Sultan of Pahang

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Sultan of Pahang
Provincial/State
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Incumbent
Ahmad Shah
Details
Style His Royal Highness
Heir apparent Tengku Abdullah
First monarch Muhammad Shah
Formation 1470

Sultan of Pahang is the title of the hereditary constitutional head of Pahang, Malaysia. The current sultan is Ahmad Shah. He is the Head of the Islam in the state and the source of all titles, honours and dignities in the state. Historically, the tile was also used by rulers of the Old Pahang Sultanate.

History[edit]

After the Srivijaya empire collapsed, around the 1000, Pahang was claimed first by Majapahit, Siam, and then by Sultanate of Malacca. Pahang was fought over by the Portuguese, the Dutch, Johor, and Aceh for most of the 16th century. During this time, its population was mostly killed or enslaved, its rulers murdered and its economy ruined.

After the decline of Aceh in the mid-17th century, Pahang came under the rule of Johor. However, Sultans of Pahang, descended from the Malacca and the Bendahara Johor royal dynasties, have ruled the state almost continuously from 1470, and gradually recovered a great degree of autonomy.

As the Johor Empire was falling apart with the loss of the Riau-Lingga territories, Temenggung Ibrahim of Johor understood this situation and quickly signed a treaty with Bendahara Tun Mutahir of Pahang in 1861.[1] The treaty recognizes the territories of Johor (mainland), the Temenggung and his descendent's right to rule it, mutual protection and mutual recognitions of Pahang and Johor. With the signing of this treaty, the remnants of the Empire became 2 independent states, Johor and Pahang.

From 1858 to 1863, Pahang was fought over in a civil war between the two sons of the reigning Bendahara of Pahang. The war ended when Wan Ahmad was proclaimed the new sultan in 1887, but his role from that point onward was largely ceremonial, as the British forced him to sign a treaty bringing the country under control of a British Resident.

List of rulers[edit]

House of Melaka[edit]

Sultan of Pahang[edit]

  1. 1470-1475: Muhammad Shah
  2. 1475-1495: Ahmad Shah
  3. 1495-1512: Abdul Jamil Shah reign jointly with Mansur Shah I
  4. 1495-1519: Mansur Shah I reign jointly with Abdul Jamil Shah
  5. 1519-1530: Mahmud Shah
  6. 1530-1540: Muzaffar Shah
  7. 1540-1555: Zainal Abidin Shah
  8. 1555-1560: Mansur Shah II
  9. 1560-1575: Abdul Jamal Shah
  10. 1575-1590: Abdul Kadir Alauddin Shah
  11. 1590-1592: Ahmad Shah II
  12. 1592-1614: Abdul Ghafur Muhiuddin Shah
  13. 1614-1615: Alauddin Riayat Shah
  14. 1615-1617: Abdul Jalil Shah III first time
  15. 1617-1623: Interregnum

Sultan of Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga (Johor Empire)[edit]

From 1623, Pahang was nominally merged with Johor when Johor's Sultan Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah died and Raja Bujang emerged as the new ruler of Johor-Pahang. Installed as Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah III, he reigned until 1677. With the decline of Aceh, Johor-Pahang gradually extend its suzerainty over the Riau-Lingga islands.

  1. 1623-1677: Abdul Jalil Shah III
    • 1641-1676: Yamtuan Muda Raja Bajau - heir apparent to the Johor throne who ruled Pahang as separate dominion until his death in 1676.
  2. 1677-1685: Ibrahim Shah
  3. 1685-1699: Mahmud Shah II

House of Bendahara[edit]

Sultan of Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga (Johor Empire)[edit]

When Mahmud Shah II died in 1699, Bendahara Tun Abdul Jalil became Sultan of Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga and assumed the title Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah IV. His appointment was accepted by Johor chiefs based on an understanding that the Bendahara would succeed to the throne if the Sultan died without heirs.

  1. 1699-1720: Abdul Jalil Shah IV (Bendahara Tun Abdul Jalil)
  2. 1722-1760: Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah
  3. 1760-1761: Abdul Jalil Muazzam Shah
  4. 1761-1761: Ahmad Riayat Shah
  5. 1761-1770: Mahmud Shah III

Raja Bendahara of Pahang[edit]

By the early 19th century, the Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga empire had begun to break up. After 1806, the empire's constituent parts effectively became principalities, and the cultural unity that had hitherto existed between the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Riau-Lingga was gradually destroyed. The signing of Anglo-Dutch Treaty in 1824 further undermined the cohesion of the Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga empire and contributed to the emergence of Pahang and Johor as independent states. The Treaty confirmed, among other things, that the islands south of Singapore, including Java and Sumatra, were to remain the preserve of the Dutch, while the Peninsula would be within the British sphere of influence. The Malay Rulers were not consulted about the Treaty, and the Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga empire became irrevocably divided when a succession dispute gave rise to two centres of power, one in Riau-Lingga (under Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah, r. 1812-1832) and the other in Johor (under Hussein Shah, r.1819-1835).

From here, the Raja Bendahara of Pahang grew increasingly independent. While Bendahara Tun Ali had acknowledged Abdul Rahman as his overlord, the Anglo-Dutch Treaty confined the Sultan to Riau-Lingga, where he was deemed a vassal of the Dutch, and prevented him from exercising his control over the Malay Peninsula, which had come under the British. Bendahara Tun Ali declared his autonomy from the empire by 1853. He was able to maintain peace and stability during his reign, but his death in 1856 precipitated civil war among his sons, Tun Mutahir and Tun Ahmad, the result of which the formation of modern Pahang Sultanate.

  1. 1770-1802: Tun Abdul Majid
  2. 1802-1803: Tun Muhammad
  3. 1803-1806: Tun Koris
  4. 1806-1847: Tun Ali
  5. 1847-1863: Tun Mutahir
  6. 1863-1881: Tun Ahmad later proclaimed as Sultan[2]

Sultan of Modern Pahang[edit]

  1. 1881-1914: Ahmad Muazzam Shah
  2. 1914-1917: Mahmud Shah
  3. 1917-1932: Abdullah
  4. 1932-1974: Abu Bakar
  5. 1974–present: Ahmad Shah

Family tree[edit]

Rulers of Pahang from both the Melaka and the Bendahara dynasties, belong to the principal royal house of Malay world that claimed descent from the legendary founder of Singapura, Sang Nila Utama. The Melaka branch originated from Melaka Sultanate (1400-1511) had close marriage relationship with the Bendahara branch that traditionally hold the position of Bendahara since the time of Singapura. Sang Nila Utama's cognatic descendants have historically reigned in Melaka, Aceh and Pattani, and also have been reigning in Pahang, Johor, Perak and Terengganu until today.

The honorific Malay title "Tun" in this tree is hereditary (ambilineal) and strictly for nobility of Bendahara family. It differs from modern usage that awarded to commoners. "♀Putri" ('princess') is used for a female descendant with unidentified name.

  A Monarch   Raja Bendahara of Pahang

Sri Tri Buana
Singapura
r. 1299-1347
Tun Perpatih Pramuka Berjajar
Bendahara of Singapura
Sri Wikrama Wira
Singapura
r. 1347-1362
Sri Rana Wikrama
Singapura
r. 1362-1375
Tun Perpatih Tulus
Bendahara of Singapura - Melaka
Tun Perpatih Besar
Sri Nara Diraja
Sri Maharaja
Singapura
r. 1375-1389
Iskandar Shah
Singapura
r. 1389-1398
Melaka
r. 1400-1414
Mani Purindan ♀Tun Ratna Sendari Megat Iskandar Shah
Melaka
r. 1414-1424
Tun Ali
Bendahara of Melaka V
♀Tun Ratna Wati Muhammad Shah
Melaka
r. 1424-1444
Tun Perpatih Pramuka Berjajar II
Bendahara of Melaka II
Abu Syahid Shah
Melaka
r. 1444-1446
Tun Tahir Tun Mutahir
Bendahara of Melaka VIII
Seri Amar Diraja
Bendahara of Melaka III
♀Tun Sadah
♀Raja Mahadewi Ibrahim
Siak
Tun Perpatih Sedang
Bendahara of Melaka IV
Muzaffar Shah
Melaka
r. 1446-1459
Dewa Sura
Pahang
Khoja Ahmad
Siak
Tun Perak
Bendahara of Melaka VI
Tun Perpatih Putih
Bendahara of Melaka VII
♀Putri Mansur Shah
Melaka
r. 1456-1477
♀Putri Wanang Seri Lela Wangsa
Tun Pikrama Tun Tepok
Bendahara of Melaka IX
Alauddin Riayat Shah
Melaka
r. 1477-1488
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Shah
r. 1475-1497(2)
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Muhammad Shah
r. 1470-1475(1)
Tun Khoja Ahmad
Bendahara of Johor I
Mahmud Shah
Melaka
r. 1488-1511
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mansur Shah I
r. 1512-1519(4)
♀Raja Putri Olah Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mahmud Shah
r. 1519-1530(5)
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jamil Shah
r. 1495-1512(3)
Muzaffar Shah I
Perak
r. 1528-1549
Alauddin Riayat Shah II
Johor
r. 1528-1564
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Muzaffar Shah
r. 1530-1540(6)
Tun Isap Barakah Mansur Shah I
Perak
r. 1549-1577
♀Raja Putri Dewi Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Zainal Abidin Shah
r. 1540-1555(7)
♀Tun Kamala
Muzaffar Shah II
Johor
r. 1564-1570
♀Raja Fatimah Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mansur Shah II
r. 1555-1560(8)
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jamal Shah
r. 1560-1575(9)
♀Raja Putih Raja Asif
Siak
Tun Mahmud
Bendahara of Johor III
♀Putri ♀Raja Kemala Dewi Raja Ahmad of Terengganu Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Kadir Alauddin Shah
r. 1575-1590(10)
Tun Isap Misai
Bendahara of Johor IV
Alauddin Mansur Syah
Aceh
r. 1579-1586
Ahmad Tajuddin Shah
Perak
r. 1577-1584
Tajul Ariffin Shah
Perak
r. 1584-1594
♀Putri A Sultan of Aceh
Tun Ahmad Mukaddam Shah
Perak
r. 1603-1619
Mahmud Shah
Perak
r. 1627-1630
Raja Inu ♀Raja Putri Zohra
Putri of Saiful Rijal of Brunei
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Ghafur Muhiuddin Shah
r. 1592-1614(12)
Ratu Ungu
Pattani
r. 1624-1635
Sallehuddin Shah
Perak
r. 1630-1635
♀Putri Raja Abdullah Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Alauddin Riayat Shah
r. 1614-1615(13)
♀Ratu Kuning
Pattani
r. 1635-1688
Tun Sri Lanang
Bendahara of Johor V
♀Putri Abdullah ibn Shaykh al-Aydarus Alauddin Shah
Perak
r. 1594-1603
Mansur Shah II
Perak
r. 1619-1627
Tun Jenal
Bendahara of Johor VII
Ali Jalla Abdul Jalil Shah II
Johor
r. 1571-1597
Putri of Saiful Rijal of Brunei Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Shah II
r. 1590-1592(11)
♀Putri Bongsu Chandra Dewi Raja Mahmud
Siak
♀Tun Kaishi Sayyid Zainal Abidin
a.k.a. Tun Dagang
Abdul Jalil Shah I
Johor
r. 1570-1571
Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah
Johor
r. 1615-1623
♀Raja Putri Kamarliah Iskandar Thani
Aceh
r. 1610-1641
Alauddin Riayat Shah III
Johor
r. 1597-1615
Tun Muhammad Ali BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jalil Shah III
Pahang
r. 1615-1617(14)
Johor-Pahang
r. 1623-1677(15)
Raja Bajau
Yamtuan Muda of Pahang
r. 1641–1676(16)
♀Raja Putri Fatima Puteh Muzaffar Shah II
Perak
r. 1636-1654
Sayyid Jaafar
Raja Temenggung of Muar
Tun Habib Abdul Majid
Bendahara of Johor XII
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ibrahim Shah
Johor-Pahang
r. 1677-1685(17)
Mahmud Iskandar Shah
Perak
r. 1654-1720
Raja Mansur
♀Putri Bakal BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mahmud Shah II
Johor-Pahang
r. 1685-1699(18)
Alauddin Mughayat Shah
Perak
r. 1720-1728
Muzaffar Shah III
Perak
r. 1728-1752
Muhammad Shah
Perak
r. 1744-1750
Zainal Abidin I
Terengganu
r. 1725-1733
Tun Abdullah
Bendahara of Johor XV
Tun Mas Anum
Bendahara of Johor XIV
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jalil Shah IV
Bendahara of Johor XIII
1697-1699
Sultan of Johor
r. 1699-1718
Iskandar Zulkarnain Shah
Perak
r. 1752-1765
Mahmud Shah
Perak
r. 1765-1773
Ahmaddin Shah
Perak
r. 1786-1806
Alauddin Mansur Shah
Perak
r. 1773-1786
Mansur Riayat Shah
Terengganu
r. 1733-1793
Tun Abbas
Bendahara of Johor XVII
1722-1736
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah
Johor
r. 1722-1760
Raja Syed Hitam of Siak ♀Raja Mandak Raja Inu Muhammad Saleh Raja Abdul Rahman
Tengku Muhammad Zainal Abidin II
Terengganu
r. 1793-1808
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jalil Muazzam Shah
Johor
r. 1760-1761
Ismail Mua'bidin Riayat Shah
Perak
r. 1871-1874
Shahbuddin Riayat Shah
Perak
r. 1830-1851
Abdullah Muhammad Shah
Perak
r. 1851-1857
Abdul Rahman Shah
Terengganu
r. 1830-1831
Mansur Shah II
Terengganu
r. 1831-1836
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Riayat Shah
Johor
1761-1761
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mahmud Shah III
Johor
1761-1812
Ali Al-Mukammal Inayat Shah
Perak
r. 1865-1871
Yusuf Sharifuddin Mudzaffar Shah
Perak
r. 1877-1887
Muhammad Shah
Terengganu
r. 1836-1839
Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah
Johor
1812-1819
Hussein Muazzam Shah
Johor
1819-1835
Abdul Malik Mansur Shah
Perak
r. 1806-1825
Ali Iskandar Shah
Johor
r. 1835-1855
Sultan of Muar
r. 1855-1877
Daeng Parani
Ahmad Shah I
Terengganu
r. 1808-1830
Tun Hassan
Bendahara of Johor XVIII
1736-1770
Flag of Pahang (1853 - 1887).svg
Tun Abdul Majid
Bendahara of Johor XIX
Raja Bendahara of Pahang I

r. 1770-1802
Tun Abdul Jamal
Temenggong of Johor
♀Daeng Maimuna
Flag of Pahang (1853 - 1887).svg
Tun Koris
Bendahara of Johor XXI
Raja Bendahara of Pahang III

1803-1806
Flag of Pahang (1853 - 1887).svg
Tun Muhammad
Bendahara of Johor XX
Raja Bendahara of Pahang II

1802-1803
Tun Abdul Hamid
(Engku Daeng Kechil)
Temenggong of Johor
Daud
Terengganu
r. 1831
Omar
Terengganu
r. 1839-1876
Flag of Pahang (1853 - 1887).svg
Tun Ali
Bendahara of Johor XXII
Raja Bendahara of Pahang IV

1806-1847
Ungku Abdul Rahman
Temenggong of Johor
Raja Ahmad Abdullah Muazzam Shah
Perak
r. 1825-1830
Flag of Pahang (1887 - 1903).svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad al-Muadzam Shah
Raja Bendahara of Pahang VI
1863-1881
Sultan of Pahang
r. 1881-1914
Flag of Pahang (1853 - 1887).svg
Tun Mutahir
Bendahara of Johor XXII
Raja Bendahara of Pahang V

1847-1863
Tun Daeng Ibrahim
Temenggong of Johor
Jaafar Muazzam Shah
Perak
r. 1857-1865
Raja Alang Iskandar
Raja Musa Abdullah Muhammad Shah II
Perak
r. 1874-1876
Idris Murshidul'azzam Shah
Perak
r. 1887-1916
Tengku Mahmud Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mahmud Shah
r. 1914-1917
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdullah al-Mu'tassim Billah
r. 1917-1932
Abu Bakar
Temenggong of Johor
1862-1868
Sultan of Johor
r. 1868-1886
Abdul Aziz Al-Mu'tasim Billah Shah
Perak
r. 1938-1948
Iskandar Shah
Perak
r. 1918-1938
Abdul Jalil Karamatullah Shah
Perak
r. 1916-1918
Ahmad Muazzam Shah
Terengganu
r. 1876-1881
Tengku Muhammad Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah
r. 1932-1974
Ibrahim
Johor
r. 1895-1959
Idris Iskandar Al-Mutawakkil Alallah Shah
Perak
r. 1963-1984
Yusuf Izzuddin Shah
Perak
r. 1948-1963
Zainal Abidin III Muazzam Shah
Terengganu
r. 1881-1918
Tengku Afzan Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Shah
r. 1974-present
Muhammad Muazzam Shah
Terengganu
r. 1918-1920
Ismail Nasiruddin Shah
Terengganu
r. 1945-1979
Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah
Terengganu
r. 1920-1942
Ismail
Johor
r. 1959-1981
Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah
Terengganu
r. 1979-1998
Ali Shah
Terengganu
r. 1942-1945
Iskandar
Johor
r. 1981-2010
Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah
Perak
r. 1984-2014
Mizan Zainal Abidin
Terengganu
r. 1998-present
Tengku Abdullah ♀Tunku Azizah Aminah Maimunah Iskandariah Ibrahim Ismail
Johor
r. 2010-present
Raja Zarith Sofia Nazrin Shah
Perak
r. 2014-present

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ahmad Fawzi Basri, Johor 1855-1917 : Pentadbiran dan Perkembangannya, Fajar Bakti, 1988, pages 33-34
  2. ^ History of the Sultanate of Pahang, National Archives, mdpekan.gov.my