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In other languages
There are a number of translations for Sukhāvatī. The Tibetan name is Dewachen "Blissful Land" (Wylie: bde ba can). In Chinese it is called Jílè (極樂, "Ultimate Bliss"), Ānlè (安樂, "Peaceful Bliss"), or Xītiān (西天, "Western Heaven"). In Japanese it is called Gokuraku (極楽, "Ultimate Bliss") or Anraku (安楽, "Peaceful Bliss"). In Korean, it is called the "Western Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss" (Hangul: 서방극락정토; hanja: 西方極楽浄土; RR: Seobang Geungnak Jeongto) or simply Jeongto "Pure Land" (Hangul: 정토; hanja: 浄土). In Vietnamese, it is called "Tây Phương Tịnh Độ" (Western Pure Land).
Nine levels of birth
In Tibetan Buddhism, the world of Sukhavati is invoked during Buddhist funerals as a favorable destination for the deceased. Such rituals are often accompanied with the tantric technique of phowa "transference of consciousness" to the pure land of Amitābha performed by a lama on the behalf of the departed.
- Inagaki, Hisao, trans. (2003), The Three Pure Land Sutras (PDF), Berkeley: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, ISBN 1-886439-18-4
- Tanaka, Kenneth K. (1987). Where is the Pure Land?: Controversy in Chinese Buddhism on the Nature of Pure Land, Pacific World Journal (New Series) 3, 36-45
- The Shorter Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra. Lapis Lazuli Texts.