Azlan Shah of Perak
|Yang di-Pertuan Agong IX
Sultan of Perak
|Yang di-Pertuan Agong|
|Reign||26 April 1989 – 25 April 1994|
|Installation||18 September 1989|
|Predecessor||Iskandar of Johor|
|Successor||Jaafar of Negeri Sembilan|
|Sultan of Perak|
|Reign||3 February 1984 – 28 May 2014|
|Installation||9 December 1985|
|Predecessor||Sultan Idris Shah II|
|Successor||Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah|
19 April 1928|
Kampung Manggis, Batu Gajah, Perak, Federated Malay States, British Malaya
|Died||28 May 2014
National Heart Institute of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
|Burial||29 May 2014
Al-Ghufran Royal Mausoleum, Kuala Kangsar, Perak
|Spouse||Tuanku Bainun (m. 1955-2014)|
|Issue||Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah
Raja Ashman Shah
Raja Yong Sofia
|Father||Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Jalil Karamatullah Nasiruddin Mukhtaram Shah Radziallah|
|Mother||Toh Puan Besar Hatijah Binti Toh Indera Wangsa Ahmad|
Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullahu-lah, GCB, KSTJ (19 April 1928 – 28 May 2014) was the 34th Sultan of Perak and was the ninth Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 26 April 1989 to 25 April 1994. The child of a royal father and commoner mother, he grew up in Perak, Malaysia. During school he played field hockey, subsequently playing for the Perak team. He trained to be a lawyer in the United Kingdom. Upon returning to Malaysia, he soon became a judge and quickly rose through the legal ranks. In 1965, he became the youngest person appointed to the High Court of Malaya, and in 1982 he became the youngest ever Lord President of the Federal Court, the country's highest judicial rank.
After his uncle died in 1984, Azlan Shah became the Sultan of Perak. He became the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (elected king) of Malaysia in 1989, serving a five-year term before returning to his post as Sultan of Perak. In 2009, he exercised his royal authority to prevent the dissolution of the Perak parliament, sparking a constitutional crisis. Ultimately, the legal system ruled Sultan Azlan had acted properly.
During his career, Sultan Azlan Shah was awarded more than 3 dozen Malaysian and foreign honours. Dozens of buildings and other projects were named after him, including a genus of insects. He was known as the "Father of Malaysian Hockey" for furthering field hockey at home and abroad, and was the patron of dozens of organisations. With his wife Tuanku Bainun Binti Mohd Ali, Sultan Azlan had five children.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Legal career
- 3 Becoming Sultan
- 4 Perak constitutional crisis
- 5 Social contributions
- 6 Education
- 7 Sports
- 8 Patron
- 9 Royal family
- 10 Death
- 11 Issue
- 12 Literature
- 13 Honours
- 14 Titles and styles
- 15 Legacy
- 16 References
Early life and education
He was born on 19 April 1928 at Kampung Manggis, Batu Gajah, Perak. A child of Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Jalil Karamatullah Nasiruddin Mukhtaram Shah Radziallah (reigned 1948–1963) by his commoner wife Toh Puan Besar Hatijah Binti Toh Indera Wangsa Ahmad, he was brought up by his mother outside royal circles.
Raja Azlan Shah began his education at the Government English School, Batu Gajah Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Yussuf. For his secondary education, he attended Malay College, Kuala Kangsar. Afterwards, he went to the University of Nottingham to study law, earning a Bachelor of Law degree in 1953. While in school, Azlan Shah began his lifelong love for field hockey, playing for his school teams. He subsequently played for the Perak team.
Raja Azlan Shah was admitted to the English Bar on 23 November 1954. He returned to Malaysia, becoming the Assistant State Secretary of Perak. He joined the Judicial and Legal Service of the Federation of Malaya and soon became the President of the Sessions Court. He continued rise quickly through the legal ranks, serving as Federal Counsel and Deputy Public Prosecutor, Legal Adviser of the State of Pahang, Registrar of the High Court of Malaya, and Chief Registrar of the Federal Court of Malaysia.
In 1965, Raja Azlan Shah, aged 37, became the youngest judge ever appointed to the High Court of Malaya. He was appointed to the Federal Court in 1973. In 1979, he was appointed Chief Justice of the High Court of Malaya. Finally, on 12 November 1982 he became the youngest ever Lord President of the Federal Court, the highest judicial post in Malaysia.
Raja Azlan Shah was installed Raja Muda (Crown Prince) of Perak by his uncle, Sultan Idris Almutawakkil Alallahi Shah II on 1 July 1983. During, the long reign of Idris Shah most of Raja Azlan Shah's elder brothers had died. His only surviving elder brother, Raja Baharom Shah, refused the office of Crown Prince and Raja Azlan Shah was suddenly heir to the throne.
Within six months, Sultan Idris died and Azlan Shah succeeded to the throne of Perak on 3 February 1984. He was officially installed as the 34th Sultan of Perak on 9 December 1985. In April 1989, Sultan Azlan Shah became the ninth Yang di-Pertuan Agong (elected king) of Malaysia. After the five-year term, he returned to his post as Sultan of Perak in 1994.
Perak constitutional crisis
In 2009, the Pakatan Rakyat (PR) political group held a narrow majority in the Perak state assembly with 32 of the 59 seats. Three members of the party decided to leave, and allied themselves with the rival BN coalition. PR leader Mohammad Nizar Jamaluddin requested to dissolve the parliament. Sultan Azlan refused the request, citing royal discretion, and instead demanded Mohammad Nizar and the rest of the leadership resign their posts to make way for BN leaders.
The decision was challenged and the Kuala Lumpur High Court ruled that the Sultan was not constitutionally permitted to dismiss the menteri besar. However, upon appeal, the decision was reversed by the Court of Appeal which rules that the Perak State Constitution gives absolute discretionary power for the Sultan to dissolve the State Legislative Assembly. The Court also directed Nizar to resign. The decision was subsequently upheld unanimously by the five-man Bench of Federal Court in February 2010.
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Sultan Azlan was the Pro-Chancellor of the University Science of Malaysia from October 1971 to February 1981 and the Chancellor of the University of Malaya from February 1983 until his death. He also served the Chairman of the Higher Education Advisory Council from 1974 to 1976. The University of Malaya awarded him an honorary doctorate in June 1979 and the University Science of Malaysia awarded him one the following June.
Sultan Azlan was recognised by several foreign universities, including:
- University of Nottingham, Honorary Doctor of Law, July 1986
- Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn, "Honorary Bencher", 1988
- Universitas Gajah Mada, Jogjakarta, Indonesia, Honorary Doctor of Law, 28 September 1990
- Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Honorary Doctor of Law, 30 October 1990
- Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, Honorary Doctor of Law, 19 December 1990.
- Royal College of Physicians of Ireland, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Honorary Fellow, 2 October 1991
- Royal College of Surgeons of England, Honorary Fellow, 1999.
Sultan Azlan was an avid supporter of field hockey throughout his life. Due to his significant contributions to the sport, he was known as the "Father of Malaysian Hockey." Azlan was President of the Malaysian Hockey Federation until 2005, and was the elected President of the Asian Hockey Federation from 1997 until his death. He was an Executive Board member of FIH (International Hockey Federation), serving as vice-president for two terms starting in 1992. Under Azlan Shah's leadership, Malaysia twice hosted the World Cup, in 1975 and 2002. In 1983, the sultan founded the Sultan Azlan Shah Cup, an annual hockey tournament played in Ipoh.
Sultan Azlan enjoyed golfing in his spare time.
Sultan Azlan was a patron of the following institutions:
- The Academy of Medicine of Malaysia
- The British Graduates Association of Malaysia
- The Iskandar Polo Club
- The Kuala Kangsar Golf Club
- The Lions Clubs
- The Malaysian Law Society in Great Britain and Éire
- The Malaysian Nature Society
- The Perak Veteran Hockey Association.
- The Rotary Clubs
- The Royal Ipoh Club and The Royal Perak Golf Club
- St. John Ambulance of Malaysia, State of Perak Darul Ridzuan
Sultan Azlan Shah married Bainun Binti Mohd Ali. She is styled as Her Royal Highness The Raja Permaisuri (Queen) of Perak, Tuanku Bainun Binti Mohd. Ali, D.K., D.M.N.. The couple had five children, two princes and three princesses. The eldest is Raja Nazrin Shah, who is now current Sultan of Perak. The others are Raja Azureen, Raja Eleena and Raja Yong Sofia. Raja Dato' Seri Ashman Shah died on 30 March 2012 of asthma attack.
|Ancestors of Azlan Shah of Perak|
Sultan Azlan Shah died on 28 May 2014 at 1:30 pm at the National Heart Institute, Kuala Lumpur at aged 86. He was posthumously titled as Marhum Al-Maghfullah and was laid to rest at the Al-Ghufran Royal Mausoleum near Ubudiah Mosque, Kuala Kangsar after Asar prayers on 29 May, and the proclamation of a new Sultan was announced on the 29 May. Upon his death, a public holiday was announced in the state of Perak for 29 May so that the population could pay their last respects to him at Kuala Kangsar. Menteri Besar of Perak Datuk Seri Zambry Abdul Kadir announced that the Malaysian flag would fly at half-mast for 7 days, and the Perak flag for 100 days. In addition, "all entertainment and celebrations" were cancelled to show respect for the Sultan. He is survived by his wife Tuanku Bainun, and his four children Raja Nazrin Shah, Raja Dato' Seri Azureen, Raja Dato' Seri Eleena. Raja Dato' Seri Yong Sofia, their other son Raja Dato' Seri Ashman Shah died in 2012 of asthma attack.
|Raja Nazrin Shah||27 November 1956||17 May 2007||Tuanku Zara Salim||Raja Azlan Muzzaffar Shah (Raja Kechil Besar)
Raja Nazira Safya
|Raja Dato' Seri Azureen||9 December 1957||8 September 1979||Dato' Seri Mohd Salleh Bin Dato' Ismail||Abdul Latiff
|Raja Dato' Seri Ashman Shah||28 December 1958||26 September 1991||Dato' Seri Noraini Jane||Raja Eminah Alliyah
Raja Ahmad Nazim Azlan Shah (Raja Kechil Sulong)
Raja Bainunisa Safia
|Raja Dato' Seri Eleena||3 April 1960||14 October 1991||Dato' Seri Ismail Farouk Bin Abdullah||Omar Azlan
|Raja Dato' Seri Yong Sofia||24 June 1961||5 December 1987||Tunku Dato' Seri Kamel Bin Tunku Rijaludin||Tunku Aznal Shahabudin
Tunku Khaira Shahabudin
Tunku Amira Shahabudin
Tunku Maisara Shahabudin
- Sinnadurai, Visu (1988). His Majesty Sultan Azlan Shah: The Yang di-Pertuan Agong IX Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: The Supreme Court Journal. ISSN 0128-066X. (Special issue of the Supreme Court Journal to commemorate the installation of His Majesty Sultan Azlan Shah as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong IX Malaysia)
- Recipient of the Royal Family Order of Perak (DK, since 3 February 1984)
- Founding Grand Master of the Perak Family Order of Sultan Azlan Shah (2000)
- Founding Grand Master of the Azlanii Royal Family Order (2010)
- Grand Knight (or Datuk Sri, SPCM) and Grand Master (since 1984) of the Order of the Cura Si Manja Kini (Perak Sword of State, SPCM)
- Knight Grand Commander and Grand Master (since 1984) of the Order of the Taming Sari (Perak State Kris, SPTS)
- Knight Grand Commander (or Datuk Sri Paduka) and Grand Master (since 1984) of the Order of the Perak State Crown (SPMP)
- Recipient of the Order of the Royal House of Malaysia (D.K.M.)
- Recipient of the Order of the Crown of the Realm (DMN, 1987)
- Knight Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm (PMN)
- Commander (PSM, 7 June 1972), Grand Commander (SSM, 1983) and Grand Master (1989–1994) of the Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia
- Grand Master (1989–1994) of the Order of Merit of Malaysia
- Grand Master(1989–1994) of the Order of the Royal Household of Malaysia
- Johor :
- Kedah :
- Kelantan :
- Negeri Sembilan :
- Pahang :
- Perlis :
- Recipient of the Perlis Family Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Putra Jamalullail (DK)
- Selangor :
- Terengganu :
- Austria : Grand Star of the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (08/04/1992)
- Brunei : Royal Family Order of the Crown of Brunei (DKMB)
- Chile : Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Merit of Chile (1992)
- Germany : Grand Cross Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (07/09/1992)
- Indonesia : Star of the Republic of Indonesia, 1st Class (09/1990)
- Japan : Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum (30 September 1991)
- Jordan : Collar of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali
- Oman : Collar of the Civil Order of Oman, 1st Class (04/12/1991)
- Saudi Arabia : Collar of Badr Chain (7.12.1991)
- South Korea : Grand Order of Mugunghwa (or Supreme Order of Hibiscus)
- Sudan : Collar of the Order of Honor of the Sudan (6 June 1991)
- United Kingdom :
- Thailand : Collar of the Order of the Rajamitrabhorn (09/1990)
Titles and styles
Sultan Azlan Shah
|Reference style||His Royal Highness|
|Spoken style||Your Royal Highness|
- 19 April 1928 - 27 March 1948: His Highness (Yang Mulia) Raja Azlan ibni Raja Yussuf Shah
- 27 March 1948 - 1959: His Highness (Yang Amat Mulia) Raja Azlan ibni Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah
- 1959 - 1960: His Highness (Yang Amat Mulia) Raja Azlan Shah ibni Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah, Deputy Public Prosecutor
- 1960 - 1962: His Highness (Yang Amat Mulia) Raja Azlan Shah ibni Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah, Legal Adviser for Johor and Pahang
- 1962 - 1963: His Highness (Yang Teramat Mulia) Raja Azlan Shah ibni Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah, Registrar of the Kuala Lumpur High Court and Raja Kechil Bongsu
- 1963 - 17 June 1965: His Highness (Yang Teramat Mulia) Raja Azlan Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullah-lah, Chief Registrar of the Federal Court and Raja Kechil Tengah
- 17 June 1965 - 1973: His Highness (Yang Teramat Mulia) or His Honour (Yang Arif) Raja Tan Sri Azlan Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullah-lah, High Court Judge and Raja Kechil Tengah
- 1973 - 16 March 1978: His Highness (Yang Teramat Mulia) or His Honour (Yang Arif) Raja Tan Sri Azlan Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullah-lah, Federal Court Judge and Raja Kechil Tengah
- 16 March 1978 - 4 November 1982: His Highness (Yang Teramat Mulia) or His Honour (Yang Arif) Raja Tan Sri Azlan Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullah-lah, Federal Court Judge and Raja Kechil Sulong
- 4 November 1982 - 11 August 1983: His Highness (Yang Teramat Mulia) or His Most Honour (Yang Amat Arif) Raja Tun Azlan Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullah-lah, The Lord President of The Federal Court and Raja Kechil Besar
- 11 August 1983 - 3 February 1984: His Royal Highness (Duli Yang Teramat Mulia) or His Most Honour (Yang Amat Arif): Raja Tun Azlan Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullah-lah, The Lord President of The Federal Court and The Raja Muda of Perak
- 3 February 1984 – 24 April 1989: His Royal Highness (Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri) Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullah-lah, The Sultan of Perak
- 25 April 1989 – 26 April 1994: His Majesty (Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda) Tuanku Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullah-lah, The Yang di-Pertuan Agong IX
- 27 April 1994 – 28 May 2014: His Royal Highness (Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri) Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullah-lah, The Sultan of Perak
His son, Sultan Nazrin, applied the appelation of Maghfurulah to his posthumous name. Hence he is referred to as Almarhum Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Al-Maghfurulah.
At the 1982 Perak Domestic Tourism Exposition, the orchid that won the best plant award was named after Azlan Shah, "Doritinopsis Sultan Azlan Shah". The Azlania genus of insect was named in honour of him by The Malaysia Nature Society.
Several building projects and institutions were named after the Sultan, including:
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Azlan Shah, Lenggong, Perak
- Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Agama Sultan Azlan Shah, Seri Iskandar, Perak
- Sekolah Menengah Sains Raja Tun Azlan Shah, Taiping, Perak
- Kolej Universiti Islam Sultan Azlan Shah, Kuala Kangsar, Perak
- Kolej Sains Kesihatan Bersekutu Sultan Azlan Shah, Ulu Kinta, Perak
- Kampus Sultan Azlan Shah, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Proton City, Tanjung Malim, Perak
- Politeknik Sultan Azlan Shah, Behrang, Perak
- Galeri Sultan Azlan Shah, a royal gallery in Kuala Kangsar, Perak
- Sultan Azlan Shah Airport, Ipoh, Perak
- Sultan Azlan Shah Hockey Stadium, Ipoh, Perak
- Sultan Azlan Shah Building, a Chancellery of the Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur
- Sultan Azlan Shah Mosque, a mosque in Ipoh, Perak
- Muhibbuddin Shah Mosque, a mosque in Ipoh, Perak
- Sultan Azlan Shah Power Station, a power station in Manjung, Perak
- Jalan Sultan Azlan Shah, a major roads in Ipoh, George Town, Penang and Kuala Lumpur (formerly Jalan Ipoh).
- Sultan Azlan Shah Bridge a bridge at the North-South Expressway Northern Route
- Taman Rekreasi Sultan Azlan Shah (formerly Taman Polo), a recreational area in Ipoh
- Sultan Azlan Shah Cup, an international hockey tournament
- "Sultan Azlan Shah of Perak dies, aged 86". The Nation. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "His Royal Highess Sultan Perak Darul Ridzuan". Official Website Pejabat D.Y.M.M. Sultan Perak Darul Ridzuan. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
- "Hockey pioneer Sultan Azlan Shah dies aged 86". Firstpost. PTI. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Sultan Azlan Shah of Perak dies, aged 86". The Malay Mail. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Asian Hockey Federation :: About Us". Asiahockey. 1 July 2010. Archived from the original on 17 January 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
- "International Hockey Federation : Executive Board". Fih.ch. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
- "New Sultan of Perak to be proclaimed tomorrow". The Star. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Dreamwater Free Web Space". 4dw.net. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
- Royal Ark, Perak genealogy details p.16
- "Senarai Penuh Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan Tahun 1987." (PDF).
- "Senarai Penuh Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan Tahun 1984." (PDF).
- List of Malay rulers (as of January 2013) with details of orders
Iskandar of Johor
(Sultan of Johor)
|Yang di-Pertuan Agong
(King of Malaysia)
(Yang di-Pertuan Besar
of Negeri Sembilan)
Sultan Idris Iskandar Al-Mutawakkil Alallahi Shah II Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar Shah Kaddasullah
|Sultan of Perak
Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Al-Maghfullah
Mohamed Suffian Mohamed Hashim
|Lord President of the Federal Court
Mohamed Salleh Abas