Sulfozinum

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Sulfozinum (sulfozin) is a pharmaceutical drug that causes a pyrogenic reaction (body temperature elevation)[1][2] and severe pain.[3] Sulfozinum is a 0.37 - 2% sterilized solution of purified elemental sulfur in peach oil or olive oil for intramuscular injections. The preparation is unstable so it was prepared only in local hospital pharmacies. In the Soviet Union, it was used in the pyrogenic treatment of syphilitic encephalitis (mostly in pre-antibiotics era), various psychiatric conditions,[4][5] and alcoholism.[6] Sulfozin was not used in American psychiatry.[3]

The American delegation during its visit to the USSR in 1989 confirmed charges of the use of sulfozine injections.[7] Psychiatrists in the USSR employed sulfozine treatment allegedly to increase treatment response to neuroleptic administration but were unable to present any research evidence of its efficiency for this purpose.[8] The muscle necrosis, fever, immobility, and severe pain caused by sulfozine, as well as the pattern of its use in 10 persons, suggest that the medication was applied for punitive rather than therapeutic purposes.[8]

Real benefits of its use in psychiatry are disputable, but it was widely used due to its extremely painful action, lasting from several hours to 2–3 days, as a punishment for psychiatric patients and in political abuse of psychiatry.[9] Sulfazine symbolised Soviet punitive psychiatry.[10]

In 1989, during Perestroika, its use was restricted only to cases when its prescription was confirmed both by consilium and by informed consent of the patient or his representatives.[11] Its present use is not known.

In post-Soviet Russia[edit]

Some psychiatrists in post-Soviet Russia call the criticism of sulfozin attacks on psychiatry and still believe that sulfozin was sometimes the only effective treatment when all other ones were ineffective in calming down violent patients.[12] The psychiatrists say that sulfozin really brought a psychosis to remission.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Malkina, MG; Martynov, LA (1958). "Stimulation of pyrogenic effect of sulfozine". Farmakologiia i toksikologiia 21 (3): 47–9. PMID 13562185. 
  2. ^ Zaltsman GI, Lunskii GP (1961). "Effect of aminazin on hyperthermia produced with sulfozin". Izvestiia. Seriia fiziologii i meditsiny Qazaq SSR Ghylym Akademiiasy 2 (2): 96–100. PMID 24547024. 
  3. ^ a b Probes, Lawrence; Kouznetsov, Vladimir; Verbitski, Vladimir; Molodyi, Vadim (June 1992). "Trends in Soviet and Post-Soviet Psychiatry" (PDF). The PSR Quarterly 2 (2): 67–76. ISSN 1051-2438. 
  4. ^ Antropov, IuF (1981). "Various methods of overcoming resistance to therapy in childhood and adolescent schizophrenia". Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova (Moscow, Russia : 1952) 81 (10): 1522–6. PMID 6118983. 
  5. ^ Dochkov, Zh (1959). "Sulfozin therapy of certain psychoses". Suvremenna meditsina 10 (1): 81–8. PMID 13668869. 
  6. ^ Kalabukha, AV; Kalabukha, VA (1981). "Use of sulfozine to treat chronic alcoholism in pulmonary tuberculosis". Problemy tuberkuleza (3): 38–41. PMID 7232391. 
  7. ^ Moran, Mark (5 November 2010). "Psychiatric Abuses Once Led to Cold War Confrontation". Psychiatric News (The American Psychiatric Association). 
  8. ^ a b "Report of the U.S. Delegation to Assess Recent Changes in Soviet Psychiatry" (PDF). Schizophrenia Bulletin 15 (4 Suppl): 3. 1989. doi:10.1093/schbul/15.suppl_1.1. PMID 2638045. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  9. ^ Korotenko A.I., Alinkina N.V. (2002). Soviet Psychiatry : delusions and intentions (in Russian). Kiev: Sfera. p. 60. ISBN 9667841367. 
  10. ^ Amnesty International French Medical Commission and Valérie Marange (1991). Doctors and torture: resistance or collaboration?. Bellew Pub. p. 64. ISBN 0947792562. 
  11. ^ Приказ Минздрава СССР от 15.08.1989 № 470 — Russian DoH order (in Russian)
  12. ^ a b Malyavin, Maxim (13 July 2012). "Extreme psychiatry" (in Russian). ABC magazine.