Sulfadiazine

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Sulfadiazine
Sulfadiazine-2D-skeletal.png
Sulfadiazine-3D-vdW.png
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a682130
Pregnancy
category
Routes of
administration
Topical cream, by mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Protein binding 38-48%[2]
Metabolism Hepatic (acetylation)[2]
Biological half-life 7-17 hours [2]
Excretion Urine [2]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.623
Chemical and physical data
Formula C10H10N4O2S
Molar mass 250.278 g/mol
Melting point 252 to 256 °C (486 to 493 °F)
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Sulfadiazine is a sulfonamide antibiotic.[3] Used together with pyrimethamine, it is the treatment of choice for toxoplasmosis.[4] It is a second line treatment for otitis media, prevention of rheumatic fever, chancroid, chlamydia and infections by Haemophilus influenzae. It is taken by mouth.[3]

Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, headache, fever, rash, depression, and pancreatitis.[3] It should not be used in people who have severe liver problems, kidney problems, or porphyria.[4] If used during pregnancy it may increase the risk of kernicterus in the baby.[3] Unlike other sulfonamides, sulfadiazine use is contraindicated in breastfeeding women.[1]

Sulfadiazine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1941.[3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[5] Sulfadiazine is available as a generic medication.[3] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 2.70 to 7.32 USD a month.[6] In the United States treatment costs more than 200 USD a month.[7]

Medical uses[edit]

It eliminates bacteria that cause infections by stopping the production of folate inside the bacterial cell, and is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections, and burns.

In combination, sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine, can be used to treat toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

Mechanism of action[edit]

Sulfadiazine works by inhibiting the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase. In combination with pyrimethamine (a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor), sulfadiazine is used to treat active toxoplasmosis.

Side effects[edit]

Side effects reported for sulfadiazine include: nausea, upset stomach, loss of appetite, and dizziness.

Brand names[edit]

Lantrisul; Neotrizine; Sulfa-Triple #2; Sulfadiazine; Sulfaloid; Sulfonamides Duplex; Sulfose; Terfonyl; Triple Sulfa; Triple Sulfas; Triple Sulfoid

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Sulfadiazine Use During Pregnancy | Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Sulfadiazine Monograph for Professionals | Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Sulfadiazine". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  4. ^ a b WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. pp. 126, 205. ISBN 9789241547659. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  5. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  6. ^ "Sulfadiazine". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  7. ^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 104. ISBN 9781284057560.