Sukhoi Superjet 100
|A Superjet 100 flying off the coast of Italy near Sanremo|
|Role||Regional twin-engine jet airliner|
|Manufacturer||Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association|
|First flight||19 May 2008|
|Introduction||21 April 2011 with Armavia|
|Status||In service, in production|
|Number built||169 as of 30 July 2018|
|Program cost||US$ 1.5 billion|
|Developed into||Sukhoi Superjet 130|
The Sukhoi Superjet 100 (Russian: Сухой Суперджет 100, tr. Sukhoy Superdzhet 100), also known by its abbreviation SSJ100, is a fly-by-wire twin-engine regional jet with 8 (VIP) to 108 (all economy) passenger seats. With development initiated in 2000, the airliner was designed and spearheaded by Sukhoi, a division of the United Aircraft Corporation, in co-operation with several foreign partners. Its maiden flight was conducted on 19 May 2008. On 21 April 2011, the Superjet 100 undertook its first commercial passenger flight, on the Armavia route from Yerevan to Moscow.
Sukhoi claims cash operational costs lower by 8-10% than competitors, reduced fuel burn per seat and higher maintenance intervals. It is designed to compete internationally with its An-148, Embraer E-Jet and Airbus A220 counterparts.
The final assembly of the Superjet 100 is done by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association. Its SaM-146 engines are designed and produced by the French-Russian PowerJet joint venture and the aircraft is marketed internationally by the Italian-Russian SuperJet International joint venture.
- 1 Design and development
- 2 Orders and deliveries
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Specifications
- 6 Accidents and incidents
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Design and development
Development of the Sukhoi Superjet 100 began in 2000. On 19 December 2002, Sukhoi Civil Aircraft and Boeing Commercial Airplanes signed a medium-term Cooperation Agreement to work together on the design. Boeing consultants had already been advising Sukhoi for a year. On 10 October 2003, the technical board of the project selected the suppliers of major subsystems. The project officially passed its third stage of development on 12 March 2004, meaning that Sukhoi could now start selling the Superjet 100 to customers. On 13 November 2004, the Superjet 100 passed the fourth stage of development, implying that the Superjet 100 was now ready for commencing of prototype production. In August 2005, a contract between the Russian government and Sukhoi was signed. Under the agreement, the Superjet 100 project would receive 7.9 billion rubles of research and development financing under the Federal Program titled Development of Civil Aviation in Russia in 2005–2009.
In the Russian domestic market, the Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SSJ) is intended to replace the aging Tupolev Tu-134 and Yakovlev Yak-42 aircraft. Internationally, the new Superjet 100 will compete against the Embraer E-Jets and the Bombardier CRJ programs. The SSJ aims for lower operating costs than its competitors for the price of $23–25 million. According to Sukhoi, ongoing certification tests confirmed that the aircraft's direct operating costs are 6–8% lower than those of its key competitor, the Embraer 190/195. In terms of total fuel burn per sector, the SSJ is on a par with the Antonov An-148 but can accommodate 22 more passengers.
The aircraft's design meets the specific requirements of airlines in Russia, the CIS, the United States and the EU, and conforms to the Aviation Rules AP-25, FAR-25, JAR-25 requirements and to the ground noise level requirements under ICAO Chapter 4 and FAR 36 Section 4 standards entering into force during 2006. From the beginning, the SSJ has been designed to meet all Western aviation standards.
The Superjet uses PowerJet SaM146 turbofan engines developed by PowerJet that provide 60 to 78 kilonewtons (13,000 to 18,000 lbf) of thrust. The noise and emissions levels satisfy the existing ICAO requirements.
The Superjet 100 has been described as the most important and successful civil aircraft program of the Russian aerospace industry. It enjoys considerable support from the Russian Ministry of Industry and Trade, which regards it as a top priority project. Excluding the SaM146 engine, development of the Superjet 100 cost about $1.4 billion, with 25% of this amount funded from the federal budget. The Superjet 100 is the first new civil non-amphibious jet aircraft developed in post-Soviet Russia.
Over 30 foreign partnership companies are involved in the project. Development, manufacturing and marketing of the aircraft's SaM146 jet engine is being done by the PowerJet company, a joint-venture between the French Snecma and Russia's NPO Saturn. SuperJet International, a joint venture between Leonardo-Finmeccanica and Sukhoi is responsible for marketing in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Japan and Oceania.
The assembly line for all versions of the Superjet is located in the facilities of Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO) in the Russian Far East, while Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association (NAPO) focuses on component production. The two companies have been heavily investing in upgrading of their facilities and were expected to produce 70 airframes by 2012.
On 28 January 2007, the first SSJ was transported by an Antonov 124 from Komsomolsk-on-Amur to the city of Zhukovsky near Moscow for ground tests. A representative of Sukhoi Civil Aircraft announced on 13 November 2007, the completion of static tests necessary for conducting the first flight. The Superjet was unveiled at its official rollout at Komsomolsk-on-Amur Dzemgi Airport on 26 September 2007.
In February 2008, initial test runs of the SaM146 engine were successful. An Ilyushin Il-76 LL testbed, operated by the Gromov Flight Research Institute, was also used in the engine testing. On 19 May 2008, the first test flight of the Superjet took place from Dzemgi airport, at the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association.
In July 2008, testing continued successfully. By October 2008, the first stage of Sukhoi Superjet 100's factory-based flight testing program was successfully completed. The second SSJ100 prototype had also been flown and the certification process was started. In December 2008, the second of four SSJ100 prototypes SN95003 took to the skies. The aircraft performed standard stability and handling quality tests as well as systems checks in accordance with the first flight assignment. Flight test engineers and pilots were pleased with the overall performance of the second prototype.
The deliveries were first scheduled to begin in late 2008, and Sukhoi predicted that 3 units of all variations of the Superjet 100 would be delivered by the end of 2008. On 7 July 2008, Sukhoi officially confirmed that the original schedule was too optimistic, and first deliveries would begin in December 2009.
As of January 2009, the first two aircraft had completed over 80 flights, totaling around 2,300 hours in flight and ground tests. On 1 April 2009, two Superjet 100 prototypes, 95001 and 95003, successfully completed the first long-distance flight for this aircraft, covering a distance of 3,000 kilometers from Novosibirsk to Moscow. On 17 April 2009, EASA pilots performed the first test flights on the two prototypes. According to EASA pilot feedback, the aircraft was easy to fly. On 26 July 2009, the third of four SSJ100 prototypes (SN95004) flew.
At the Paris Air Show 2009, Malév Hungarian Airlines said that it would purchase 30 Superjets worth $1 billion, providing a welcome boost to sales as it made its international debut at the 2009 Paris Air Show.
As of June 2009, 13 aircraft were under construction with the first four scheduled to be handed over to clients by the end of 2010. After 2012, the company will build 70 Superjets per year. Armenian Armavia would receive the first two aircraft, followed by Aeroflot, which has ordered a total of 30 aircraft with an option for 15 more. Other customers include Russia's Avialeasing company, Swiss Ama Asset Management Advisor and Indonesian Kartika Airlines.
On 29 December 2009, United Aircraft Corporation head Alexei Fyodorov said that deliveries of the Superjet 100 have been indefinitely delayed because the engines were not ready. On 4 February 2010, the fourth prototype SSJ flew. Owing to delays in production of the engines, including quality problems at the NPO Saturn factory, it used the engines removed from the first prototype. On 28 May 2010, all engine tests necessary for certification were completed. The final trial was a simulation of an encounter with a flock of birds.
On 6 July 2010, Deputy Industry and Trade Minister Denis Manturov, who heads the commission to monitor the implementation of the Sukhoi Superjet program, wrote to Industry and Trade Minister Viktor Khristenko about the progress of the aircraft's certification in early June. Data from 28 May 2010 showed that the certification process was getting behind schedule with most of the problems related to the SaM146 engine, developed by PowerJet, which is a joint project between the Russian Saturn and the French Snecma. Work on its final design had been almost completed and certification was more than 90 percent completed, but problems remain, noted Manturov.
In September 2010, the CEO of SuperJet International said that certification was expected in November 2010. In October 2010, the Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SN95004) passed noise testing carried out under the auspices of Russian and European certification authorities (AR IAC and EASA respectively). On 4 November 2010, the first production Superjet (SN95007) intended for Armavia was test flown.
By November 2010, the SSJ test fleet had flown 2,245 hours during 948 flights.
On 21 December 2010, Superjet 100 passed emergency evacuation and interrupted takeoff tests at Ramenskoye Airport near Zhukovsky, near Moscow, under the supervision of the Interstate Aviation Committee Aviation Register (AR IAC) and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The first test required 98 volunteers of different age groups and five crew members to evacuate the aircraft in 90 seconds during an simulated emergency landing. They made it in 73 seconds. The interrupted takeoff test probed the wheels, tires and brakes at maximum possible braking speed, without a thrust reverser.
On 3 February 2011, the Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC IR) granted a Type Certificate for Sukhoi Superjet 100. The Type Certificate confirms compliance of the SSJ100 with the airworthiness regulations and it authorizes the commercial operation of the airliner.
On 3 February 2012, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) issued Type Certificate A-176 for the Sukhoi Superjet 100 (model RRJ-95B), confirming that the aircraft complies with the EASA airworthiness and environmental requirements. The certification also makes it possible for airlines operating in countries using EASA rules to accept and operate the aircraft. The extensive validation program included several dedicated flight and ground tests.
In service developments
London City Airport is a major destination for Irish CityJet, which is receiving 15 SSJ100s, but its steep 5.5° approach requires new control laws, wing flap setting and modified brakes: test flights will begin in December 2017, certification is planned for 2018, and the modified aircraft will be available in 2019.
A new "sabrelet" winglet, helping takeoff and landing performance and delivering 3% better fuel burn, will be standard and available for retrofit. Designed with CFD tools by Sukhoi and TsAGI, the “saberlets” debuted flight tests on 21 December 2017. They should improve hot and high airport performance and cut costs up to $70,000 per year. Parts of the wing are reinforced for the aerodynamic loads distribution change.
Sukhoi's plans a 'Russified' Superjet 100 for 2020: a smaller PD-10 variant of the Aviadvigatel PD-14 could be developed, and Russian inertial navigation system and APU could replace Honeywell's, as Safran produce its landing gear. Russian content should double to 30% as US restrictions limit its export potential. Sukhoi forecasts 345 sales from 2018 to 2030, mostly in post-Soviet states and some in south-east Asia and Latin America, including an improved range business jet version. Sukhoi expects to produce 30 in 2018, like in 2017. Its seating capacity is raised to 110 and hot and high operations to 4,000m and 50°C as a freighter variant is studied.
The Kremlin has earmarked ₽3.2 billion ($51 million) toward the SSJ100R with indigenous propulsion and avionics, introduced at the Eurasia Airshow 2018 in Antalya along the SSJ75. Sukhoi Civil Aircraft lost 5 billion roubles in two years, raising its debt to 25.3 billion roubles but hopes for more sales from Iranian airlines to replace Boeing, Airbus, and ATR orders cancelled with the U.S. withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal. With 30 yearly deliveries, UAC claims a 37.5% market share of 80-120 seaters, or 19% of the regional jet market. For three years from 2018, UAC plans to invest ₽13.3 billion ($212 million) for the SSJ. On 12 July, while evaluating the winglets, the right landing gear failed to release fully, the test aircraft dumped fuel and made an emergency landing with no injuries at the Gromov Flight Research Institute, it will be repaired and returned to flying.
To resist the Airbus-Boeing duopoly pressure on regional jets through the Embraer E-Jet E2 and the Airbus A220, Sukhoi upgrades the SSJ100 as the SSJ100B and the "Russianised" SSJ100R. The SSJ100B would feature more powerful SaM146-1S18 engines, improved avionics software, enhanced high-lift devices controls and retrofit-able "sabrelets" blended wingtip devices. Its navigation system would be tested in the North Pole. The SSJ100R western components are replaced by Russian ones for governments and Western-sanctioned countries.
Western content accounts for 55-60% of an SSJ100 cost but sanctions against Russia are tightening. Replacing US parts like INS, APU, and cabin by Russian or European substitutes was to allow deliveries to Iran Air Tours and Iran Aseman which signed letters of intent for 40 in 2017, but European partners will not risk US retaliation. After the 2021 SSJ100R without US parts, Sukhoi seeks no Western components: the Thales avionics would be replaced by KRET ones and the SaM.146 engines by a PD-9 scaled down Aviadvigatel PD-14, reducing fuel burn by 5-8% with a new composite wing.
Orders and deliveries
|As of 30 April 2018[update]|
The first production Sukhoi Superjet was delivered to Armavia on 19 April 2011. The handover ceremony was held at Zvartnots International Airport in Yerevan on the same day. The aircraft was named "Yuri Gagarin", after the first man to venture into space almost exactly 50 years before. Armavia planned to operate its Superjet 100 on flights between Yerevan, Sochi and Ukrainian cities, including Odessa and Simferopol. The airline had expected to receive its second Superjet in June 2011.
On 21 April 2011, the first commercial flight of Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SN 95007) by Armavia airline landed at Sheremetyevo International Airport, Moscow at 04:45 MSK (00:45 GMT), carrying 90 passengers from Zvartnots International Airport, Yerevan. The flight took about 2 hours and 55 minutes.
Armavia used the Airbus A319 on its Yerevan to Moscow (SVO) route and had a plan to switch to the Superjet 100. In August 2012 Armavia announced that they had returned both of its SSJ-100s to the manufacturer.
The president of United Aircraft Corporation and general director of Sukhoi Mikhail Pogosyan hailed the event as a key milestone for the Superjet 100 project, saying that it opened "a new stage of the program — the beginning of commercial operation and full-scale serial production."
The aircraft was put into commercial operation within an unprecedented short time after delivery. For the first week of service the SSJ-100 accumulated 24 flights, flying to Moscow, Athens, Donetsk, Aleppo, Tehran, Tel Aviv, and Astrakhan. On 1 May, the Superjet made its first regular flight to Venice (2,800 kilometres (1,700 mi), approx 3 hour and 45 minute flight).
In March 2012, the deputy chief engineer of the Department of Aviation and Technical Support of "Aeroflot" Constantine Mohniit revealed in the Russian daily newspaper Vedomosti, that Aeroflot was asking Sukhoi for compensation since the six Superjet 100s it operates are in the air only 3.9 hours/day on average instead of the standard 8 to 9 hours. Breakdowns "... were caused by failures due to technical problems and delayed delivery of parts."
In February 2013, SCA stated in a press release that such problems are usual in newly operational and recently introduced airliners and minimized the claims.
At the end of October 2013, Interjet confirmed outstanding results in terms of operations. As of 31 October, the two Interjet SSJ100 have completed almost 600 flight hours, over 580 flight cycles during their commercial operations, with an average daily usage of 9.74 block hours, and a dispatch reliability of 99.03%. Dispatch reliability of Interjet's fleet of seven SSJ100 increased to 99.7% as of June 2014.
On 16 December 2012, Mikhail Baghdasarov, owner of bankrupt Armavia, stated that both of its ordered airplanes had been returned to Sukhoi Civil Aircraft company. He was also quoted as saying "that the SSJ-100 is not operated by the company anymore, Sukhoi Civil Aircraft has possession of the jet, and Armavia had decided not to receive any aircraft." Armavia's website did not show that it is not operating Sukhoi Superjet 100s as of February 2013. However it ceased operations in March 2013
On 12 September 2014 Interjet started regular passenger flights to the U.S. on the Monterrey, Mexico (MTY) – San Antonio, Texas (SAT) route. The Mexican air carrier also currently operates the aircraft in scheduled service between Monterrey and Houston George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH).
On 2 June 2016 at approximately 18:30 the first SSJ100 for CityJet landed at Dublin Airport. This represented the first delivery of a new aircraft, of any type, for CityJet.
On 24 December 2016, the Russian aviation regulatory agency grounded six SSJ100s operating in Russia after metal fatigue was found in a tail component of an aircraft operated by IrAero, leading Sukhoi to begin inspections of the entire in-service SSJ100 fleet. All SSJ100s were inspected by SCA on 27 December 2016. Following the results of the inspection, it was stated that the defect was not of a systemic nature and could be eliminated within a few days. The replacement of nodes on the aircraft with the defect identified (5 Aeroflot and 1 IrAero) would be completed by late January 2017. Examination confirmed that the issue was not a critical situation: the node features a multi-level redundant structure and has a safety margin which is more than twice the operational loads. All Mexican SSJ 100 were also inspected.
In June 2017, dispatch reliability increased to 97.85% from 96.94% a year earlier, while there were 89.6 malfunctions per 1,000 flight-hours, 40% fewer. On 21 July 2017 the European Aviation Safety Agency mandated a compulsory horizontal stabilizer rear spar inspection following the discovery of cracks on Sukhoi Superjet 100-95B aeroplanes in service on the rear spar of the horizontal stabilizer between ribs 0, 1 and 2. Sukhoi recognises it needs to improve customer support with more responsiveness and availability for flight training, engineering and spare parts supply.
In January 2018, Bloomberg reported that four out of 22 of Interjet's SSJ100s were cannibalized for parts to keep others running after having been grounded for at least five months because of SaM146 maintenance delays. This was later refuted by Interjet. One grounded SSJ100 is going to be back in service on 19 January and the remaining three in March.
In September 2018, Interjet was reported to be considering replacing its SSJ100s with Airbus A320neos, to make better use of its slots, with the SSJ technical problems possibly also a factor. This would have left CityJet as the only remaining Western customer.
On 12 September, Interjet denied the report. It was later reported that Interjet intends to phase out some of its Superjets and take 20 more Airbus A320neos, maybe alongside newer Superjet deliveries, and will have access to an enhanced SSJ spares inventory in Mexico City and is installing a flight simulator in Toluca.
Interjet claims its capital cost for 10 Superjets is equivalent to the pre-delivery payment for one Airbus A320. The pre-delivery payment amounts to 15-30% of an aircraft list price. An A320 list price was $88.3M in 2012.
Also in September 2018, it emerged that Brussels Airlines, whose wet-lease contract to use four of CityJet's SSJ100s is set to expire in March 2019, is looking at options for alternative aircraft of a similar size, citing teething problems that have affected the SSJ's reliability.
By August 2016, 133 SSJ00s were in operation with eight airlines and five governmental and business aviation organizations. In summer 2017, the business jet variant's additional fuel tanks were certified to carry 3,100 kg (6,800 lb) more fuel, increasing range from 4,420 km (2,390 nmi) to 6,000 km (3,200 nmi). In early November 2017, the Russian Federal Air Transport Agency and Italian Civil Aviation Authority (ENAC) amended their bilateral airworthiness agreement, hitting its export sales. At least 30 SSJ100s should be delivered in 2017, increasing to 38 in 2018 and 37 in 2019.
In October 2017, there were 105 SSJ100 in service worldwide: some used by governments of respective countries such as the Royal Thai Air Force and Kazakh government agencies. The fleet logged 230,000 flights in 340,000 hours since its commercial operations debuted in 2011. In May 2018, ten years after its first flight, the fleet of 127 have logged over 275,000 commercial flights and 420,000h. In September 2018, it had logged over 300,000 revenue flights lasting 460,000 hours.
The three variants were originally called the RRJ-60, RRJ-75 and RRJ-95, with the numbers designating the average passenger capacity of each type. However, with the renaming of the project to Superjet 100 (or SSJ100 for short), the RRJ-75 was re-labelled the Superjet 100/75, while the RRJ-95 became known as the Superjet 100/95. The smallest variants were postponed, and efforts are currently concentrating on the Superjet 100/95. The basic version SSJ100/95B was certified by EASA on 3 February 2012. The Long Range variant earned certificate on 22 December 2016, with a STOL version SSJ100/95B-100 on 7 March 2017.
In 2005, Aeroflot ordered 30 Sukhoi Superjet 100 aircraft with 98 seats in one class. Later, the airline decided to upgrade the avionics (FMS and weather radar) and modify the aircraft arrangement with 87 seats in two class, and extra cabin crew seat, lavatory and galley. To avoid delivery delays, the first 10 SSJ100 have the original “light” specification and the followers were updated (“full”). In the first half of 2014 Sukhoi began to replace in Aeroflot the “light” aircraft by “full” version. The last “full” version was delivered in June 2014, the “light” aircraft are operated by other Russian airlines.
The SSJ 130NG would have an aluminum fuselage and use composite materials for its wings which includes the center section, elevator and rudder. Sukhoi believes that the new materials will weigh 15 to 20 percent less than it does on other commercial planes, increase the plane's service life by 20 to 30 percent, reduce the plane's operating costs by 10 to 12 percent, and reduce energy consumption during the plane's manufacturing by 10 to 15 percent. Fuselage plugs will give the SSJ 130NG a greater length. The Superjet NG will derive Irkut MC-21’s composite wing and engines of the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G family. Some SSJ 100 suppliers might be ousted from the SSJ 130NG.
The center section of the SSJ100 could be stretched for 115 passengers. This section could be reused for the 130-seat (90 to 160) Superjet NG with a composite wing derived from the MS-21, PW1000G geared turbofan and production starting in 2019-2020. A stretch with 12 more seats to reach 120 with a longer central fuselage, larger wings but the same engines and tail is planned for introduction in 2020. With a business plan for 150, a go-ahead for the NG 130-seat stretch depends on the availability of engines with sufficient thrust and is due by the end of 2017. While the aircraft could carry up to 120 passengers with the existing engine, and up to 125 passengers with airframe continuous improvements, PowerJet can certificate a thrust increase of 2% within three years.
Sukhoi was to decide by 1Q 2018 whether to launch first a shortened 75-seat or a stretched variant needing higher thrust SaM146s or an alternative engine.
At the February 2018 Singapore Air Show, Sukhoi launched a 75-seat shrink, investing several hundred million dollars to enter service in 2022. With a smaller, optimised aluminium or composite wing, it would be powered by 17,000 lbf (76 kN) Pratt & Whitney PW1200Gs, detuned SaM146s or Aviadvigatel PD-14 derived PD-7s. The 3–3.5 m (9.8–11.5 ft) shorter fuselage would be 3 t (6,600 lb) lighter and it would fall within US scope clauses, but would require a Western service and support experience.
Demand for such jets is 200-300 in Russia and up to 3,000 overseas, introduction could slip to early 2023. As Sukhoi and Irkut may be consolidated into United Aircraft, some structures and avionics could be closer to the Irkut MC-21 for commonality. A unified platform looking identical to the pilots would ease conversions, S7 Airlines committed to 75. In July 2018, a composite wing was preferred and a 3m test section will be manufactured and tested, it would retain the SaM146 and empty weight should be reduced by 12-15%.
|Seating||87 (2-class) to 108 (1-class)|
|Seat pitch||30-32 in (economy), 36 (premium)|
|Length||29.94 m (98 ft 3 in)|
|Wingspan||27.80 m (91 ft 2 in)|
|Height||10.28 m (33 ft 9 in)|
|Fuselage||3.35 m (11 ft 0 in) diameter|
|Cabin||3.236 m (127.4 in) width × 2.12 m (6 ft 11 in) height|
|MTOW||45,880 kg (101,150 lb)||49,450 kg (109,020 lb)|
|OEW||24,250 kg (53,460 lb)||25,100 kg (55,300 lb)|
|Max. payload||12,245 kg (26,996 lb)|
|Max. Fuel||15,805 L (4,175 US gal)|
|Cargo||21.97 m3 (776 cu ft)|
|Takeoff (MTOW)||1,731 m (5,679 ft)||2,052 m (6,732 ft)|
|Ceiling||12,500 m (41,000 ft)|
|Cruise||Mach 0.78 (828 km/h / 448 knots at FL400)|
|Max. cruise||Mach 0.81 (870 km/h / 469 knots at FL400)|
|Range (full pax)||3,048 km (1,894 mi)||4,578 km (2,845 mi)|
|2 x Turbofan||SaM146-1S17||SaM146-1S18|
|2 x Thrust||68.5 kN (15,400 lbf)||71.6 kN (16,100 lbf)|
Accidents and incidents
- On 9 May 2012 a Russian Sukhoi Superjet 100 airliner, on a demonstration flight with 37 passengers and eight Russian crew members on board, crashed after it took off from the Halim Perdanakusuma Airport in Jakarta, Indonesia, killing everyone on board. About twenty minutes after the take-off, the crew requested permission to descend to 6,000 feet (1,800 m), which was granted. This was the last contact that Air Traffic Control had with the aircraft, which was then about 139 kilometres (75 nmi) south of Jakarta, in the vicinity of the 2,211-metre-high (7,254 ft) Mount Salak, a mountain higher than the requested flight level. After an extensive search, rescuers concluded, based on the widespread debris field on the side of a ridge, that the aircraft directly struck the rocky side of Mount Salak and there was "no chance of survival". An official inquiry into the crash found that the plane's automatic collision avoidance system was working, but had been ignored by the pilot, who was possibly distracted by his conversation with a potential customer for the aircraft.
- On 21 July 2013, a Russian Sukhoi Superjet 100 airliner, prototype aircraft RA-95005, unintentionally crash-landed gear-up at Keflavík International Airport near Keflavík, Iceland when, during evaluation of the aircraft's automatic landing system, and its ability to land with a single engine while in a crosswind, the plane hit and slid down the runway with the gear up. The accident was blamed on pilot error, which was caused by severe fatigue. As a result, during an intended go-around, the pilot throttled up the wrong engine. Due to the plane's low-energy state, the plane continued to lose altitude, and, before the pilot realized his mistake, and throttled up the correct engine, it was too late, and the aircraft hit the runway. One of the five crew on board was injured evacuating the aircraft. Nine safety recommendations were made by Iceland's Aircraft Accident Investigation Board, which investigated the accident. The aircraft was repaired and it flew again on 27 December 2013.
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
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