Sulpicia (gens)

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The gens Sulpicia was one of the most ancient patrician families at Rome, and produced a succession of distinguished men, from the foundation of the Republic to the imperial period. The first member of the gens who obtained the consulship was Servius Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus, in 500 BC, only nine years after the expulsion of the Tarquins, and the last of the name who appears on the consular Fasti was Sextus Sulpicius Tertullus in AD 158. Although originally patrician, the family also possessed plebeian members, some of whom may have been descended from freedmen of the gens.[1]

Praenomina[edit]

The Sulpicii made regular use of only four praenomina: Publius, Servius, Quintus, and Gaius. The only other praenomen appearing under the Republic is Marcus, known from the father of Gaius Sulpicius Peticus, five times consul during the fourth century BC. The last of the Sulpicii known to have held the consulship, in the second century AD, was named Sextus, a praenomen otherwise unknown in this gens.[1]

Branches and cognomina[edit]

During the Republic, several branches of the Sulpician gens were identified by numerous cognomina, including Camerinus, Cornutus, Galba, Gallus, Longus, Paterculus, Peticus, Praetextatus, Quirinus, Rufus, and Saverrio. In addition to these cognomina, we meet with some other surnames belonging to freedmen and to other persons under the Empire. On coins we find the surnames Galba, Platorinus, Proclus, and Rufus.[1]

Camerinus was the name of an old patrician family of the Sulpicia gens, which probably derived its name from the ancient town of Cameria or Camerium, in Latium. Many of them bore the agnomen Cornutus, from a Latin adjective meaning "horned". The Camerini frequently held the highest offices in the state in the early times of the Republic; but after 345 BC, when Servius Sulpicius Camerinus Rufus was consul, we do not hear of them again for upwards of four hundred years, till Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus obtained the consulship in AD 9. The family was reckoned one of the noblest in Rome in the early times of the Empire.[2]

The Praetextati appear in the second half of the fifth century BC. The family appears to have been a small one, descended from the Camerini. It probably derived its name from one of several related meanings. Praetextus commonly referred to clothing with a decorative border, and especially to the toga praetexta, a toga with a purple border worn by boys and magistrates. Something veiled or concealed could also be described as praetextatus.[3][4]

The Sulpicii Longi flourished during the fourth century BC, from the time of the Gallic sack of Rome in 390 to the period of the Samnite Wars. The cognomen Longus may have been bestowed upon the ancestor of this family because he was particularly tall.[5][6]

The surname Rufus, meaning "red", probably referred to the color of the hair of one of the Sulpicii, and may have begun as a cadet branch of the Camerini, as both cognomina were united in the consul of 345 BC.[7]

The Sulpicii Galli were a family of the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC. Their cognomen may refer to a cock, or to a Gaul. The greatest of this family, Gaius Sulpicius Gallus, was a successful general and statesman, as well as an orator and scholar much admired by Cicero.[8]

The Sulpicii Galbae first came to prominence during the Second Punic War, and remained distinguished until the first century AD, when Servius Sulpicius Galba claimed the title of Emperor. The surname may share a common root with the adjective galbinus, a greenish-yellow color, although its exact significance with respect to the Sulpicii is unclear.[9][10]

Members[edit]

This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation.

Sulpicii Camerini[edit]

Sulpicii Praetextati[edit]

Sulpicii Petici[edit]

  • Quintus Sulpicius Peticus, grandfather of the consul of 364 BC.[49]
  • Marcus Sulpicius Q. f. Peticus, father of the consul of 364 BC.[49]
  • Gaius Sulpicius M. f. Q. n. Peticus, censor in 366, consul in 364, 361, 355, 353, and 351 BC, and dictator in 358.[50][51]

Sulpicii Longi[edit]

Sulpicii Saverriones[edit]

Sulpicii Paterculi[edit]

Sulpicii Galli[edit]

  • Servius Sulpicius Gallus, grandfather of the consul of 243 BC.[71]
  • Gaius Sulpicius Ser. f. Gallus, father of the consul of 243 BC.[71]
  • Gaius Sulpicius C. f. Ser. n. Gallus, consul in 243 BC.[72][73][71]
  • Gaius Sulpicius C. f. Gallus, father of the consul of 166 BC.[74]
  • Gaius Sulpicius C. f. C. n. Gallus, a great scholar; as consul in 166 BC, triumphed over the Ligures.[75][76][77][78][72][74]
  • Quintus Sulpicius C. f. C. n. Gallus, died at an early age, and his death was borne by his father with great fortitude.[79]
  • Galus Sulpicius, consul suffectus in 4 BC. Believed to be a descendant of the consul of 166 BC.
  • Galus Sulpicius, son of the above. triumvir monetalis in 5 BC.

Sulpicii Galbae[edit]

Sulpicii Rufi[edit]

Others[edit]

Christian figures[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ In one passage, Livy refers to him as Publius.
  2. ^ Broughton gives Gaius Sulpicius Geminus.
  3. ^ Sometimes referred to as "Servius Sulpicius Lemonia Rufus, although "Lemonia" was his voting tribe, rather than his personal name.
  4. ^ Broughton gives Publius Sulpicius Rufus, and does not mention either in 36.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 945 ("Sulpicia Gens").
  2. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 590 ("Camerinus").
  3. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, pp. 515, 516 ("Praetextatus").
  4. ^ Cassell's Latin & English Dictionary, s. v. "praetextatus".
  5. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 806 ("Sulpicius Longus").
  6. ^ Cassell's Latin & English Dictionary, s. v. "longus".
  7. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, pp. 945–947 ("Sulpicius Rufus").
  8. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, pp. 228, 229 ("Sulpicius Gallus").
  9. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, pp. 203–207 ("Galba").
  10. ^ Cassell's Latin & English Dictionary, s. v. "galbinus".
  11. ^ a b Broughton, vol. I, p. 10.
  12. ^ Livy, ii. 19.
  13. ^ Dionysius, v. 52, 55, 57, vi. 20.
  14. ^ Cicero, Brutus, 16.
  15. ^ Zonaras, vii. 13.
  16. ^ Dionysius, vii. 68, viii. 22.
  17. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 18.
  18. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 36.
  19. ^ Livy, iii. 10, 31, 33, 70.
  20. ^ Dionysius, x. 1, 52, 56.
  21. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xi. 84.
  22. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 36, 37, 45, 46, 51.
  23. ^ Livy, v. 8, 14.
  24. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xiv. 38, 82.
  25. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 83, 86.
  26. ^ Livy, v. 29, 32, vi. 5.
  27. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xiv. 99, 107.
  28. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 91–93, 99.
  29. ^ Livy, vi. 4, 18, 21.
  30. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 99, 102, 103, 108.
  31. ^ Livy, vi. 22, 27.
  32. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xv. 41.
  33. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 103–106.
  34. ^ Livy, vii. 28.
  35. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xvi. 66.
  36. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 131.
  37. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Vespasian", 3.
  38. ^ Pliny the Elder, vii. 48.
  39. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xiii. 52.
  40. ^ a b Cassius Dio, lxiii. 18.
  41. ^ a b Pliny the Younger Epistulae, v. 3.
  42. ^ Livy, iv. 23.
  43. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xii. 53.
  44. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 61.
  45. ^ Livy, vi. 32-34, 36, 38.
  46. ^ Niebuhr, History of Rome, iii. pp. 2, 3.
  47. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 108, 110, 112.
  48. ^ Tacitus, Historiae, iv. 42.
  49. ^ a b Broughton, vol. I, p. 115.
  50. ^ Livy, vii. 2, 7, 9, 12–15, 17–19, 22.
  51. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 115, 116, 118, 124–126.
  52. ^ Livy, v. 36, 47, 48.
  53. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xiv. 110.
  54. ^ Macrobius, i. 16.
  55. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 90.
  56. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 138.
  57. ^ Livy, viii. 15, 37, ix. 24–27.
  58. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xvii. 17, xviii. 26, xix. 73.
  59. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 138, 149, 157, 159.
  60. ^ a b Broughton, vol. I, p. 167.
  61. ^ Livy, ix. 49, x. 9.
  62. ^ Dionysius, Exc. Legat., p. 2331 (ed. Reiske).
  63. ^ Niebuhr, History of Rome, vol. iii, pp. 258, 259.
  64. ^ Broughton, pp. 167, 172.
  65. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 192.
  66. ^ a b c Broughton, vol. I, p. 206.
  67. ^ Polybius, i. 24.
  68. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 944 ("Sulpicia").
  69. ^ Valerius Maximus, viii. 15. § 12.
  70. ^ Pliny the Elder, vii. 35.
  71. ^ a b c Broughton, vol. I, p. 217.
  72. ^ a b c d Fasti Capitolini.
  73. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Fragmenta Vaticana, p. 60 (ed. Dinsdorf).
  74. ^ a b Broughton, vol. I, p. 437.
  75. ^ Livy, xliii. 2, 13, 16, 17, xliv. 37, xiv. 27, 44, Epitome, 46.
  76. ^ Pliny the Elder, ii. 12.
  77. ^ Obsequens, 71.
  78. ^ Cicero, Brutus. 20, 23, De Republica i. 14, 15, De Senectute, 14, Laelius de Amicitia, 27, De Officiis, i. 6.
  79. ^ Cicero, De Oratore, i. 53, Brutus, 23, Laelius de Amicitia, 2, 6, Epistulae ad Familiares, iv. 6.
  80. ^ a b Broughton, vol. I, p. 272.
  81. ^ Livy, xxv. 41, xxvi. 1, 28, xxvii. 7, 10, 22, 31–33, xxviii. 5–7, xxix. 12, xxx. 24, xxxi. 4–8, 14, 22, 27, 33–40, xxxii. 28, xxxiii. 24, xxxiv. 59, xxxv. 13, 13, 16.
  82. ^ Polybius, viii. 3, ix. 6 ff, 42, x. 41, xvi. 24, xviii. 6, xxiii. 8.
  83. ^ Appian, Macedonica, 2 ff.
  84. ^ Eutropius, iii. 14.
  85. ^ Orosius, iv. 17.
  86. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 272, 280, 287, 292, 296, 300, 311, 323.
  87. ^ Livy, xxvii. 21, xxix. 11, xxx. 26, xxxii. 7.
  88. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 291, 314, 329.
  89. ^ Livy, xxx. 39, xxxii. 7.
  90. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 318, 329.
  91. ^ Livy, xxxviii. 35, 42, xxxiv. 5, 32.
  92. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 361, 368.
  93. ^ Livy, xlii. 28, 31.
  94. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 417.
  95. ^ Appian, Hispanica, 58, 59, 60.
  96. ^ Livy, xlv. 35, 36, Epitome, 49.
  97. ^ a b c d e Suetonius, "The Life of Galba", 3.
  98. ^ Orosius, iv. 20.
  99. ^ Valerius Maximus, viii. 1. § 2, 7 § 1.
  100. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Cato the Elder"
  101. ^ Cornelius Nepos, "The Life of Cato", 3.
  102. ^ Gellius, i. 12, 23, xiii. 24.
  103. ^ Cicero, De Oratore, i. 10, 13, 53, 60, ii. 2, 65, iii. 7, Brutus, 22–24, 33, 86, 97, Orator ad M. Brutum, 30, Epistulae ad Atticum, xii. 5, Pro Murena, 28, Tusculanae Quaestiones, i. 3, Academica Priora, ii. 16, De Republica, iii. 30, Rhetorica ad Herennium, iv. 5.
  104. ^ Fronto, Epistulae, p. 85 (ed. Rom.)
  105. ^ Meyer, Fragmenta, pp. 120 ff., 164 ff.
  106. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 455–457, 470.
  107. ^ Appian, Hispanica, 99.
  108. ^ Obsequens, 100.
  109. ^ Cicero, Pro Rabiro Perduellionis, 7.
  110. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 540, 544, 548
  111. ^ Cicero, Brutus, 26, 33, 34, De Oratore, i. 56.
  112. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 522, 544.
  113. ^ Cicero, In Verrem, i. 7, 10, Epistulae ad Atticum, i. 1, ix. 9, De Haruspicum Responsis, 6.
  114. ^ Quintus Tullius Cicero, De Petitione Consulatus, 2.
  115. ^ Asconius Pedianis, In Toga Candida, p. 82.
  116. ^ Appian, Bella Mithridatica, 43.
  117. ^ Broughton, vol. II, pp. 134, 137, 152, 206, 255.
  118. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, vi. 18, x. 30, xi. 18, Philippicae, xiii. 16.
  119. ^ Caesar, De Bello Gallico, iii. 1, 6, viii. 50.
  120. ^ Cassius Dio, xxxvii. 48, xxxix. 5, 65.
  121. ^ Valerius Maximus, vi. 2. § 11.
  122. ^ Broughton, vol. II, pp. 191, 222.
  123. ^ Tacitus, Annales, vi. 40.
  124. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, pp. 206, 207 ("Servius Sulpicius Galba").
  125. ^ Tacitus, Historiae, i. 1–42.
  126. ^ Cassius Dio, lxiv. 1–6.
  127. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Galba".
  128. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Galba".
  129. ^ Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus, 6.
  130. ^ Eutropius, vii. 10.
  131. ^ Niebuhr, Lectures on the History of Rome, vol. ii, p. 226.
  132. ^ Cicero, Brutus, 55, 56, 63, 88, De Oratore, i. 7, iii. 3, Laelius de Amicitia, 1, De Haruspicum Responsis, 20.
  133. ^ Asconius Pedianus, Pro Scauro, p. 20 (ed. Orelli), Rhetorica ad Herennium, ii. 28.
  134. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile, i. 58, 60.
  135. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Sulla", 10.
  136. ^ Livy, Epitome, 77.
  137. ^ Velleius Paterculus, ii. 18.
  138. ^ Broughton, vol. II, pp. 41, 42.
  139. ^ Broughton, vol. II, p. 240.
  140. ^ Cicero, Brutus, 40, 41, Epistulae ad Familiares, iv. 3, Philippicae, ix. 7, Pro Murena, 7, 8, 20.
  141. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Cato", 49.
  142. ^ Broughton, vol. II, pp. 158, 240.
  143. ^ Valerius Maximus, vi. 7. § 3.
  144. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile, iv. 39.
  145. ^ Caesar, De Bello Gallico, iv. 22, De Bello Civili, i. 74, iii. 101.
  146. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, xiii. 77.
  147. ^ Broughton, vol. II, p. 273, 358, 359.
  148. ^ Cicero, Pro Murena, 26, 27, Epistulae ad Atticum, ix. 18, 19, x. 14, Epistulae ad Familiares, iv. 2, Philippicae, ix. 5.
  149. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xi. 35.
  150. ^ Livy, xxxix. 11-13.
  151. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 638 ("Publius Sulpicius Quirinus", no. 1).
  152. ^ Broughton, p. 358, 359.
  153. ^ Cassius Dio, liv. 28.
  154. ^ Tacitus, Annales, ii. 30, iii. 22, 48.
  155. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Tiberius", 49.
  156. ^ Strabo, xii., p. 569.
  157. ^ Josephus, Antiquitates Judaïcae, xviii. 1. § 1.
  158. ^ Luke, ii. 1.
  159. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Claudius", 4, 41.
  160. ^ Tacitus Annales, xv. 49, 50, 68.
  161. ^ Cassius Dio, lxii. 24.
  162. ^ Martial, x. 35–38.
  163. ^ Ausonius, Cento Nuptialis.
  164. ^ Sidonius Apollinaris, "Carmina IX", 260.
  165. ^ Anthologia Latina, iii. 251 (ed. Burmann), 198 (ed. Meyer).
  166. ^ Wernsdorf, Poëtae Latini Minores, vol. iii. pp. lx, 83.
  167. ^ Gellius, ii. 16, iv. 17, xiii. 17, xv. 5.
  168. ^ Julius Capitolinus, "The Life of Pertinax", 1.
  169. ^ Anthologia Latina, Nos. 222, 223 (ed. Meyer).
  170. ^ Donatus, Vita Virgilii.
  171. ^ Aelius Lampridius, "The Life of Alexander Severus", c. 20.
  172. ^ Wernsdorf, Poëtae Latini Minores, iii. p. 235 ff, 408.

Bibliography[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1870). "Sulpicia Gens". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. III. p. 945.