|Alternative names||Sucuk, sudjuk, sudžuk, sudzhuk, suxhuk|
|Region or state||Middle East, Central Asia, Balkans|
|Main ingredients||Ground meat (usually beef, lamb or horse meat), cumin, garlic, salt, red pepper|
Sujuk or sucuk is a dry, spicy and fermented sausage which is consumed in several Balkan, Middle Eastern and Central Asian cuisines. Sujuk mainly consists of ground meat and animal fat usually obtained from beef or lamb, but horse meat is also often used in Bulgaria, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Etymology and terminology
Sucuk was first mentioned in the 11th century by Mahmud al-Kashgari in his Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk as suɣut. Another mention was made by Abu Hayyan al-Gharnati in his early 14th century work titled Kitab al-'idrak li-lisan al-'atrak (كتاب الإدراك للسان الأتراك). The Persian word zīcak or zīçak (زيجك/زيچك), might be a loanword from Turkic. Cognate names are also present in other Turkic languages, e.g. Kazakh: шұжық, shujyq; Kyrgyz: чучук, chuchuk. Franciscus a Mesgnien Meninski in his Thesaurus recorded the word sucuk (سجوق) for the first time in Ottoman Turkish in late 17th century.
The Turkish name sucuk has been adopted largely unmodified by other languages in the region, including Gagauz: sucuk; Albanian: suxhuk; Arabic: سجق, romanized: sujuq; Armenian: սուջուխ, romanized: suǰux; Bosnian: sudžuka; Bulgarian: суджук, romanized: sudzhuk; Greek: σουτζούκι, romanized: sutzúki; Macedonian: суџук, romanized: sudzhuk; Azerbaijani: sucuq; Romanian: sugiuc; Russian: суджук, romanized: sudzhuk; Serbo-Croatian: sudžuk / cyџyk; Kurdish: benî, sicûq.
In Turkey, beef is the main raw material for sucuk production. At the beginning of the process the meat is preground in 14–16-millimetre (0.55–0.63 in) plates and tested for its fat content. Afterwards the meat is mixed with curing salt, which contains 0.5% sodium nitrite, and stored for 8–16 hours in 8–12 °C (46–54 °F) for further processing. Later the preground meat is mixed with frozen and ground tail fat, beef tallow, suet and additives like spices, ascorbate, dextrose and starter culture. The mixture is ground again in 1.6–5-millimetre (0.063–0.197 in) plates, which forms the mosaic structure of sucuk. Thenceforth the product is filled in casings made of collagen or fiber and these casings are twisted or tied to portionize sucuk.
Sucuk is then prepared for ripening process, which consists of fermentation and post-fermentation stages. In the first day of fermentation stage the product is left in a high relative humidity (RH) environment around 22–23 °C (72–73 °F). After that the RH and the temperature is gradually dropped each day, resulting to 18 °C (64 °F) and 88% RH in the last and third day of fermentation. At the end of the stage pH of the product must be dropped to 4.9–5.0. In the post-fermantation stage sucuk is matured and dried until the moisture content of the sausage is under 40%.
It was reported that sucuk from Turkey on average contained 24.5% protein, 31.6% fat, 35.65% moisture and 3.79% salt. Fat content of sucuk is highly variable; some sucuk brands tested contained only 23% fat, meanwhile others exceeded 42%.
Dishes prepared with sujuk
Thin slices of sujuk can be pan-fried in a bit of butter, while larger pieces may be grilled. Sucuklu yumurta, which literally means "eggs with sujuk", is commonly served as a Turkish breakfast dish. Sucuklu yumurta is a simple dish of fried eggs cooked together with sujuk, but sujuk may also be added to other egg dishes like menemen (which is similar to shakshouka but with scrambled eggs instead of poached).
- Makhan, a horsemeat sausage
- Soutzoukakia, spicy meatballs in sauce whose name means literally "little sucuk"
- Gregory-Smith, John (2018). Turkish Delights: Stunning regional recipes from the Bosphorus to the Black Sea. London: Hachette UK. ISBN 978-08-57-83596-3.
- Пальгов, Н. Н.; М. Ш. Ярмухамедов (1970). Казахстан (in Russian). Москва: Мысль. p. 138.
- Кадыров, Виктор (2019). Кыргызстан. Традиции и обычаи киргизов (in Russian). Москва: Litres. p. 53. ISBN 978-50-41-88963-0.
- Конски Суджук "Еленко" във верига магазини "T-Market" (in Bulgarian).
- "sucuk". Nişanyan Sözlük (in Turkish). Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- Eren, Hasan (1999). Türk Dilinin Etimolojik Sözlüğü (in Turkish). Ankara. p. 376.
- Csató, Éva Ágnes; Isaksson, Bo; Jahani, Carina (2005). Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion: Case Studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-30804-5.
- Yılmaz, Ismail; Velioğlu, Hasan (2009). "Fermented meat products Figure 2. General Production Process of Turkish Sucuk". Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- Omurtag, A. Cemal; Orbey, M. Tevfik; Yıldız, Sulhiye (1973). "Yerli Sucuklarımızın Besin Değerleri Üzerinde Araştırma" [The Research on the Food Value of the Native Sucuk (Suchuck) in a Rational and Balanced Nutrition] (PDF). J. Fac. Pharm (in Turkish). Ankara. 3 (71).
- Yılmaz, Ismail (April 2009). "Determination of Fatty Acid Composition and Total Trans Fatty Acids in Meat Products". Food Science and Biotechnology. 18: 350–355.
- Emina, Seb; Eggs, Malcolm (14 March 2013). The Breakfast Bible. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4088-3990-4.
- "Sucuklu Yumurta Nasıl Yapılır?". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- Khong, Rachel; Peach, Lucky (2017). Lucky Peach All about Eggs. Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8041-8775-6.
- Rutherford, Tristan; Tomasetti, Kathryn (2011). National Geographic Traveler: Istanbul & Western Turkey. National Geographic Books. ISBN 978-1-4262-0708-2.
- Sarlık, E. Emel; Sarlık, Mehmet (1995). IV. Afyonkarahisar Araştırmaları Sempozyumu Bildirileri: 29-30 Eylül 1995, Afyonkarahisar (in Turkish). Hazer Ofset Matbaacılık Gazetecilik Limited Şti.
- Pelin Karahan'la Nefis Tariflerundefined (Director). Sucuklu Pide Tarifi. Event occurs at 869 seconds. Retrieved 17 July 2018.