Sulfur tetrachloride

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Sulfur tetrachloride
Sulfur tetrachloride.svg
Names
IUPAC name
Sulfur(IV) chloride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.149.178
Properties
SCl4
Molar mass 173.87
Appearance White powder
Melting point −31 °C (−24 °F; 242 K)
Boiling point −20 °C (−4 °F; 253 K) (decomposes)
soluble in water
Hazards
R-phrases (outdated) R14, R34, R50
S-phrases (outdated) (S1/2), S26, S45, S61
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Sulfur tetrachloride is an inorganic compound with chemical formula SCl4. It has only been obtained as an unstable pale yellow solid. The corresponding SF4 is a stable, useful reagent.

Preparation and structure[edit]

It is obtained by treating sulfur dichloride with chlorine at 193 K:

 

 

 

 

(1)

It melts with simultaneous decomposition above −20 °C.[1]

Its solid structure is uncertain. It is probably the salt SCl3+Cl, since related salts are known with noncoordinating anions.[2][3] In contrast to this tetrachloride, SF4 is a neutral molecule.[4]

Reactions[edit]

It decomposes above −30 °C (242 K) to sulfur dichloride and chlorine.

 

 

 

 

(2)

It hydrolyzes readily:

 

 

 

 

(3)

Sulfur tetrachloride reacts with water, producing hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide through the hydrolysis process. Thionyl chloride is an implied intermediate.[5]

 

 

 

 

(4)

 

 

 

 

(5)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Georg Brauer: Handbuch der Präparativen Anorganischen Chemie. (in German)
  2. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-08-037941-9. 
  3. ^ Christian, Beverly H.; Collins, Michael J.; Gillespie, Ronald J.; Sawyer, Jeffery F. "Preparations, Raman spectra, and crystal structures of (SCl3)(SbCl6), (SeCl3)(SbCl6), (SBr1.2Cl1.8)(SbCl6), (TeCl3)(AlCl4) (triclinic modification), (TeCl3)(SbF6), (TeCl3)(AsF6), and (TeF3)2(SO4)" Inorganic Chemistry 1986, volume 25, 777-88. doi:10.1021/ic00226a012
  4. ^ Goettel, J. T., Kostiuk, N. and Gerken, M. (2013), The Solid-State Structure of SF4: The Final Piece of the Puzzle . Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 52: 8037–8040. doi:10.1002/anie.201302917
  5. ^ Holleman-Wiberg, Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, 101. Auflage, de Gruyter Verlag 1995 ISBN 3-11-012641-9 (in German)