Sukabumi Regency

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sukabumi Regency
Kabupaten Sukabumi
Regency
Other transcription(s)
 • Sundanese ᮊᮘᮥᮕᮒᮦᮔ᮪ ᮞᮥᮊᮘᮥᮙᮤ
Karanghawu Beach.jpg
Pelabuhan Ratu Bay.JPG Jalan di Pelabuhan Ratu.JPG
Curug Cikaso, Sukabumi.jpg
Clockwise, from top left : Karanghawu Beach, Streetscape of Pelabuhan Ratu, Cikaso waterfall, Pelabuhan Ratu Bay
Official seal of Sukabumi Regency
Seal
Motto: Gemah Ripah Loh Jinawi
(Serene, Prosperous, Abundantly Fertile)
Location within West Java
Location within West Java
Sukabumi Regency is located in Java
Sukabumi Regency
Sukabumi Regency
Sukabumi Regency is located in Indonesia
Sukabumi Regency
Sukabumi Regency
Location in Java and Indonesia
Coordinates: 6°59′19″S 106°33′03″E / 6.9886°S 106.5508°E / -6.9886; 106.5508Coordinates: 6°59′19″S 106°33′03″E / 6.9886°S 106.5508°E / -6.9886; 106.5508
Country Indonesia
Province West Java
Consolidated June 1, 1921
Anniversary Day Oktober 1, 1945
Regency seat Palabuhanratu
Administrative divisions 47 Subdistricts
386 Villages
Government
 • Regent Marwan Hamami
 • Vice Regent Adjo Sardjono
Area
 • Total 4,161.00 km2 (1,606.57 sq mi)
Highest elevation 3,019 m (9,905 ft)
Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2015)
 • Total 2,434,221
 • Density 590/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Time zone Indonesia Western Time (UTC+7)
Postal code(s) 431xx, 433xx
Area code(s) +62 266
Vehicle registration F
HDI Increase 0.644 (Medium)
Website Official Portal

Sukabumi Regency (Indonesian: Kabupaten Sukabumi; Sundanese: ᮊᮘᮥᮕᮒᮦᮔ᮪ ᮞᮥᮊᮘᮥᮙᮤ) is a regency (kabupaten) in southwestern Java, as part of West Java province of Indonesia. The regency seat is located in Palabuhanratu, a coastal subdistrict facing the Indian Ocean. The regency fully encircles the administratively separated city of Sukabumi. Covering an area of 4,161.00 km2, The regency is the largest regency in West Java and the second largest regency Java after the Banyuwangi Regency in East Java. The regency has a population of 2,434,221 (as of January 2015) with a large part of it lives in the northeastern part of the regency that encircles Sukabumi City south of Mount Gede. A plan to create a new regency, the North Sukabumi Regency is currently waiting for the approval of the central government.[1]

Sukabumi is strategically located south of Jabodetabek and west of Bandung Metro, two largest metropolitan area in Indonesia. Geologically, the regency is at the western end of Cimandiri Fault which split the northern plateau and the southern hilly areas.[2][3][4] Its southern region is less populated and contains a high level of biodiversity and significant geological heritage, acknowledged in 2015 by UNESCO with the declaration of Ciletuh-Palabuhanratu Geopark located in the southwestern coast of the regency.[5][6][7][8]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The area around Sukabumi was already inhabited at least in the 11th century. The first written record found in this area was the Sanghyang Tapak Inscription in Cibadak subdistrict, 20 km west of Sukabumi. Written in Kawi script, the stone tells about the prohibition of fishing activity in the nearby river by the authorities of the Sunda Kingdom.[9] Another written record found is the undeciphered Pasir Datar Inscription in the Cicantayan subdistrict.

After the fall of Sunda Kingdom in 1579, most of Sukabumi were under the control of Sumedang Larang, while the area west of Mount Gede was controlled by the Banten Sultanate. In 1620, King Aria Suriadiwangsa of Sumedang Larang declared his kingdom as part of Mataram Sultanate.[10][11][12][13] During this era, Dipati Ukur, the local ruler of present-day Bandung revolted against Mataram after the failed Siege of Batavia. The revolt triggered migration of people from Sumedang Larang to move and settle the area around Palabuhanratu and Jampang to protect themselves from the approaching Mataram troops.[14][15]

After Sultan Agung died in 1645, the Priangan region slowly breaking away from Mataram influence.[16] In 1674, Trunajaya rebellion started in Madura and greatly weakened Mataram.[17] Sukabumi which was still a part of Cianjur was declared itself independent from Mataram under the leadership of Wiratanu I in 1677, when Trunajaya forces sacked the Plered Palace in Mataram's capital.[18][19][20] The Sultanate itself was officially ceded Priangan region west of Citarum to the VOC on October 20, 1677, by an unequal treaty between Amangkurat II and Maetsuycker, as a compensation for Dutch assistance to quell the Trunajaya rebellion.[21][22][23][24] By that time, there were only few rural Sundanese settlements existed, one of the largest was Cikole.[25] Under the leadership of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Banten tried to reclaim Priangan between 1677-1683 via an invasion of Cianjur, however his effort was ultimately failed when Banten descended into civil war between Ageng and his crown prince Abdul Kahhar.[11][18][26][27]

Colonial era[edit]

The inland and coastal areas of Sukabumi were first explored by Europeans at the end of the 17th century, when VOC planned to open plantations throughout Priangan.[28][29] The first Dutch expedition was led by Pieter Scipio Van Oostende into the remnant of Pakuan and ended on Wijnkoopsbaai (present-day Palabuhanratu).[30][31] The next expeditions were led by Adolf Winkler in 1690,[32] and governor-general Abraham van Riebeeck in 1703, 1704, and 1709. In the 1709 expedition Van Riebeeck passed through Mount Gede and visited southern Sukabumi to check the progress of coffee cultivation in that area.[33][34] One of the first coffee plantation opened by Van Riebeeck was located in present-day Gunungguruh subdistrict.[35] The first coffee harvest was officially sent on April 14, 1711 by Tjiandjoer regent Wiratanu III.[36] In 1723, The coffee plantation areas in Sukabumi were grown, along with the enlargement of Tjiandjoer Regency during the administration of Hendrick Zwaardecroon.[37][38][39]

Formation[edit]

The regency was originally carved out from the colonial era-Tjianjoer Regency. It was then part of the Priangan Residency (Residentie Preanger Regentschappen). In 1776, the regent of Tjianjoer Wiratanu Datar VI created a kepatihan (viceregency) named Tjikole Viceregency which consisted the districts of Goenoengparang, Tjimahi, Tjiheoelang, Tjitjoeroeg, Djampangtengah and Djampangkoelon with its administrative center in Tjikole (now part of Sukabumi).

On January 13, 1815 under the British rule, the Tjikole Viceregency renamed as Soekaboemi Viceregency. The name Soekaboemi was proposed by a Dutch surgeon and plantation owner named Dr. Andries de Wilde, who owned a plantation and resided in the viceregency. The origin of the name came from the combination of two Sanskrit words, Soeka (happiness, likely) and Boemi (earth, land). Thus Soekaboemi could be translated as "Likable Land".

In 1921, by the decree of Governor General Dirk Fock, Tjiandjoer regency was divided into two regencies which are Tjiandjoer and Soekaboemi regency, effective from June 1, 1921.[40] The first regent of Soekaboemi was R. A. A. Soerianatabrata, who also held position as Sukabumi's last viceregent. He held this position until 1930.[41] From 1926 to 1931, Soekaboemi served as the capital of the short-lived West Priangan Residency.[42][43]

Geography[edit]

The regency borders the Cianjur Regency in the east, Bogor Regency in the north, Lebak Regency in the west, and Indian Ocean in the south.

Beaches[edit]

Along the southern coast of the regency there are several beaches such as Pasir Putih Beach (Cipanarikan estuary), Pangumbahan Beach (also known as Turtle Beach), Cibuaya Beach and Ujunggenteng Beach. Batununggul Beach is suitable for surfing with average wave height approximately 3 meters in dry season, but only 1 meter in rainy season.[44]

Waterfalls[edit]

The 120-meters Caweni Waterfall is located only 200 metres from Cidolog road, about 70 kilometres south of Sukabumi and about 25 kilometres from Sagaranten District.[45]

The Cikaso Waterfall (Ciniti Waterfall) is located in Jampang Kulon district, 1.5 hours drive (70 kilometres) from Sukabumi City. The waterfall height is 80 metres; it consists of 3 waterfalls, from left to right Asepan Waterfall, Meong Waterfall and Aki Waterfall.[46]

Culture[edit]

Sukabumi with Cianjur is a part of western Parahyangan cultural region, a fertile mountainous region of West Java home to the Sundanese people.

Traditional festivities[edit]

The local people hold the Ocean Fiesta every year on 5 April in Pelabuhan Ratu Beach. There is also Ngabungbang tradition in Cisukawayana river estuary on every full moon of each month in early morning. Ngabungbang or Mass ritual bath is a pre-Islamic tradition since 175-205 BC when King Hyang Brahma ruled Medang Gali (Galuh) Kingdom and continued by Prabu Siliwangi from Sunda Kingdom until now.[47]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Until 2014, Sukabumi Regency was divided into 47 districts (kecamatan), listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census.[48] These exclude the further seven districts which are within the city of Sukabumi (and thus administratively outside the regency).

The proposed creation of a new North Sukabumi Regency (Kabupaten Sukabumi Utara) will comprise 23 of the above districts of Sukabumi Regency.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dana Pemekaran Terancam Batal
  2. ^ "Perpustakaan Digital ITB - WELCOME | Powered by GDL4.2". digilib.itb.ac.id. Retrieved 2017-04-25. 
  3. ^ Gatra (in Indonesian). Era Media Informasi. 2006-01-01. 
  4. ^ Tempo (in Indonesian). Badan Usaha Jaya Press Jajasan Jaya Raya. 2006-01-01. 
  5. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Indonesia to promote geological heritage in Global Geoparks Network". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2017-05-07. 
  6. ^ "UNESCO Kukuhkan Ciletuh Sebagai Geopark Nasional". National Geographic Indonesia (in Indonesian). 2015-12-31. Retrieved 2017-04-25. 
  7. ^ "Geopark Ciletuh, Perawan yang Memantaskan Diri". Pikiran Rakyat (in Indonesian). 2016-09-03. Retrieved 2017-04-25. 
  8. ^ "Geopark Ciletuh Juga Miliki Keragaman Budaya". Pikiran Rakyat (in Indonesian). 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2017-04-25. 
  9. ^ Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro, Nugroho Notosusanto (1992). "Kerajaan Sunda". Sejarah nasional Indonesia: Jaman kuna. PT Balai Pustaka. p. 376. ISBN 978-979-407-408-4. 
  10. ^ Sunda, Pusat Studi (2004-01-01). Bupati di Priangan: dan kajian lainnya mengenai budaya Sunda (in Indonesian). Pusat Studi Sunda. 
  11. ^ a b Ch, M. Nasruddin Anshoriy (2008-01-01). Bangsa inlander: potret kolonialisme di bumi Nusantara (in Indonesian). PT LKiS Pelangi Aksara. ISBN 9789791283601. 
  12. ^ G. G. Bandilenko, E.I. Gnevusheva, D.V. Deopik, V.A. Tsyganov (1992). History of Indonesia. p. 175-179. 
  13. ^ G. G. Bandilenko, E.I. Gnevusheva, D.V. Deopik, V.A. Tsyganov (1992). History of Indonesia. p. 175-179. 
  14. ^ Ekajati, Edi Suhardi (1982-01-01). Ceritera dipati ukur: karya sastra sejarah Sundar (in Indonesian). Pustaka Jaya. 
  15. ^ Sasmita, Saleh Dana; Padmadisastra, Sulaiman; Johansyah, Inci; Djenen (1986-01-01). Geografi budaya dalam wilayah pembangunan daerah Jawa Barat: peneliti/penulis, Saleh Danasamita, Sulaeman Padmadisastra, Inci Johansyah (in Indonesian). Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Proyek Inventarisasi dan Dokumentasi Kebudayaan Daerah. 
  16. ^ Behrend, T. E. (1990-01-01). Amarah (in Indonesian). Yayasan Obor Indonesia. ISBN 9789794613313. 
  17. ^ West Java Miracle Sight: A Mass of Verb and Scene Information (in Indonesian). MPI Foundation. 2005-01-01. 
  18. ^ a b Suryaningrat, Bayu (1982). Sajarah Cianjur Sareng Raden Aria Wira Tanu Dalem Cikundul Cianjur. Rukun Warga Cianjur-Jakarta, Jakarta. 
  19. ^ Wajah pariwisata Jawa Barat (in Indonesian). Dinas Pariwisata Propinsi Daerah Tingket I Jawa Barat. 1986-01-01. ISBN 9789798075001. 
  20. ^ Abdurachman (1986-01-01). Naskah Sunda lama di Kabupaten Sumedang (in Indonesian). Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 
  21. ^ Ensiklopedi Jakarta: culture & heritage (in Indonesian). Pemerintah Provinsi Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta, Dinas Kebudayaan dan Permuseuman. 2005-01-01. ISBN 9789798682506. 
  22. ^ Ekajati, Edi Suhardi (1984-01-01). Masyarakat Sunda dan kebudayaannya (in Indonesian). Girimukti Pasaka. 
  23. ^ Younce, William C. (2001-01-01). Indonesia: Issues, Historical Background and Bibliography. Nova Publishers. ISBN 9781590332498. 
  24. ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (2008-09-11). A History of Modern Indonesia Since C.1200. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137052018. 
  25. ^ Jaya, Ruyatna (2003). Sejarah Sukabumi. Sukabumi City Government. p. 8. 
  26. ^ Direktori peluang investasi di Provinsi Banten (in Indonesian). Pemerintah Provinsi Banten. 2008-01-01. 
  27. ^ Banten kota pelabuhan jalan sutra (in Indonesian). Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan, Direktorat Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional, Proyek Inventarisasi dan Dokumentasi Sejarah Nasional. 1995-01-01. 
  28. ^ Beekman, E. M. (1988). Fugitive Dreams: An Anthology of Dutch Colonial Literature. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 90. ISBN 0870235753. 
  29. ^ Brommer, Bea (2015). To My Dear Pieternelletje:Grandfather and Granddaughter in VOC Time, 1710-1720. Leiden: Brill. p. 19. ISBN 9789004293328. 
  30. ^ Graaf, Hermanus Johannes de (1949-01-01). Geschiedenis van Indonesië (in Dutch). W. van Hoeve. 
  31. ^ Volkslectuur, Dutch East Indies Kantoor voor de (1926-01-01). Nederlandsch Indie: platen atlas met korten beschrijvenden tekst (in Dutch). Volkslectuur. 
  32. ^ deel. Bijlagen. Excursen (in Dutch). Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. 1911-01-01. 
  33. ^ Zakaria, Mumuh M. (2010-01-01). Kota Bogor: studi tentang perkembangan ekologi kota abad ke-19 hingga ke-20 (in Indonesian). Sastra Unpad Press, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Padjadjaran. ISBN 9786028795081. 
  34. ^ Iguchi, Masatoshi (2017-01-25). Java Essay: The History and Culture of a Southern Country. Troubador Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781784628857. 
  35. ^ Danasasmita, Saleh (1983). Sejarah Bogor, Volume 1. Bogor: Pemerintah Daerah Kotamadya DT II Bogor. p. 85. 
  36. ^ DBNL. "Nieuw Nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek. Deel 6 · dbnl". DBNL (in Dutch). Retrieved 2017-04-25. 
  37. ^ Klaveren, N. A. (1983). The Dutch Colonial System in the East Indies. Springer. p. 60. ISBN 9789401768481. 
  38. ^ Kumar, Ann (1997). Java and Modern Europe: Ambiguous Encounters. Routledge. p. 292. ISBN 1138863149. 
  39. ^ Modern Ceylon Studies. University of Ceylon. 1982-01-01. 
  40. ^ Indonesia, Volksraad (1921). Handelingen van den Volksraad. Dutch East Indies. p. 11. 
  41. ^ Lubis, Nina Herlina (1998). Kehidupan kaum ménak Priangan, 1800-1942. Bandung: Sundanese Cultural Information Center. 
  42. ^ Marihandono, Djoko; Leirissa, R. Z. (2008). Titik balik historiografi di Indonesia. Wedatama Widya Sastra. 
  43. ^ Hooper, Franklin Henry (1937). The Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 18. London: Encyclopædia britannica Company, Limited. p. 425. 
  44. ^ Batununggul Beach
  45. ^ Caweni Waterfall
  46. ^ "Pesona Air Terjun Curug Cikaso". May 21, 2012. 
  47. ^ "Pelabuhan Ratu, Sukabumi Pantai dengan Panorama Indah nan Mistis". October 12, 2012. 
  48. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.

External links[edit]