List of sultans of the Maldives

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Monarchy of the Maldives
Flag of the President of Maldives.svg
Royal Standard
(1965–1968)
Details
Style
  • Sultan of Land and Sea, Lord of the twelve-thousand islands and Sultan of the Maldives
  • His Highness
  • His Majesty (after 1965)
First monarchSoorudasaruna-Adeettiya
Last monarchSir Muhammad Fareed Didi
FormationUnknown
Abolition1968
AppointerHereditary
Pretender(s)Ibrahim Fareed Didi

This article lists the monarchs of the Maldives. All the rulers before King Koimala only ruled over parts of the Maldives or Deeva Maari (and Dheeva Mahal) as it was known then. Koimala was the first king to rule over all the islands of the Maldives as we know today and the island of Maliku.

The Maldives was turned into a Sultanate in 1153 when the Buddhist King Dhovemi converted to Islam. Prior to that the Maldives was a Buddhist Kingdom, a Hindu Kingdom and before that a matriarchal society with each atoll ruled by a chief queen according to some accounts or by others, several theocratic societies ruled by priests known as Sawamias of heliolatric, selenolatric and astrolatric religions.

The formal title of the Sultan up to 1965 was, Sultan of Land and Sea, Lord of the twelve-thousand islands and Sultan of the Maldives which came with the style Highness. After independence in 1965 the Sultan assumed the title King with the style Majesty. The main official Royal residence of the Sultan was the Etherekoilu, a palace in Malé.

The reigns of Sultans are from three sources. Taarikh by Maldivian chronicler Hasan Taj Al-Din's written in arabic which covers 670 years of Maldives history, the loamaafaanu copper plates and the third source called Raadhavalhi which was written in 1757 using both Dhives ( old script ) and Thaana ( new script ) Maldivian languages.

Kingdom of Dheeva Maari, Solar dynasty. ( Adeetta Vansa )[edit]

The founding of Kingdom of Dheeva Maari. King Soorudasaruna Adeetta established the Adeetta Dynasty. These were Kings of the Solar dynasty.[1]

The first Kingdom established was known as Dheeva Maari. Later in the 3rd century BC during the visit of emissaries sent by Emperor Asoka, Maldives was known as Dheeva Mahal.[1]

Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
King Soorudasaruna-Adeettiya before 269 BC[1] unknown Exiled prince and son of King Sri Brahama Adittiya of the Kalinga Kingdom of India.[1]
Unknown number of rulers. The Maapanansa[1], the copper plates on which the history of the Kings of Solar Dynasty was written were lost quite early on.

A 4th century notice written by Ammianus Marcellinus ( 362 AD ) speaks of gifts sent to the Roman emperor Julian by a deputation from the nation of Divi. The name Divi is very similar to Dheyvi who were the first settlers of Maldives.[1]

Queen Damahaar unknown unknown Last ruler of the Solar Dynasty. It is unclear from the records how many other rulers ruled between the reigns of King Adeettiya and Queen Damahaar. Married Prince Sri Balaadeettiya from the Kalinga Kingdom who later became the first king of the Lunar Dynasty.

Lunar dynasty ( Soma Vansa )[edit]

Although the first kings of Maldives were of Solar dynasty, the last queen of the solar dynasty, Queen Damahaar married a prince from Lunar dynasty ( Soma Vansa ) who came from Kalinga thus establishing the line of Soma Vansa.[1]

Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
King Balaadeettiya around 990 unknown Prince from Kalinga Kingdom of India. Married Queen Damahaar of the Solar dynasty to become the ruler of Deeva Mahal. Early during his reign King Raja Dada invaded the northern atolls of the Maldives. Although some sources indicate the start of the reign as 900 AD, a Chinese document from the Tang dynasty, records the visit of Maldivians to China bringing with them gifts from their king, Balaadeettiya in 658 AD and also in 662 AD.
King Loakaabarana unknown unknown King of the Lunar dynasty. He is son or grandson of Svasti Sri Damaha'ara Maha Rehendi
King Maha Sandura unknown unknown Son of King Loakaabarana. He had a daughter Princess Kamanhaar (also known as Kamanaar or Rehendihaar) who was banished to the island then called Is-Midu (Addu Meedhoo today). With her she took the Maapanansa, the copper plates in which the history of the Kings of Solar dynasty was written. The Maapanasa were later buried by Al-Muhaddith Hasan and this is why such little information survived about the Solar dynasty.
King Bovana Aananda unknown unknown Son of King Loakaabarana and brother of King Maha Sandura. He is the father of King Koimala.

Theemuge dynasty[edit]

Simple gold crown.svg View Family Tree of Queen Damahaar Maha Rehendi
  • Simple gold crown.svg Queen Damahaar Maha Rehendi ( Last Queen of Solar dynasty )
    • Simple gold crown.svg Svasti Sri Loka Abaruna, King Loka Abaruna
      • Simple gold crown.svg King Maha Sandura
        • Princess Kamanhaar
      • Simple gold crown.svg Svasti Sri Buwana Ananda, King Buwana ananda
        • Simple gold crown.svg Svasti Sri Somavamsa Adipati Sri Theemuge Sri Maha Parama Aditya, King Koimala.
        • Princess Henevi Ma'ava'a Kilage.
          • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Dhovemi Kalaminja, Sultan Dhovemi, Dharumavantha Rasgefaanu
          • Prince Sri Kalo
          • Princess Mulee Mava'a Kilege
            • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Muthey Kalaminja, Sultan Muthey
            • Princess Reki Hiriya Mava'a Kilage
              • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Ali Kalaminja, Sultan Ali I
              • Princess Fahi Hiriya Mava'a Kilage
                • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Dinei Kalaminja, Sultan Dhinei
                • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Dihai Kalaminja, Sultan Dhihei
                • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Valla Dio Kalaminja, Sultan Valla Dio
                • Princess Aidigu Mava'a Kilage
                • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Wadi Kalaminja, Sultan Wadi
                  • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Hali Kalaminja, Sultan Hali I
                  • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Keimi Kalaminja, Sultan Keimi
                  • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Audha, Sultan Audha
                    • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Hali, Sultan Hali II
                    • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Yoosuf, Sultan Yoosuf I
                      • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Davud, Sultan Davud
                      • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Salis, Sultan Salis
                        • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Omar, Sultan Omar I
                          • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Ahmed Shihabuddine, Sultan Ahmed Shihabuddine
                          • Simple gold crown.svg Princess Khadijah, Sultana Rehendi Khadijah
                          • Simple gold crown.svg Princess Raadhafathi, Sultana Raadhafathi
                            • Simple gold crown.svg Princess Dhaain, Sultana Dhaain
Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
King Mahaabarana Adeettiya (Koimala) Maanaabarana 1117 1141 Svasti Sri Somavamsa Adipati Sri Theemuge Sri Maha Parama Aditya Maha Radun[2] became the first king to rule over the whole of Maldives after reclaiming the northern atolls from the Indian invaders.
King Dhovemi

Later Sultan Muhammad ibn Abdullah

Bavanaadheettha 1141 1166/1176 Reigned as a Buddhist until 1153. Son of Henevi Maava Kilege, sister of Koimala. A member of the Soma or Homa (Lunar) dynasty. Converted to Islam in 1153, assumed the title Sultan and founded the Theemuge dynasty. He was the famous Dharumavantha Radun[1] or the Benevolent King.
Sultan Muthey Bavana Abaarana 1166/1176 1185 Mother's sister's son of Dhovemi
Sultan Ali I Dhammaru Naaja 1185 1193
Sultan Dhinei Fennaadheettha 1193 1199 The Lōmāfānu was written during Sultan Dhinei's reign
Sultan Dhihei Dhagathaa Abaarana 1199 1214 Brother of Sultan Dhinei I.
Sultan Wadi Dhagathaa Suvara 1214 1233 Brother of Sultans Dhinei I and Dhinei II.
Sultan Valla Dio Raa-Araa Desvara 1233 1258 Brother of Sultans Dhinei I, Dhinei II and Wadi.
Sultan Hudhei Raadha Suvara 1258 1264
Sultan Aima Loka Suvara 1264 1266
Sultan Hali I Singaa Abaarana 1266 1268
Sultan Keimi Madheenee Suvara 1268 1269
Sultan Audha Areedha Suvara 1269 1278 Son of Sultan Wadi
Sultan Hali II Areedha Suvara 1278 1288 Son of Sultan Audha
Sultan Yoosuf I Bavanaadheettha 1288 1294 Brother of Sultan Hali II
Sultan Salis Meesuvara 1294 1302 Son of Sultan Yoosuf I
Sultan Davud Sundhura Bavana 1302 1307 Son of Sultan Yoosuf I
Sultan Omar I Loka Abaarana 1307 1341 Son of Sultan Salis
Sultan Ahmed Shihabuddine Loka Aadheettha 1341 1347 Son of Sultan Omar I, deposed, banished and assassinated by sister Khadijah[3]
Sultana Khadijah Raadha Abaarana 1347 1363 Deposed by her first husband Mohamed el-Jameel
Sultan Mohamed el-Jameel Bavana Sooja 1363 1364 First Husband of Sultana Khadijah. Assassinated by estranged wife Khadijah. He was nicknamed Handsome Mohamed.
Sultana Khadijah Raadha Abaarana 1364 1374 Second reign on assassination of first husband Sultan Mohamed el-Jameel. Deposed for a second time by her second husband Abdullah.
Sultan Abdullah I Dhammaru Aadheettha 1374 1376 Second husband of Sultana Khadijah. Assassinated by wife Khadijah
Sultana Khadijah Raadha Abaarana 1376 1380 Third reign
Sultana Raadhafathi Suvama Abaarana 1380 1380 Daughter of Sultan Omar I, half sister of Sultana Khadijah. Deposed by husband Mohamed.
Sultan Mohamed I Sundhura Abaarana 1380 1385 Husband of Sultana Raadhafathi.
Sultana Dhaain Keerithi Maha Rehendi (no coronation) 1385 1388 Daughter of Sultan Mohamed I. Deposed by husband Abdullah.
Sultan Abdullah II Suvama Abaarana 1388 1388 Husband of Sultana Dhaain. Some records call him a Regent (Henevi-rasge).
Sultan Osman I Sundhura 1388 1388 Former Imam to Raadhafathi and Dhaain. Last of the Lunar dynasty.

Hilaalee dynasty[edit]

Simple gold crown.svg View Family Tree of Abbas al-Hilal
  • Abbas al-Hilal
    • Hassan Kuja Malim Kologe
      • Yusuf Handegiri Khadim Ma'abanderi
        • Simple gold crown.svg Sultan Danna Muhammadh
          • Princess Tukkabafaanu
    • Kulhiveru Hilalu Kaivulanna Kaloge + Golavehi Kabulo
      • Simple gold crown.svg Hassan I, Sultan Hassan al-Hilali Sri Dhiru Buwana Maha Radhun
        • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Ibrahim al-Hilali Kalaminja, Sultan Ibrahim I al-Hilali
        • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Usman Ras Kilege, Sultan Usman II ibnu
        • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Abu Bakar Kalaminja, Sultan Abu Bakar I
          • Princess Rekka
            • Dorimena Kilegefaanu
            • Simple gold crown.svg Al-Amir Dombula Ali Farina Kilege, Sultan Ali V
            • Simple gold crown.svg Buraki Rani ( Queen regent or Rani ruled with Sultan Kalu Muhammedh )
            • Reki
          • Princess Kaba Dio
            • Simple gold crown.svg Shaikh Hassan, Sultan Hassan VI
      • Simple gold crown.svg Hussain I, Sultan Husain al-Hilali, Sultan of the Maldives ( Twins with brother Hassan )
        • Ma'afai Kalo Kilege
        • Kaulanna'a Kalo Kilege
        • Simple gold crown.svg Ali Heneve Ras Kilege, Sultan Ali IV
        • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Yusuf Kalaminja, Sultan Yusuf II
          • Simple gold crown.svg Sultan Haji Nasir ul-Mukhatib Hassan III
          • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Umaru Kalaminja, Sultan Umar II
            • Simple gold crown.svg Sultan Yusuf III
              • Simple gold crown.svg Sultan Hassan VII
            • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Hassan Kalaminnja, Sultan Hassan V
              • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Ibrahim Kalaminja Ras Kilege, Sultan Ibrahim II
            • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Yusufu Kalaminja Ras Kilege, Sultan Yusuf III
              • Simple gold crown.svg Sultan Hassan VII
            • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Kalu Muhammad Kalaminja, Sultan Kalu Muhammad
              • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Hassan Dobula Fa'aruna'a, Sultan Hassan VIII
              • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Umar Ma'afai Kilege, Sultan Hilali Muhammad
                • Simple gold crown.svg Sultan Muhammad
                • Prince Hemanin Kalaminja
              • Prince Ahmad Manikufa'anu Kalaminja
                • Simple gold crown.svg Sultan Hilali Hassan IX ( Later Dom Manoel )
                  • Dom Francisco de Malvidas
                  • Simple gold crown.svg Dom João de Malvidas, King H.H. Dom Felipe
                    • Simple gold crown.svg Dom Felipe de Malvidas, King H.H. Dom Felipe
                    • Infanta Dona Inez de Malvidas
                      • Simple gold crown.svg Dom Luís de Souza, King H.H. Dom Luís
                        • Manuel de Sousa da Silva
                      • Dom Manoel Malavis
                  • Dom Pedro de Malvidas
                  • Dona Leonor de Malvidas
                  • Dona Catarina de Malvidas
              • Simple gold crown.svg Princess Aisha Kabafaanu Rani Kilege + Sultan Ali IV
                • Kuda Kalafaanu
                • H.H. Sitti Maryam Ma'ava'a Kuda Kamanafa'anu Rani Kilege (d/o Aisha Kabafa'anu). m. at Malé, 1573, Al-Amir Hassan Rannabanderi Kilegefa'anu, younger son of Kalege Husain Thakuru'fa'anu, Khatib of Uthimu Island, Tiladummati Atoll
                  • Kalege Kalu Hassan, of Bararu, Tiladummati Atoll ( Start of The Uthimu Dynasty )
                    • Kalege Kalu 'Ali Thakurufa'anu, Khatib of Uthimu Island, Tiladummati Atoll
                      • Kalege Husain Thakuru'fa'anu, Khatib of Uthimu + Amina Dio
                        • Kalege 'Ali Thakurufa'anu
                          • Amira Maryam Kamba'adi Kilege
                            • Amira Amina Ma'ava Kilege + Al-Amir 'Umar Ma'afai Kilege
                              • Simple gold crown.svg Kalu Thukkala, H.H. Sultan Shuja'at Muhammad Imad ud-din I, Bodu Rasgefaanu
                                • Simple gold crown.svg H.H. Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar I
                                  • Simple gold crown.svg Prince Kuda Muhammad, who succeeded as H.H. Sultan Muhammad I
                                  • Maryam + the son of Thakandhu 'Ali Bandeyri Thakurufa'anu.
                                  • Princess Rendi Kaba'afa'anu
                                • A son, unknown name
                                  • Amira Amina Kamba'adi Kilege + Al-Amir Mahmud Fandiyaru Kilegefa'anu (d. 8 March 1678), Chief Judge 1663-1678, son of Don Boi Naib Thakurufa'anu, the step-son of Addu Bodu Fandiyaru Thakurufa'anu.
                                    • Funadhu Muhammad Siraj ud-din Thakurufa'anu, Khatib.
                                • Princess "Fulana" + Al-Amir Hassan Farina Kilege Dorimena, younger son of H.H. Al-Amir Husain Fa'amuladeri Kilegefa'anu
                                • Princess Mariyam Kaba'adi Kilege
                        • Simple gold crown.svg Kalege Muhammed Bodu Thakurufa'anu Khatib, who succeeded as H.H. Sultan Ghazi Muhammed Thakurufa'anu al-'Azam
                        • Simple gold crown.svg Al-Amir Hassan Thakurufa'anu Khatib + Princess Aisha Kabafa'anu, daughter of Sultan Kalu Muhammad
                          • Kuda Kalafa'anu
                          • H.H. Al-Amira Kuda Kalu Kamanafa'anu
                    • Eduru Thakurufa'anu, Khatib of Bararu, Tiladummati Atoll
                      • Al-Amir 'Umar Oligina Kilege, of Maduvari Island
                        • H.H. Al-Amir Husain Fa'amuladeri Kilegefa'anu
                          • Al-Amir Muhammd Dorimena Kilegefa'anu
                          • Al-Amir Hassan Farina Kilege Dorimena
                            • Simple gold crown.svg Muhammad Manikufa'anu, Sultan Muhammad Muhi ud-din
Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Hassan I Bavana 1388 1398 First of the Hilaaly dynasty.[4] Son of Golhaavahi Kambulo ( Kalavahi Kabulo ) and Kulhiveri Hilaalu Kaeulhanna Kaloge son of Muslim Abbas of Hulhule.
Sultan Ibrahim I Dhammaru Veeru 1398 1398 Son of Sultan Hassan I. Deposed by his uncle Hussain.
Sultan Hussain I Loka Veeru 1398 1409 Brother of Sultan Hassan I. Assumed the throne after deposing his nephew Sultan Ibrahim I.
Sultan Nasiruddine Veeru Abaarana 1409 1411 Introduced the Islamic penal code. Possibly a member of the Lunar dynasty
Sultan Hassan II Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1411 1411 Drowned in a tank.
Sultan Isa Bavana Sundhura 1411 1411 Brother of Sultan Hassan II.
Sultan Ibrahim I Dhammaru Veeru 1411 1421 Second reign, first reigned in 1398.
Sultan Osman II Dhammaru Loaka 1421 1421 Son of Sultan Osman I.
Sultan Danna Mohamed Raadha Bavana 1421 1421 Uncle of Sultan's Hassan I and Hussain I. Prime Minister to Osman I
Sultan Yoosuf II Loka Aananadha 1421 1443 Son of Sultan Hassan I
Sultan Aboobakuru I Bavana Sooja 1443 1443 Son of Sultan Hassan I half brother of Sultan Yoosuf II. Killed in battle with the Portuguese who came to summon the Council of Ministers of the Maldives to Cochin.
Sultan Hasan III Raadha Veeru 1443 1467 Son of Sultan Aboobakuru I. Deposed by Sayyid Mohamed while abroad.
Sultan Sayyid Mohamed Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1467 1467 Possible descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. Deposed by Sultan Hassan III upon returning to Maldives.
Sultan Hasan III Raadha Veeru 1467 1468 Second reign.
Sultan Mohamed II Bavana Abaarana 1468 1480 Son of Sultan Hasan III.
Sultan Hassan IV Raadha Loka 1480 1480 Son of Sultan Mohamed II. Deposed by Omar II.
Sultan Omar II Loka Sundhura 1480 1484 Son of Sultan Yoosuf II.
Sultan Hassan V Raadha Aanandha 1484 1485 Son of Sultan Omar II.
Sultan Hassan IV Raadha Loka 1485 1491 Second reign.
Sultan Hassan VI Raadha Fanaveeru 1491 1492 Grandson of Sultan Aboobakuru I.
Sultan Ibrahim II Bavana Furasuddha 1492 1492 Son of Omar II.
Sultan Kalu Mohamed[5] Dhammaru Bavana 1492 1492 Son of Sultan Omar II. Deposed by his brother Yoosuf.
Sultan Yoosuf III Veeru Aanandha 1492 1493 Son of Sultan Omar II.
Sultan Ali II Audha Veeru 1493 1495 Grandson of Sultan Hassan I.
Sultan Kalu Mohamed[5] Dhammaru Bavana 1495 1510 Second reign. Son of Sultan Omar II Deposed for a second time, this time by his nephew Hassan.
Sultan Hassan VII Singa Veeeru 1510 1511 Son of Sultan Yoosuf III.
Sultan Sharif Ahmed Suddha Bavana 1511 1513 An Arab from Mecca. Possible descendant of Muhammad.
Sultan Ali III Aanandha 1513 1513 Killed in a duel with his sister Burecca (Buraki Raani). Grandson of Sultan Aboobakuru I. Son of Mohamed Farhana Kalo and Recca daughter of Aboobakuru I
Sultan Kalu Mohamed[5] Dhammaru Bavana 1513 1529 Third accession assisted by his wife Queen Burecca who killed her brother Ali III
Sultan Hassan VIII Ran Mani Loka 1529 1549 Son of Sultan Kalu Mohamed and Fatuma Dio, a concubine from Shiraz in Persia.
Sultan Mohamed III Singa Bavana 1549 1551 Assassinated by his brother Hassan succeeded him. Son of Golhavahi Aysha Rani Kilege and Omar Maafaiy Kilege son of Kalu Mohamed and Aysha Rani Kilege daughter of Korari Kilege. Therefore, Grandson of Sultan Kalu Mohamed.
Sultan Hassan IX Dhirukusa Loka 1551 1552 Brother of Mohamed III. He was the first Maldivian and only member of its royalty to renounce Islam and convert to Christianity. He was deposed upon conversion, and known subsequently by the Lusitanian name of Dom Manoel.
Interregnum 1552 1554 Maldives ruled by a Council of Ministers.
Sultan Aboobakuru II Asaalees Loka 1554 1557 Son of Ibrahim Faarhana Kilege and Sanfa Dio. Former Prime Minister to Dom Manoel.
Sultan Ali IV Audha Siyaaka Katthiri 1557 1558 Killed in battle. Son of Prime Minister Abdur Rahman Dorhimeyna Kaloge and Sitti Rani Kilege. He was married to Princess Aysha Rani Kilege, aunt of Dom Manoel and daughter of Kalu Mohamed.
King Dom Manoel Dhirikusa Loka (in absentia) 1558 1573 Restored as the king. Formerly known as Sultan Hassan IX. A Maldivian Catholic named Andiri Andirin acted as his regent, while Manoel lived in Goa.
Interregnum 1573 1573 Maldives ruled by Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan of Utheemu after he assassinated Andiri Andirin, the regent of King Dom Manoel. As per a treaty he got refuge from Ali Raja of Cannanore, Mohamed Thakurufan's base of operation was Minicoy under the sovereignty of Cannanore. Keteeb Mohamed Thakurufan did not honour this promise. The Ali Raja demanded dominion over the Maldives, as promised to him by the Kateeb of Uteem.
The nature of the relationship between Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan and the Ali Raja of Cannanore was outlined in a letter sent by a later Ali Raja, Mariambe Ali-Adi Raja Bibi, to the Sultan Mohamed Mueenuddine I of the Maldives. The letter was dated Friday 17 Jamada-el-oula Anno Hegirae 1243 (7 December AD 1827). According to the letter Mohamed Thakurufan had entered into a treaty ceding sovereignty of the Maldives to the Ali Raja of Cannanore in the event Thakurufan was established in power in Male. (refer page 294 of Divehi Tarikh).
King Dom Manoel Dhirikusa Loka 1573 1583 Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan concluded a Treaty with King Dom Manoel in order to ward off the Ali Raja of Cannanore with whose help the Kateeb seized power in Male.

Under the treaty, Dom Manoel was restored but remained in Goa. The co-regents were Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan of Utheem and his brother Hassan Thakurufan. The kateeb conferred on himself the title of sultan in 1583 upon Dom Manoel's death. This was in breach of the Treaty and was not legally binding.

King Dom João Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1583 1603 Son of King Manoel, who remained in Goa. He had two brothers, Dom Francisco and Dom Pedro. Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan and his brother Hassan Thakurufan ruled for King Dom João as co-regents. Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan assumed the title of Sultan following the death of King Dom Manoel. He married a Portuguese Christian noblewoman, Donna Francisca Vasconelles and had two children, Dom Philippe and Dona Inez.

Ibrahim, also known as Kalaafaan[6] (literally "Lord") was the de facto sultan, but legally the regent of Kings Dom João and Dom Philippe who resided in Goa. He reigned from 1585 to 1609. Son of Mohamed Thakurufan, kateeb of Utheemu and Rehendiye Goyye daughter of Cat Fatima of Boarhi Woods in Baarah.

Ibrahim Kalaafaan was the regent at the time of François Pyrard de Laval's[6] detainment in the Maldives after the shipwreck.

King Dom Philippe Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1603 1632 Son of King Dom João and Donna Francisca Vasconelles.

Al-Amira Kuda Kalu Kamanafaanu acted as regent from 1607 until 1609.

She was the daughter of Hassan Thakurufaan and Sitti Maryam Maavaa Kuda Kamanafaanu Rani Kilege, daughter of Sultan Ali VI, Sultan of the Maldives, by his wife, Princess Aisha Kabafa'anu, daughter of Sultan Kalu Mohamed[5]

Hussain Faamuladeyri Kilege acted as regent from 1609 to 1620.

Muhammad Imaduddin I acted as regent from 1620 to 1632. De-recognised in the Maldives after an abortive expedition with Portuguese assistance in order to abolish regency and assume power.

Utheemu dynasty[edit]

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin I Kula Sundhura Katthiri Bavana 1632 1648 Legally proclaimed sultan in 1632 former regent for King Dom Philippe.
Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar I Kula Ran Meeba Katthiri Bavana 1648 1687 Son of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin I.
Sultan Kuda Muhammad Maniranna Loka 1687 1691 Son of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar I. His mother Princess Maryam acted as regent due to his age. Killed with his mother while at sea in an explosion.
Sultan Muhammad Mohyeddine Naakiree Sundhura 1691 1692 Re-established the Islamic penal code. Son of Daravandu Kadida Dio and Abu Naibu Hassan Dorhimeyna Kilege son of the Regent Hussain Famuladeyri Kilege.

Hamawi dynasty[edit]

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Muhammad Shamsuddeen I Mikaalha Madhaadheettha 1692 1692 Arab mentor of Sultan Muhammad Mohyeddine. He first visited Male during the reign of Ibrahim Iskandar I. He was Probably poisoned to death. He coutured the re-establishment of the Islamic Penal code held by the previous Sultan Muhammad Mohyeddine and assigned Scholars to teach in Mosques. In his Sultanate Maldives was very peaceful and citizens became educated and religious. (refer page 67 to 69 of Divehi Tarikh)

Dhevvadhoo dynasty[edit]

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Mohamed IV Kula Ran Mani 1692 1701 First Sultan of the [[1]] dynasty.[7] Popularly known as Dhevvadhoo Rasgefaanu,[8] son of Ali Mafahaiy Kilege of Dhevvadhoo and Kakuni Dio. Sultan Mohamed IV was married to Khadheeja Kanba, daughter of Ibrahim Shah Bandar of Isdhoo ( Isdhoo Bodu Velaanaa Thakurufaan )

Isdhoo dynasty[edit]

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Ali V Kula Ran Muiy 1701 1701 First Sultan of the Isdhoo dynasty. Son of Ibrahim Shah Bandar Kilege of Isdhoo and Aysha Dio.
Sultan Hasan X Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1701 1701 Son of Sultan Ali V. Deposed by his cousin Ibrahim Mudzhiruddine. He is not listed in Radhavalhi, the official chronicle.
Sultan Ibrahim Mudzhiruddine Muthey Ran Mani Loka 1701 1704 Cousin of Sultan Hasan X. Deposed by his Prime Minister Muhammad Imaduddin during the regency of his spouse, Fatima Kabafa'anu, while on the Hajj pilgrimage.

Dhiyamigili dynasty[edit]

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin II Kula Sundhura Siyaaka Saasthura 1704 1720 Prime Minister to Sultan Ibrahim Mudzhiruddine. First of the Dhiyamigili dynasty. Son of Ibrahim Dorhimeyna Kaloge and Amina Dio.
Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II Rannava Loka 1720 1750 Son of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin II and Amina Dio of Fenfushi.
Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin III Navaranna Keerithi 1750 1757 Son of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin II and Amina Dio of Fenfushi. Held captive on Kavaratti island from 1752 until his death in 1757. In 1752 he was seized by the Ali Raja of Cannanore and transported to Kavaratti island in the Laccadives. Male was occupied. The occupation was ended by Muleegey Dom Hassan Maniku, a direct descendant of the penultimate Christian King Joao. The sultan died in captivity. During this time Maldives was ruled by the captive sultan's niece Amina I of Maldives and his daughter, Amina II. The de facto regent was Muleegey Dom Hassan Maniku.
Interregnum 1757 1759 Regency continued in expectation of the return of the deceased sultan's heir from captivity.
Sultana Amina I 1753 1754 Daughter of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II. Amina assumed the role of the ruler (regent) of Maldives in 1753 after Male was recaptured from the Malabars after 17 weeks of occupation. She was the daughter of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II and Aisha Manikfan. She abdicated the throne and moved to Addu Atoll in the south. She was later banished to various islands and eventually became the Ruler of Maldives for the second time as the regent during the reign of her younger brother Sultan Mohamed Ghiyasuddin in 1773.
Sultana Amina II 1757 1759 Daughter of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin III. Amina succeeded her cousin in 1754 as nominal regent for her absent father the age of nine, while Muleegey Hassan Manikfaan managed the political affairs as de facto regent. Her father died in 1757 in Minicoy, after which she formally became monarch and queen regnant. In 1759 Sultan Hassan Izzuddin became monarch because the citizens did not approve of a young female as their head.

Huraa dynasty[edit]

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Hasan 'Izz ud-din Kula Ran Meeba Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bavana 1759 1766 Muleegey Dom Hassan Maniku or Don Bandaara was the first Sultan of the Huraa Dynasty. Son of Amina Dio daughter of Mohamed Kateeb of Muli and Huraa Mohamed Faamuladeyri Thakurufan.

Dhiyamigili dynasty (restored)[edit]

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Muhammed Ghiya'as ud-din Kula Ranmani Keerithi 1766 1774 Son of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II. Deposed while on the Hajj pilgrimage
Interregnum 1773 1773 Regency by Sultans elder sister Amina I. Her husband Ali Shahbandar took power during the regency, and Dhiyamigili dynasty lost the throne in the cascade of events that followed. Mohamed Manikfaan of Huraa usurped the throne and later abdicated in favour of his nephew who became Sultan Muizzuddin. Amina and her husband were banished to a remote island in Laamu Atoll.

Huraa dynasty (first restoration)[edit]

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Muhammad Shamsuddeen II Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1774 1774 Uncle of Sultan Hasan 'Izz ud-din.
Sultan Muhammad Mu'iz ud-din Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1774 1779 Son of Sultan Hasan 'Izz ud-din. Popularly known as Kalhu Bandaarain
Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen I Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1779 1799 Brother of Sultan Muhammad Mu'iz ud-din.
Sultan Muhammad Mueenuddeen I Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1799 1835 Son of Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen I.
Sultan Muhammad Imaaduddeen IV Kula Sudha Ira Siyaaka Saasthura Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bovana 1835 1882 Son of Sultan Muhammad Mueenuddeen I.
Sultan Ibrahim Nooraddeen Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1882 1886 Abdicated in favor of his nephew Muhammad Mueenuddeen.
Sultan Muhammad Mueenuddeen II Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1886 1888 Abdicated in favour of his uncle the former Sultan Ibrahim Nooraddeen.
Sultan Ibrahim Nooraddeen Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1888 1892 Second reign.
Sultan Muhammad Imaaduddeen V Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1892 1893 His cousin Hassan Nooreddine Maandhoogey Manippulu acted as his regent due to his age. The regent abdicated in his name in favour of his older half brother.
Sultan Muhammad Shamsuddeen III Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1893 1893 Brother of Sultan Muhammad Imaaduddeen V. His cousin Hassan Nooreddine Maandhoogey Manippulu acted as his regent due to his age. His cousin abdicated in his name and assumed the throne himself.
Sultan Muhammad Imaaduddeen VI Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1893 1902 Former regent for Sultans Muhammad Imaaduddeen V and Muhammad Shamsuddeen III. Deposed while in the Ottoman Empire.
Sultan Muhammad Shamsuddeen III Kula Sundhura Katthiri Bavana 1902 1934 Second reign which ended when he was deposed and exiled.
Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen II Kula Sudha Ira Siyaaka Saasthura Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bavana 1935 1943 Forced to abdicate.
Interregnum 1944 1952 Abdul Majeed Didi was elected Sultan but was never installed and continued to live in Ceylon. Maldives ruled by Council of Regency headed for a time by former Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen II. Following the death of Abdul Majeed, and after a national referendum, the Maldives became a republic.

First Republic of Maldives[edit]

Huraa dynasty (second restoration)[edit]

Name Regnal Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Sir Muhammad Fareed Didi Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1954 1968 Grandson of Muhammad Mueenuddeen II. Took the title of King Muhammad Fareed Didi in 1965, when the British protectorate of the Maldives ended. Deposed by a national referendum which decided to replace the sultanate with a republic.

Second Republic of Maldives[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • Regnal names are in ancient Maldive language. The names are followed with "Maha Radun" for Kings are "Maha Rehendi" for Queens.[9]
  • Sometimes there were no coronation ceremony and for those they were called "Keerithi Maha Radun" for Kings and "Keeri Maha Rehendi" for Queens.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Mohamed, Naseema. "First Settlers". Note on the Early History of the Maldives.
  2. ^ "The Theemuge".
  3. ^ "The Rehla of Ibn Battuta". Maldives.
  4. ^ "The Hilalii Dynasty".
  5. ^ a b c d M. dos Santos Alves, Jorge. "Kalu Muhammad Hilali, Sultan of the Maldives (1491-1528)". Kalu Muhammad Hilali, Sultan of the Maldives (1491-1528).
  6. ^ a b Francois, Payard. "The voyage of Francois Pyrard of Laval to the East Indies, the Maldives, the Moluccas and Brazil". The Maldives.
  7. ^ "The Dhevvadhoo Dynasty".
  8. ^ "Coral Stone Mosques of Maldives".
  9. ^ a b "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117". Archived from the original on 22 February 2013.