Murad Mirza (son of Akbar)

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Shahzada Mirza of the Mughal Empire
Sultan Murad and Sultan Daniyal on a Picnic.jpg
Sultan Murad Mirza with his brother Prince Daniyal
Born 7 June 1570
Fatehpur Sikri, Agra
Died 12 May 1599(1599-05-12) (aged 28)
Lahore Fort, Pakistan
Burial 13 May 1599
Humayun's Tomb
Spouse Habiba Banu Begum
One another wife
Issue Rustam Mirza
Alam Sultan Mirza
Jahan Banu Begum
House Timurid
Father Akbar
Religion Islam

Shahzada Murad Mirza (8 June 1570 – 12 May 1599[1]) was a Mughal prince as the second surviving son of Mughal Emperor Akbar. He was the maternal grandfather of Nadira Banu Begum, wife of Prince Dara (eldest son of emperor Shah Jahan).

In 1577 (at the age of seven), Murad was awarded his first military rank, receiving a mansab of 7000 men.[2] In 1584, after he attained puberty, this was enhanced to 9000 men.[3]

Birth and education[edit]

According to the Jahangirnama, he was a son of Akbar, born from a royal serving-girl just like his younger half-brother, Daniyal Mirza.[4] Although some sources cite Akbar's wife, Salima Sultan Begum, as his mother.[5]

Murad was first educated by Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak and, as from 1580, by Jesuit priests Antonio de Montserrat[6] (as tutor) and Francisco Aquaviva, who were called up by Akbar himself to teach Murad Portuguese and the basics of Christianity.

Murad became the first Mughal prince to be educated by western Jesuit priests or, as Dr. Oscar R. Gómez points out, the first person to be educated in the paradigmatic model driven by Murad’s father Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar, the 3rd Dalai Lama Sonam Gyatso, and Jesuit Antonio de Montserrat, which resulted in the current existentialist model.[7]

Hence, Sultan Murad Pahari has become the first person resulting from the amalgamation of Tibetan tantric Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity (Din-e-Ilahi).[8]

Military Command and Death[edit]

From 1593 Prince Murad was in command of the army in the Deccan.[9] He was ineffective in command largely due to his drunkenness.[9] His condition led to his replacement by Abu'l-Fazl, who arrived at Murad's camp in early May.[9] Shazada Sultan Murad Mirza died in Lahore Fort on 12 May 1599.


One of Prince Murad's wives was Habiba Banu Begum, the daughter of Mirza Aziz Koka, Khown as Khan Azam.[10] He was the son of Akbar's foster mother, Jiji Anga. The marriage took place on 15 May 1587, when Murad was seventeen.[11] She was the mother of Prince Rustam Mirza born on 27 August 1588[12] and died on 30 November 1597,[13] and Prince Alam Sultan Mirza born on 4 November 1590 and died in infancy.[14]

Another of his wives was the daughter of Bahadur Khan, the son and successor of Rajah Ali Khan, ruler of Khandesh.[15] Akbar arranged this marriage, in order to exact more help from Khandesh for the Mughuls future operations in the Deccan.[16] His only daughter Princess Jahan Banu Begum was the wife of Prince Parviz Mirza, son of Emperor Jahangir.[17]


In 1595 he was won Assam and also first viceroy.


  1. ^ Ain-i-Akbari volume2
  2. ^ Mansabdari system
  3. ^ Dr. Ricard Von Garbe, Akbar, The Emperor Of India, 1909
  4. ^ transl.; ed.,; Thackston, annot. by Wheeler M. (1999). The Jahangirnama : memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. New York [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780195127188.
  5. ^ Vincent Arthur Smith, Akbar the Great Mogul, 1542-1605, 1917
  6. ^ Spanish Geographical Society. "Antonio de Montserrat in the final frontier". Newsletter of the Spanish Geographical Society. 43. Archived from the original on 2015-11-26.
  7. ^ Gomez, Oscar R. (2013). Tantrism in the Society of Jesus - from Tibet to the Vatican today. Editorial MenteClara. p. 28. ISBN 978-987-24510-3-5.
  8. ^ Gomez, Oscar R. (2015). Antonio de Montserrat - Biography of the first Jesuit initiated in Tibetan Tantric Buddhism. Editorial MenteClara. p. 32. ISBN 978-987-24510-4-2.
  9. ^ a b c Gascioigne, Bamber. A Brief History of the Great Moghuls: India’s most flamboyant rulers. p. 113.
  10. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press for the Royal Asiatic Society. p. 1899.
  11. ^ Beveridge 1907, p. 791.
  12. ^ Beveridge 1907, p. 807.
  13. ^ Beveridge 1907, p. 1097.
  14. ^ Beveridge 1907, p. 881.
  15. ^ Maharashtra State Gazetteers: Aurangabad district. Director of Government Printing, Stationery and Publications, Maharashtra State. 1977. p. 107.
  16. ^ Khan, Yar Muhammad (1971). The Deccan Policy of the Mughuls. United Book Corporation. p. 77.
  17. ^ Jahangir, Emperor; Rogers, Alexander; Beveridge, Henry (1909). The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; or, Memoirs of Jahangir. Translated by Alexander Rogers. Edited by Henry Beveridge. London Royal Asiatic Society. pp. 78, 81.