Sulfur concrete

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Sulfur concrete is a composite construction material, composed mainly of sulfur and aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate made of gravel or crushed rocks and a fine aggregate such as sand). Cement and water, important compounds in normal concrete, are not part of sulfur concrete. The concrete is heated above the melting point of sulfur ca. 140 °C. After cooling the concrete reaches a high strength, not needing a prolonged curing like normal concrete. Sulfur concrete is resistant to some compounds like acids which attack normal concrete. Sulfur concrete was developed and promoted as building material to get rid of large amounts of stored sulfur produced by hydrodesulfurization of gas and oil. Sulfur concrete is also a possible building material for a lunar base. As of 2011, sulfur concrete has only been used in small quantities when fast curing or acid resistance is necessary.[1][2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Brandt, Andrzej Marek (1995). Cement-based composites: Materials, mechanical properties and performance. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-419-19110-0. 
  2. ^ Sulfur Concrete – A New Construction Material (PDF). Prestressed Concrete Institute. 1974. pp. 86–95. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Husam A. Omar & Mohsen Issa (1994). "Production of Lunar Concrete Using Molten Sulfur" (PDF). In Rodney G. Galloway & Stanley Lokaj. Engineering, construction, and operations in space IV: Space '94; Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 26–March 3, 1994. 2. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers. pp. 952–959. ISBN 0872629376. 
  • I. Casanova (1997). "Feasibility and Applications of Sulfur Concrete for Lunar Base Development: A Preliminary Study" (PDF). 28th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 17–21, 1997, Houston, TX. p. 209. 
  • T. D. Lin; Steven B. Skaar & Joseph J. O'Gallagher (April 1997). "Proposed remote control solar powered concrete production experiment on the Moon". Aerospace Engineering. 10 (2): 104–109. 
  • Houssam Toutanji; Becca Glenn-Loper & Beth Schrayshuen (2005). "Strength and Durability Performance of Waterless Lunar Concrete" (PDF). 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit 10 – 13 January 2005, Reno, Nevada. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. 
  • R.N. Grugel & Houssam Toutanji (2006). "Viability of Sulfur "Concrete" on the Moon: Environmental Consideration". Proceedings: 43rd American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Reno, NV, Jan. 9-12, 2006.  — also:
  • R. Grugel & Houssam Toutanji (2006). "Viability of Sulfur Concrete on the Moon: Environmental Considerations". Journal of Advances in Space Research. 
  • Richard N. Grugela & Houssam Toutanji (2008). "Sulfur "concrete" for lunar applications — Sublimation concerns". Advances in Space Research. 41 (1): 103–112. Bibcode:2008AdSpR..41..103G. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.08.018.