Hasanuddin of Gowa

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Sultan Hasanuddin (Sultan Hasanuddin Tumenanga Ri Balla Pangkana; 12 January 1631 – 12 June 1670) was the 16th Ruler of The Sultanate of Gowa from 1653 to 1669. He was proclaimed as Indonesian National Hero on 6 November 1973.[1] The Dutch called Sultan Hasanuddin "the fighting cock of the East" as he was described as aggressive in battle.[2][3]

Early life[edit]

Sultan Hasanuddin was born in Makassar, Gowa Kingdom (on what is now part of South Sulawesi) under the name I Mallombasi Daeng Mattawang Karaeng Bonto Mangape. He was the second prince of the 15th King of Gowa, Sultan Malikussaid who died on November 15, 1653.[4]

Upon ascension to the throne, Hasanuddin changed his name to Sultan Muhammad Hasanuddin Sultan Hasanuddin Tuminanga ri Balla'pangkana.[5]

Succession, war and rebellion[edit]

Grave of Sultan Hasanuddin near Makassar
Monument of Sultan Hasanuddin at Pantai Losari, Makassar, Indonesia

After his accession to the throne of Gowa, Hasanuddin faced a turbulent situation as the Dutch colonized the East Indies. During this period, the Kingdom of Gowa was the sole large east Indonesian kingdom which was not yet colonized by the Dutch. In 1666, under the leadership of Captain Cornelis Speelman, the VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie|United Eastindies Company) sought to seize each and every east Indonesian kingdom to monopolize the spice trade, though were unable to colonize Gowa.

In order to resist Dutch encroachments, Hasanuddin tried to gather each of the kingdom’s military powers to attack the Dutch East Indies Company collectively. The wars between the Dutch and the States continued to worsen until the Dutch increased their military presence. Eventually, but not without several defeats and losses of the Dutch performed by the King of Gowa Hasanuddin and his army's, the Kingdom of Gowa had no other choice, but to agree to peace with the Dutch under the terms of the Bugaya treaty.

Following the signing of the Bugaya treaty, Gowa felt that the treaty was unfair and that they were disadvantaged by the terms of the treaty. As a result, Gowa continued to attack the Dutch. Finally, the Dutch sought military assistance from Batavia, resulting in a fierce and a bloody war between the Dutch and Gowa. The war continued until the company managed to conquer Gowa’s last stronghold, Sombaupu Fort, on 12 June 1669. Sultan Hasanuddin retreated and abdicated as the King of Gowa. He died a year later, at the age of 39 on 12 June 1670, and was buried in Katangka, Makassar

References[edit]

  1. ^ PERANGINANGIN, Marlon dkk; Buku Pintar Pahlawan Nasional. Batam: Scientific Press, 2007.
  2. ^ Andaya, Leonard Y. (1981). The heritage of Arung Palakka: A history of South Sulawesi (Celebes) in the seventeenth century. Martinus Nijhoff. 
  3. ^ Hamzah Daeng Mangemba (1979). Sultan Hasanuddin dan ayam jantan dari Benua Timur. Perpustakaan Universitas Hasanuddin. 
  4. ^ Esteban, Ivie Carbon (2013). "Reframing and Decolonizing the Narrative Genre of Sinrilik from Makassar, Indonesia". Social Science Diliman. 9 (2): 26–48. 
  5. ^ Putri, Ananda Dwi. "Sejarah Lengkap Asal-Usul Kerajaan Gowa Disertai Silsila Beberapa Raja Gowa". www.dzargon.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2017-02-16.