Sukma Games

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For Malaysia at the worldwide Olympic Games, see Malaysia at the Olympics.

The Sukma Games is a sporting event in Malaysia, held once every two years. Sukma is an acronym for Sukan Malaysia; literally Malaysian Games, in other words this event is often viewed as a high-end national level competition and is usually referred to as the "Malaysian Olympics". The first Games was held in 1986 in Kuala Lumpur. The games have been held biannually from 1986 to 2010, annually from 2010 to 2014 and again bianually from 2014 onwards. Participants of the event are picked from a competitive pool of possible strong elite athletes for each respective state and are usually extremely proficient and skilled in their own respective disciplines.[1]

Background[edit]

The Sukma Games is a multi-sports events held biannually and is the largest and prestige tournament in Malaysia. The tournament is held at every alternate year with Southeast Asian Games to explore new talents of the athletes highly potential to represent the nation at international sporting events.

The Sukma Games rose from the proposal of the then Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports, Anwar Ibrahim in 1983. At first, the proposal consisted of sports such as tennis, table tennis, cycling, athletics and volleyball, but due to popularity and fame, the sports and number of events increased.[2]

The Sukma Games concept is initiated to shape a united multi-racial society across the nation. The games fulfilled the Malaysia corporation concept where the government, sporting bodies, National Sports Council and non-governmental organizations are involved in managing its sponsorship.

Participating contingent[edit]

The Participating Contingent are mainly states and federal territories within Malaysia. Some national organisations and Foreign Affiliates have been invited to certain Sukma Games Edition. Eventually, as time passes all invitational teams except Brunei have been ceased to participate in any Sukma Games followed by individual Federal Territories of Malaysia which the latter had been merged into a single team starts 2006. Participating Contingent with their respective Sukma Games Code are as below.

Notes:

  1. ^ Kuala Lumpur, Labuan and Putrajaya participated as a combined Federal Territory contingent since 2006. Given Putrajaya's small area and population, the Putrajaya contingent was never formed throughout Sukma Games history.
  2. ^ No longer participated in the games, as of 2014 edition (historical team)
  3. ^ Not from within Malaysia.

Sports[edit]

The list below shows the sports that are played at all the Sukma Games since 1986.

Core sports[edit]

Optional sports[edit]

All-time medal table[edit]

Below shows the all time medal table of Sukma Games from 1986 to 2016. Defunct teams are highlighted in italics.

Rank Contingents No. Games Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Selangor 18 753 719 819 2291
2  Sarawak 18 668 612 645 1925
3  Perak 18 406 417 560 1383
4  Pahang 18 384 371 409 1164
5  Penang 18 383 395 520 1298
6  Terengganu 18 382 287 324 993
7  Johor 18 324 339 469 1132
8  Sabah 18 278 339 443 1060
9  Kuala Lumpur 10 274 276 279 829
10  Kedah 18 254 232 345 831
11  Federal Territory 8 251 278 337 866
12  Negeri Sembilan 18 228 224 303 755
13  Malacca 18 192 193 260 645
14  Kelantan 18 136 143 180 459
15  Perlis 18 55 64 140 259
16 Royal Malaysian Police Royal Malaysian Police 11 31 36 45 112
17 Malaysia MASUM 9 17 17 15 49
18 Malaysian Armed Forces Malaysian Armed Forces 5 12 27 39 78
19  Brunei 11 5 14 30 49
20  Labuan 5 2 2 10 14
21 Malaysia MSSM 4 2 2 9 13
22  Northern Territory 1 1 0 1 2
Total 18 5038 4987 6182 16207
  • Total medals excluding 4th place

Medal table by edition[edit]

  Host state

Edition[edit]

Host cities of the games through 2016

All states of Malaysia have held their respective Sukma Games, except Kelantan.

Edition Year Host Main Stadium Start Date End Date Sports Events Contingents Competitors Champion
I 1986 Kuala Lumpur Merdeka Stadium, Kuala Lumpur 19 April 26 April 15 127 17 4,552 Kuala Lumpur
II 1988 Kuala Lumpur Stadium Negara, Kuala Lumpur 12 November 19 November 26 133 17 4,995 Selangor
III 1990  Sarawak Sarawak State Stadium, Kuching 18 July 27 July 26 134 17 3,426 Sarawak
IV 1992  Johor Tan Sri Dato Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium, Johor Bahru 1 July 11 July 26 199 17 5,151 Sarawak
V 1994  Perak Perak Stadium, Ipoh 9 June 18 June 26 230 17 5,664 Sarawak
VI 1996  Pahang Darul Makmur Stadium, Kuantan 1 June 10 June 26 277 19 6,495 Selangor
VII 1998  Selangor Opening ceremony
Shah Alam Stadium
Closing ceremony
Melawati Indoor Stadium
17 April 26 April 26 264 16 5,028 Selangor
VIII 2000  Penang Batu Kawan Stadium, Batu Kawan 25 May 4 June 29 332 19 5,875 Selangor
IX 2002  Sabah Likas Stadium, Kota Kinabalu 5 September 14 September 27 347 20 5,324 Selangor
X 2004  Negeri Sembilan Tuanku Abdul Rahman Stadium, Seremban 28 May 6 June 32 370 17 Selangor
XI 2006  Kedah Darul Aman Stadium, Alor Star 24 May 4 June 31 370 16 4,882 Selangor
XII 2008  Terengganu Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin Stadium, Kuala Terengganu 31 May 9 June 31 406 15 Terengganu
XIII 2010  Malacca Hang Jebat Stadium, Paya Rumput 10 June 19 June 33 437 15 9,237 Terengganu
XIV 2011  Federal Territory KLFA Stadium, Kuala Lumpur 2 June 12 June 24 129 14 3,368 Terengganu
XV 2012  Pahang Darul Makmur Stadium, Kuantan 9 July 16 July 24 379 15 5,828 Terengganu
XVI 2013 Federal Territory (Malaysia) Federal Territory Bukit Jalil National Stadium, Kuala Lumpur 28 June 7 July 23 132 14 3,618 Selangor
XVII 2014  Perlis Tuanku Syed Putra Stadium, Kangar 24 May 4 June 24 396 15 7,815 Federal Territory
XVIII 2016  Sarawak Sarawak Stadium, Kuching 23 July 31 July 24 382 15 5,670 Selangor
XIX 2018  Perak[3] Future event
XX 2020  Johor[3] Future event

Best performing contingent[edit]

Contingent Champions Runners-up Third Fourth Fifth
 Selangor 9 (1988, 1996, 1998*, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2013, 2016) 5 (1986, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012) 2 (1992, 1994) 1 (2014) 1 (1990)
 Terengganu 4 (2008*, 2010, 2011, 2012) 2 (2013, 2014) 1 (2016)
 Sarawak 3 (1990*, 1992, 1994) 6 (1988, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2004, 2016*) 4 (1986, 2002, 2008, 2014) 2 (2006, 2012)
 Kuala Lumpur 1 (1986*) 2 (1990, 1994) 4 (1988*, 1996, 1998, 2002) 3 (1992, 2000, 2004)
 Federal Territory 1 (2014) 2 (2010, 2013*) 1 (2016) 3 (2008, 2011, 2012)
Perak Perak 1 (2002) 4 (1998, 2000, 2004, 2006) 3 (1986, 1990, 1994*) 1 (1996)
Pahang Pahang 1 (2006) 2 (1996*, 2012*) 1 (2008) 4 (1994, 1998, 2014, 2016)
Johor Johor 1 (1992*) 1 (2011) 2 (2010, 2013)
Penang Penang 2 (1988, 1990) 3 (1992, 2000*, 2004) 2 (1986, 2006)
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilan 1 (2011) 2 (1988, 2013)
Sabah Sabah 1 (2002*)
Kedah Kedah 1 (2010)
* = host

List of the Sukma Games' Sportsman and Sportswoman[edit]

Edition Year Sukma Games' Sportsman Sukma Games' Sportswoman
Name Contingent Sport Name Contingent Sport
I 1986
II 1988
III 1990 Gerard Liew  Penang Swimming Tania Hamid Bugo  Sarawak Swimming
IV 1992 Khoo Kah Hock Malaysia MASUM Archery Magdaline Goh  Penang Swimming
Azmi Ibrahim
(Most Promising Sportsman)
 Pahang Athletics Shalin Zulkifli
(Most Promising Sportswoman)
 Selangor Bowling
V 1994 Azmi Ibrahim  Pahang Athletics Yew Chai Peng  Perak Athletics
VI 1996
VII 1998 Chai Song Lip  Sarawak Athletics
VIII 2000 Allen Ong  Perak Swimming Sia Wai Yen  Kuala Lumpur Swimming
IX 2002 Ng Shu Mun  Perak Artistic gymnastics Ngew Sin Mei  Kuala Lumpur Athletics
Petra Nabila Mustafa
(Most Promising Sportswoman)
 Negeri Sembilan Athletics
X 2004 Daniel Bego  Sarawak Swimming Cindy Ong  Perak Swimming
XI 2006 Zulkifli Che Rose  Sarawak Weightlifting Lew Yih Wey  Negeri Sembilan Swimming
XII 2008 Foo Jian Beng  Selangor Swimming Marellyn Liew  Sarawak Swimming
XIII 2010 J. Karthik  Malacca Athletics Chan Kah Yan Federal Territory (Malaysia) Federal Territory Swimming
XIV 2011 Ahmad Shafie Abd Jabar  Johor Canoeing Jupha Somnet  Perlis Cycling
XV 2012 Abdul Mubin Rahim  Terengganu Weightlifting Frenceay Titus  Sabah Weightlifting
XVI 2013 Danniel Iskandar Richard  Selangor Artistic gymnastics Esmelda Arecia Menti Alfred Geling  Sarawak Artistic gymnastics
XVII 2014 Muhammad Irfan Shamshuddin  Negeri Sembilan Athletics Jelinie Empera  Sarawak Weightlifting
XVIII 2016 Khairul Hafiz Jantan  Malacca Athletics Nur Aqilah Yusof  Terengganu Archery

Previously Adopted Systems[edit]

Fourth Place-Points System[edit]

From 1998 to 2006, Sukma Games adopted the Fourth Place-Points System to calculate the points collected by athletes for the contingent. It was also a measurement to a contingent's strength and as bonus awards to a contingent. The Sukma Games organiser, however, has a somewhat misleading practice of ranking contingent based on most points or most medals collected in the medal table and not the traditional most gold-most silver-most bronze ascending order and includes fourth place and total points collected in the medal table. The system was abolished after the 2006 Sukma Games. Note that the system applied only for local contingents and not invitational contingents such as Brunei and Northern Territory.

Points are calculated based on the Number of Athletes in an event as follows.

Number Of Athletes Gold Silver Bronze 4th Place
Single and Duo 5 3 2 1
Trio and Above 8 5 3 2

Annual Games System[edit]

On 27 May 2010, the Cabinet Committee for Sports Development (Malay: Jawatankuasa Kabinet Pembangunan Sukan (JKPS)) has decided that it should allow the states to rotate hosting the Sukma Games every even years and the National Sports Council itself every odd year to give chance for every sports competed and help the develop the sports in all directions and 'democratise' all the sports events,[4] hence started the "annual games" system. This, however has caused some states like Sarawak to lament on its so-called bad performance when the optional sports only Sukma Games held in the odd years was competed, while in fact they excel in the core sports only Sukma Games held by the states in the even years when it was competed.[5] For example, they fell to the bottom three with only 2 Gold in the 2011 games which involved only optional sports. But in 2012 Games in Pahang which involved only core sports, they won fourth place among the states competed. By combining the results of the 2011 and 2012 games, Sarawak is fifth place overall. This shows that some states might be weak in certain sports, but they are strong in the others. Besides, the implementation of the system saw the states sports agenda fully packed, and lack of enough time to rest after a competition. Notably, Brunei did not participate in the optional sports games held in Kuala Lumpur, rather it participated only in the state held Sukma Games held in the even years as usual. The system was adopted from 2010 to 2014, and was abolished via a meeting.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Malay) "Sukan Malaysia (SUKMA)". National Sports Council of Malaysia. Retrieved 27 January 2015. 
  2. ^ "Sukma Games". National Sports Council Malaysia. September 26, 2010. Retrieved September 26, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b (Malay) "Perak, Johor tuan rumah Sukma 2018, 2020". Sinar Harian. 14 May 2015. 
  4. ^ "Sukma 2011-an Effort 'Democratising' Sports In The Country". Bernama. Retrieved September 18, 2015. 
  5. ^ "Sarawak in bottom three at Sukma XIV". The Borneo Post. June 14, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2015.