Sultan Bahu

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Sultan Bahu
سُلطان باہُو
Bahu Sultan.jpg
Shrine of Sultan Bahu
Born17 January 1630
Died1 March 1691(1691-03-01) (aged 61)
Resting placeGarh Maharaja, Punjab
Known forSufi poetry
PredecessorAbdul Rehman Jilani Dehlvi
SuccessorSyed Mohammad Abdullah Shah Madni Jilani
Parents
  • Bayazid Muhammad (father)
  • Mai Rasti (mother)

Sultan Bahu (Punjabi: سُلطان باہُو; also spelled Bahoo;17 January 1630 – 1 March 1691), was a 17th-century Sufi mystic, poet, scholar and historian.[1] He was active in the Punjab region (present-day Pakistan) during the reigns of Mughal emperors Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb.[2][3]

Little is known about Bahu's life, other than what is written in a hagiography called Manaqib-i Sultani, which was written by one of Bahu's descendants seven generations after Bahu's own time.[4]

According to these records, he was born in Shorkot, Jhang, in the current Punjab Province of Pakistan, in the Awan tribe.[5][6] He was son of Bayazid Muhammad, an officer in the Mughal Army, and Rasti.[7] He belonged to Qadiri Sufi order,[6] and started the mystic tradition known as Sarwari Qadiri.[3]

More than forty books on Sufism are attributed to him (mostly written in Persian), largely dealing with specialised aspects of Islam and Islamic mysticism. However, it was his Punjabi poetry which had popular appeal and earned him lasting fame.[4]: 14  His verses are sung in many genres of Sufi music, including qawwali and kafi, and tradition has established a unique style of singing his couplets.[4]: 14 

Education[edit]

Sultan Bahu's first teacher was his mother, Mai Rasti. She pushed him to seek spiritual guidance from Shah Habib Gilani.[3]

Around 1668, Sultan Bahu moved to Delhi for further training under the guidance of Syed Abdul Rehman Jilani Dehlvi, a notable Sufi saint of the Qadiriyya order, and thereafter returned to Punjab where he spent the rest of his life.[3]

Literary works[edit]

The exact number of books written by Sultan Bahu is not known, but it is assumed to be at least one hundred. Forty of them are on Sufism and Islamic mysticism. Most of his writings are in the Persian language except Abyat-e-Bahu which is in Punjabi verse.[8]

Only the following books written by Sultan Bahu can be found today:

  • Abyat e Bahu[9]
  • Risala e Ruhi
  • Sultan ul Waham
  • Nur ul Huda
  • Aql e Baidar
  • Mahq ul Faqr
  • Aurang e Shahi
  • Jami ul Israr
  • Taufiq e Hidiyat
  • Kalid Tauheed
  • Ain ul Faqr[10]
  • Israr e Qadri[10]
  • Kaleed e Jannat
  • Muhqam ul Faqr
  • Majalis un Nabi
  • Muftah ul Arifeen
  • Hujjat ul Israr
  • Kashf ul Israar
  • Mahabat ul Israr
  • Ganj ul Israr
  • Fazl ul Liqa
  • Dewaan e Bahu[10]

Spiritual lineage[edit]

In his writings, Sultan Bahu refers to Abdul Qadir Jilani as his spiritual master, even though Jilani died long before the birth of Sultan Bahu. However, most Sufis maintain that Abdul Qadir Jilani plays a special role in the mystic world and that all orders and saints are forever indebted to him in some way either directly or indirectly.[11] While acknowledging that he is a follower of Jilani's Qadiriyya tradition, Sultan Bahu initiated an offshoot of his own which he named Sarwari Qadiri.

Bahu's Sarwari Qadiri tradition (or Sufi order) is similar in its overall philosophy to the Qadiri order.[12] Unlike many other Sufi orders, the Sarwari Qadiri tradition does not prescribe a specific dress code, ascetic practices, breathing exercises, etc. Instead, it focuses on practising mental exercises.

According to tradition, the lineage reaches Sultan Bahu as follows:[12]

The Sultan Bahu tradition is still practised to this day by his successors.

Shrine[edit]

Shrine of Sultan Bahu near Jhang, Pakistan

The shrine of Sultan Bahu is located in Garh Maharaja, Punjab.[13] It was originally built on Bahu's grave site until the Chenab River changed its course causing the need to relocate twice and as witnessed by those present at the time of relocation, claims that his body was still intact at the time.[13] It is a popular Sufi shrine, and the annual Urs festival commemorating his death is celebrated there with great fervour on the first Thursday of Jumada al-Thani month. People come from far-off places to join the celebrations.[14][12]

Sultan Bahu also used to hold an annual Urs to commemorate the martyrs of Karbala from the 1st to the 10th day of the month of Muharram. This tradition continues to this day and every year, thousands of pilgrims visit the shrine during the first ten days of Muharram.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kamal Aziz, Khursheed (1993). The Pakistani Historian. Original from the University of Michigan. Vanguard.
  2. ^ Syed Ahmad Saeed Hamadani. Sultan Bahu Life & Work.
  3. ^ a b c d Parvez, Amjad (30 October 2019). "Metaphysics of Sultan Bahu dedicated to those with clear concepts of philosophy". Daily Times (newspaper). Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  4. ^ a b c Sult̤ān Bāhū (1998). Death Before Dying: The Sufi Poems of Sultan Bahu. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-92046-0.
  5. ^ Kumar, Raj (2008). Encyclopaedia of Untouchables Ancient, Medieval and Modern. Gyan Publishing House. p. 187. ISBN 9788178356648. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  6. ^ a b Frembgen, Jürgen Wasim (2006). The Friends of God: Sufi Saints in Islam, Popular Poster Art from Pakistan. Oxford University Press. p. 103. ISBN 9780195470062.
  7. ^ Sultan Bahu (29 March 2015). Ganj ul Asrar. Translated by Hafiz Hamad Ur Rahman. Sultan ul Faqr Publications. p. 12. ISBN 9789699795213.
  8. ^ Sultan Hamid Ali,"Manaqib-i Sultani" Malik Chanan Din Publishers (Regd) Lahore Pakistan 1956
  9. ^ Muhammad Sharif Sabir. "Complete Book of Poems by Sultan Bahu". Academy of the Punjab in North America (APNA). Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  10. ^ a b c Sultan Bahu books on Rekhta.org website Retrieved 18 May 2020
  11. ^ S. Padam, Piara (1984) [1st. Pub. 1984]. Dohrhe Sultan Bahu. s. n.
  12. ^ a b c d "Urs of Sultan Bahu begins" The News International (newspaper), Published 2 September 2019, Retrieved 18 May 2020
  13. ^ a b Sadia Dehlvi (1 December 2013). Sufism: Heart of Islam. HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 185–. ISBN 978-93-5029-448-2.
  14. ^ Book Name: Tareekh-e-Jhang, Author: Iqbal Zuberi, Publisher: Jhang Adibi Academy, Jhang Sadar, Pakistan, First Edition, Date: 2002