143-0. PMID 20019082.
  10. ^ Richardson DM. (2000). Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press. p. 334. ISBN 978-0-521-78910-3.
  11. ^ Simberloff D, Rejmanek M (2010). Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions. University of California Press. p. 470. ISBN 978-0-520-94843-3.
  12. ^ Reis FS, Stojković D, Barros L, Glamočlija J, Cirić A, Soković M, Martins A, Vasconcelos MH, Morales P, Ferreira IC (2014). "Can Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel be classified as a functional food?" (PDF). Food & Function. 5 (11): 2861–9. doi:10.1039/C4FO00619D. hdl:10198/12054. PMID 25231126.

External links[edit]