Sukaphaa

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Sukaphaa
Sukapha.jpg
Chaolung Sukaphaa
Founder Ahom dynasty
Reign1228–1268[citation needed]
SuccessorSuteuphaa
Born1189
Mong Mao, Yunnan , China
Died1268
Charaideo
Burial
IssueSuteuphaa
Full name
Chaolung Sukaphaa
HouseSu clan (Tiger) Ahom dynasty
FatherChao Chang-Nyeu
MotherBlak Kham Sen
ReligionAhom religion

Chaolung Sukaphaa (r. 1228–1268), also Siu-Ka-Pha, the first Ahom king in medieval Assam, was the founder of the Ahom kingdom. A Tai prince[1] originally from Mong Mao, the kingdom he established in 1228[2] existed for nearly six hundred years and in the process unified the various indigenous ethnic groups of the region that left a deep impact on the region. In reverence to his position in Assam's history the honorific Chaolung is generally associated with his name (Chao: lord; Lung: great).

Since 1996 December 2 has been celebrated in Assam as the Sukaphaa Divawkh, or Axom Divawkh (Assam Day), to commemorate the advent of the first king of the Ahom kingdom in Assam after his journey over the Patkai Hills.

Ancestry[edit]

Legend[edit]

According to Ahom tradition, Sukaphaa was a descendant of the god Khunlung, who had come down from the heavens and had ruled Mong-Ri-Mong-Ram. During the reign of Suhungmung, which saw the composition of the first Assamese chronicles .[3]. Sukaphaa brings a divine diamond chum-Phra-rung-sheng-mung in a box, a divine tusked elephant, a divine chicken Kaichengmung, a divine embroidered cloth, a divine pair of drums, a divine sword Hengdan.[4]

Prince of Mong Mao[edit]

The details of Sukaphaa's life and origins before his entry into Assam, available from different chronicles, both Ahom and non-Ahom, are full of contradictions. According to Phukan (1992) who has tried to hold up a consistent account, Sukaphaa was born to Chao Chang-Nyeu (alias Phu-Chang-Khang) and Nang-Mong Blak-Kham-Sen in the Tai state of Mong Mao (also called Mao-Lung, with the capital at Kieng Sen), close to present-day Ruili in Yunnan, China.[5] Chao Chang Nyeu was a prince from Mong-Ri Mong-Ram, who had traveled to Mong Mao possibly on an expedition.[6] Mong Mao was then ruled by Chao Tai Pung. Chao Chang Nyeu was later befriended by Pao Meo Pung, the son of the ruler, who gave his sister Blak Kham Sen in marriage. Sukaphaa was born of this union not later than 1189 CE and was brought up by his maternal grandparents.[7] Pao Meo Pung, who eventually ruled Mong Mao, had no male heir and Sukaphaa, his nephew, was nominated to succeed him. A son born late to Pao Meo Pung's queen ended Sukaphaa's claim to the throne of Mong Mao.

The search for a Kingdom[edit]

After his 19 years as crown prince came to an end, Sukaphaa decided to leave Mong Mao. According to tradition, his grandmother advised him thus - "no two tigers live in the same jungle, no two kings sit on the same throne." Accordingly, Sukaphaa is said to have left Chieng-Sen the capital of Mong Mao in the year 1215 CE.

Sukafa

Journey into Assam[edit]

Sukaphaa left Mong Mao in 1215. Most Buranjis attest to this version. Some Tai chronicles from outside Assam record the journey of Sukaphaa from Mong-Mit Kupklingdao (and not Mong Mao) in 1227 where he was the ruler. [8]Sukaphaa followed an older known route from Yunnan to Assam that passed through Myitkyina, Mogaung and the upper Irrawaddy river valley. On his way, he stopped at various places and crossed the Khamjang river to reach the Nangyang lake in 1227. Here he subjugated the Nagas very ferociously and established a Mong. He left one Kan-Khrang-Mong there to guard the passage back, and proceeded to cross the Patkai hills at the Pangsau pass and reached Namrup (in the Brahmaputra valley) in December 1228. The journey, from Mong Mao to Namrup thus took Sukaphaa about thirteen years and the year he reached Namrup is considered as the year the Ahom kingdom was established.Sukaphaa's father had earlier divided his Mong among his three sons, and Sukaphaa became the ruler of Mong Mit about 1209. The immediate cause of departure was the aggression of Su-Khan-Pha of Mong Mao. Sukaphaa's father had earlier divided his Mong among his three sons, and Sukaphaa became the ruler of Mong Mit about 1209. The immediate cause of departure was the aggression of Su-Khan-Pha of Mong Mao. According to Padmeswar Gogoi, he was accompanied by three queens: Ai-Me-Chao-Lo, Nang-Sheng-Chum-Hpa and Yi-Lo-Weng-Ching-Chum-Hpa, two sons and a daughter; chiefs from five other dependent Mongs;[9] members of the priestly class and soldiers—a total contingent of 1080[10][11][12][13](some other sources state around 300 men[14][15] while some state as high as 9000 men[16]). Some commoners are recorded as having joined this core group on the way. Sukaphaa had with him 300 horses fitted with saddles and bridles and two elephants. Heavy arms were transported along a different route.[17]

King of Ahom kingdom[edit]

Political boundaries of extant states/territories in east Assam[18]
State/Territory North South East West
Chutiya kingdom Mountain Kakodonga river Brahmakunda Bharali river
Moran territories(Subordinate to Chutiyas)[19] Buridihing river Disang river Suffry river Brahmaputra river
Barahi territories(Subordinate to Chutiyas)[20] Disang river Dikhau river Nagahat Barahi Fika
Kachari kingdom Kakodonga river Patkai Hills Patkai Hills Dhansiri river
Bara Bhuyan territories Mountain Brahmaputra river Bharali river Gangbihali river
Dafla (Sungi) territories Mountain Brahmaputra river Gangbihali river Bhairabi river
Darrang kingdom Mountain Brahmaputra river Bhairabi river Manas river

Having reached Namrup, Sukaphaa bridged the Sessa river, and went upstream along the Burhi Dihing river looking to establish a colony for wet rice cultivation. He did not find the region conducive to cultivation and returned downstream to Tipam. In 1236, he left Tipam for Abhaypur. A flood made his move again in 1240 down the Brahmaputra to Habung (present-day Dhakuakhana). Another flood and he moved again in 1244, down the Brahmaputra to the Dikhowmukh, and then up the Dikhow river to Ligirigaon. Leaving a detachment at Ligirigaon, he moved again in 1246 to Simaluguri. In 1253, he abandoned Simaluguri for Charaideo, his final capital, where he finally died in 1268.

Even though Sukaphaa treated the people of the Patkai hills very severely on his way to the Brahmaputra valley, his approach to the population in Assam was conciliatory and non-confrontational. He married the daughters of Badaucha, the Matak Chief and Thakumatha, the Barahi chief and established cordial relations with them. As he began establishing his domain, he avoided regions that were heavily populated.[21] He encouraged his soldiers as well as members of the Ahom elite to marry locally. A process of Ahomization (whereby locals who adopted Ahom methods of wet rice cultivation and statecraft were accepted into the Ahom fold) bolstered the process of integration.[22] The Barahi and the Moran, speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages, called Sukaphaa's people "Ha-Cham", that later on developed into "Assam" (see Etymology of Assam), the name of the kingdom; and "Ahom", the name of the people.

Search for a capital[edit]

Artist's depiction of the court of Sukaphaa.

Over the next few years, he moved from place to place searching for the right capital, leaving behind his representative at each stage to rule the colonized land. Then he went up the Burhidihing river and established a province at Lakhen Telsa.[23] Then he came back down the river and established his rule at Tipam. In 1236 he moved to Mungklang (Abhoipur), and in 1240 down the Brahmaputra to Habung (Dhemaji). In 1244 he went further down to Ligirigaon (Song-Tak), a few miles from present-day Nazira, and in 1246 to Simaluguri (Tun Nyeu), a place downstream from the present-day Simaluguri.[24] Finally in 1253 he built himself his capital city at Charaideo near present-day Sibsagar town. The capital of the Ahom kingdom changed many times after this, but Charaideo remained the symbolic center of Ahom rule.

With the help of local recruits, he established three large farms for sali rice cultivation, called Barakhowakhat, Engerakhat and Gachikalakhat.[25]

In 1268 Sukaphaa died. At the time of his death, his kingdom was bounded by the Brahmaputra River in the west, the Disang River in the north, the Dikhow River (26°58′15″N 94°38′12″E / 26.970732°N 94.636745°E / 26.970732; 94.636745) in the south and the Naga Hills in the east.[24]

Memorial[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "...the advance of the Tais under Sukapha (Siu-Ka-Pha) was a historical fact and is well documented by records and traditions." (Phukan 1992:51)
  2. ^ "...it is not until Sukapha became king in 1228 AD..." (Gait 1906:iv)
  3. ^ S.L. Baruah, A Comprehensive History of Assam, p. 227
  4. ^ "Ahom Bihu - As". as.vikaspedia.in. Indian Dev. Gateway.
  5. ^ (Phukan 1992:67) According to the Buranji by Kashinath Tamuli Phukan, Chao Tai Pung ruled Mong Mao, and had two sons, Pao Meo Pung (who finally ruled Mong Mao) and Phu Chang Khang (who finally ruled Mong Mit). Sukaphaa was born to Phu Chang Khang. This version is discounted by Phukan (1992).
  6. ^ (Gogoi 1968)
  7. ^ (Gogoi 1968:251)
  8. ^ (Gogoi 1968:253).
  9. ^ Mong-Hkang, Mong-Hkru-Dai, Mong-Hka Mong-Pun, Mong-Phu and Mong-Li (Gogoi 1968:256–257).
  10. ^ Phukan, K. Assam Buranji, 1906, p.7.
  11. ^ Mahanta,S. Assam Buranji.D.H.A.S.,1945, p.5.
  12. ^ A review of Buranjis, p.76
  13. ^ Sadaramin Assam Buranji',1930, p.11.
  14. ^ Wade, J.P. An Account of Assam, 1800, p. 16.
  15. ^ Bhuyan,S.K. Deodhai Buranji: Bahgharia Buragohain Buranji. 1932
  16. ^ (Gogoi 1968:256–257).
  17. ^ (Phukan 1992:51)
  18. ^ (Gogoi 1968:266), based on a manuscript called Borgohain Vamsavali.
  19. ^ Edward Gait, pp =253"Moran and Borahi were Chutia vassals"
  20. ^ Edward Gait, pp =253"Moran and Borahi were Chutia vassals"
  21. ^ (Gogoi 1968:264)
  22. ^ (Guha 1983:12). "...the Ahoms assimilated some of the Nagas, Moran and Barahi neighbors and later also large sections of the Chutiya and the Kachari tribes. This Ahomisation process went on until the expanded Ahom society itself began to be Hinduised from the mid-16th century onwards." The Ahomization of neighbors, thus, began with Sukaphaa himself.
  23. ^ (Phukan 1992:52)
  24. ^ a b (Phukan 1992:53)
  25. ^ (Gogoi 2002, p. 27)
  26. ^ "Gogoi inaugurates Sukapha Samannay Kshetra in Jorhat". Assam Tribune.

References[edit]

  • Gait, Edward A. (1906), A History of Assam, Calcutta
  • Gogoi, Jahnabi (2002), Agrarian System Of Medieval Assam, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company
  • Wade, Dr.John Peter (1800), An account of Assam, Calcutta: Kuntaline Press
  • Phukan, Kashinath (1906), Assam Buranji, Calcutta: Majumdar Press
  • Bhuyan, Surya Kumar (1932), Deodhai Buranji, Shillong: D.H.A.S
  • Barua Sadar-amin, Harakanta (1930), Assam Buranji or a History of Assam, Shillong: D.H.A.S.
  • Mahanta, Sukumar (1945), Assam Buranji, Shillong: D.H.A.S.
  • Gogoi, Padmeshwar (1968), The Tai and the Tai Kingdoms, Guwahati: Gauhati University
  • Guha, Amalendu (December 1983), "The Ahom Political System: An Enquiry into the State Formation Process in Medieval Assam (1228-1714)", Social Scientist, 11 (12): 3–34, doi:10.2307/3516963, JSTOR 3516963
  • Phukan, J. N. (1992), "The Tai-Ahom Power in Assam", in Barpujari, H. K. (ed.), The Comprehensive History of Assam, 2, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board, pp. 49–60

External links[edit]

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