Sultan of Pahang

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Sultan of Pahang
Provincial/State
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Incumbent
Ahmad Shah
Details
Style His Royal Highness
Heir apparent Tengku Abdullah
First monarch Muhammad Shah
Formation 1470

Sultan of Pahang is the title of the constitutional head of Pahang, Malaysia. The current sultan is Ahmad Shah. He is the Head of the Islam in the state and the source of all titles, honours and dignities in the state.

History[edit]

After the Srivijaya empire collapsed, around the 1000, Pahang was claimed first by Majapahit, Siam, and then by Sultanate of Malacca. Pahang was fought over by the Portuguese, the Dutch, Johor, and Aceh for most of the 16th century. During this time, its population was mostly killed or enslaved, its rulers murdered and its economy ruined.

After the decline of Aceh in the mid-17th century, Pahang came under the rule of Johor. However, Sultans of Pahang, descended from the Malacca and the Bendahara Johor royal dynasties, have ruled the state almost continuously from 1470, and gradually recovered a great degree of autonomy.

As the Johor Empire was falling apart with the loss of the Riau-Lingga territories, Temenggung Ibrahim of Johor understood this situation and quickly signed a treaty with Bendahara Tun Mutahir of Pahang in 1861.[1] The treaty recognizes the territories of Johor (mainland), the Temenggung and his descendent's right to rule it, mutual protection and mutual recognitions of Pahang and Johor. With the signing of this treaty, the remnants of the Empire became 2 independent states, Johor and Pahang.

From 1858 to 1863, Pahang was fought over in a civil war between the two sons of the reigning Bendahara of Pahang. The war ended when Wan Ahmad was proclaimed the new sultan in 1887, but his role from that point onward was largely ceremonial, as the British forced him to sign a treaty bringing the country under control of a British Resident.

List of rulers[edit]

House of Melaka[edit]

Sultan of Pahang[edit]

  1. 1470-1475: Muhammad Shah
  2. 1475-1497: Ahmad Shah
  3. 1497-1512: Abdul Jamil Shah reign jointly with Mansur Shah I
  4. 1497-1519: Mansur Shah I reign jointly with Abdul Jamil Shah
  5. 1519-1530: Mahmud Shah
  6. 1530-1540: Muzaffar Shah
  7. 1540-1555: Zainal Abidin Shah
  8. 1555-1560: Mansur Shah II
  9. 1560-1575: Abdul Jamal Shah
  10. 1575-1590: Abdul Kadir Alauddin Shah
  11. 1590-1592: Ahmad Shah II
  12. 1592-1614: Abdul Ghafur Muhiuddin Shah
  13. 1614-1615: Alauddin Riayat Shah
  14. 1615-1617: Abdul Jalil Shah III first time
  15. 1617-1623: Interregnum

Sultan of Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga (Johor Empire)[edit]

From 1623, Pahang was nominally merged with Johor when Johor's Sultan Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah died and Raja Bujang emerged as the new ruler of Johor-Pahang. Installed as Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah III, he reigned until 1677. With the decline of Aceh, Johor-Pahang gradually extend its suzerainty over the Riau-Lingga islands.

  1. 1623-1677: Abdul Jalil Shah III
    • 1641-1676: Yamtuan Muda Raja Bajau - heir apparent to the Johor throne who ruled Pahang as separate dominion until his death in 1676.
  2. 1677-1685: Ibrahim Shah
  3. 1685-1699: Mahmud Shah II

House of Bendahara[edit]

Sultan of Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga (Johor Empire)[edit]

When Mahmud Shah II died in 1699, Bendahara Tun Abdul Jalil became Sultan of Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga and assumed the title Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah IV. His appointment was accepted by Johor chiefs based on an understanding that the Bendahara would succeed to the throne if the Sultan died without heirs.

  1. 1699-1720: Abdul Jalil IV (Bendahara Tun Abdul Jalil)
  2. 1722-1760: Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah
  3. 1760-1761: Abdul Jalil Muazzam Shah
  4. 1761-1761: Ahmad Riayat Shah
  5. 1761-1761: Ahmad Riayat Shah
  6. 1761-1770: Mahmud Shah III

Raja Bendahara of Pahang[edit]

By the early 19th century, the Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga empire had begun to break up. After 1806, the empire's constituent parts effectively became principalities, and the cultural unity that had hitherto existed between the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Riau-Lingga was gradually destroyed. The signing of Anglo-Dutch Treaty in 1824 further undermined the cohesion of the Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga empire and contributed to the emergence of Pahang and Johor as independent states. The Treaty confirmed, among other things, that the islands south of Singapore, including Java and Sumatra, were to remain the preserve of the Dutch, while the Peninsula would be within the British sphere of influence. The Malay Rulers were not consulted about the Treaty, and the Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga empire became irrevocably divided when a succession dispute gave rise to two centres of power, one in Riau-Lingga (under Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah, r. 1812-1832) and the other in Johor (under Hussein Shah, r.1819-1835).

From here, the Raja Bendahara of Pahang grew increasingly independent. While Bendahara Tun Ali had acknowledged Abdul Rahman as his overlord, the Anglo-Dutch Treaty confined the Sultan to Riau-Lingga, where he was deemed a vassal of the Dutch, and prevented him from exercising his control over the Malay Peninsula, which had come under the British. Bendahara Tun Ali declared his autonomy from the empire by 1853. He was able to maintain peace and stability during his reign, but his death in 1856 precipitated civl war among his sons, Tun Mutahir and Tun Ahmad, the result of which the formation of modern Pahang Sultanate.

  1. 1770-1802: Tun Abdul Majid
  2. 1802-1803: Tun Muhammad
  3. 1803-1806: Tun Koris
  4. 1806-1847: Tun Ali
  5. 1847-1863: Tun Mutahir
  6. 1863-1881: Tun Ahmad later proclaimed as Sultan[2]

Sultan of Modern Pahang[edit]

  1. 1881-1909: Ahmad Muazzam Shah
  2. 1909-1917: Mahmud Shah, 2nd son of Ahmad Muazzam Shah
  3. 1917-1932: Abdullah, 4th son of Ahmad Muazam Shah
  4. 1932-1974: Abu Bakar, son of precedent
  5. 1974–present: Ahmad Shah, son of precedent

Family tree[edit]

Rulers of Pahang from both the Melaka and the Bendahara dynasties, belong to the principal royal house of Malay world that claimed descent from the legendary founder of Singapura, Sang Nila Utama. The Melaka branch originated from Melaka Sultanate (1400-1511) had close marriage relationship with the Bendahara branch that traditionally hold the position of Bendahara since the time of Singapura. Sang Nila Utama's cognatic descendants have historically reigned in Melaka, Aceh and Pattani, and also reigning in Pahang, Johor, Perak, Terengganu and Kelantan until today.

The honorific Malay title "Tun" in this tree is hereditary (ambilineal) and strictly for nobility of Bendahara family. It differs from modern usage that awarded to commoners. "♀Putri" ('princess') is used for a female descendant with unidentified name.

      A Monarch       Raja Bendahara of Pahang

Sri Maharaja Sang Utama Parameswara
Singapura
r. 1299-1347
Tun Perpatih Pramuka Berjajar
Bendahara of Singapura
Sri Wikrama Wira
Singapura
r. 1347-1362
Sri Rana Wikrama
Singapura
r. 1362-1375
Tun Perpatih Besar
Sri Nara Diraja
Tun Perpatih Tulus
Bendahara of Singapura - Melaka
Sri Maharaja
Singapura
r. 1375-1389
Iskandar Shah
Singapura
r. 1389-1398
Melaka
r. 1400-1414
Mani Purindan ♀Tun Ratna Sendari Megat Iskandar Shah
Melaka
r. 1414-1424
Tun Ali
Bendahara of Melaka V
♀Tun Ratna Wati Muhammad Shah
Melaka
r. 1424-1444
Tun Perpatih Pramuka Berjajar II
Bendahara of Melaka II
Tun Tahir Tun Mutahir
Bendahara of Melaka VIII
Seri Amar Diraja
Bendahara of Melaka III
Tun Perpatih Sedang
Bendahara of Melaka IV
Muzaffar Shah
Melaka
r. 1446-1459
Abu Syahid Shah
Melaka
r. 1444-1446
Tun Perak
Bendahara of Melaka VI
Tun Perpatih Putih
Bendahara of Melaka VII
Mansur Shah
Melaka
r. 1456-1477
♀Putri Wanang Seri Lela Wangsa
Tun Tepok
Bendahara of Melaka IX
Tun Pikrama Alauddin Riayat Shah
Melaka
r. 1477-1488
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Shah
r. 1475-1497(2)
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Muhammad Shah
r. 1470-1475(1)
♀Mengindra Putri
Tun Khoja Ahmad
Bendahara of Johor I
Mahmud Shah
Melaka
r. 1488-1511
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mansur Shah I
r. 1512-1519(4)
♀Raja Putri Olah Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mahmud Shah
r. 1519-1530(5)
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jamil Shah
r. 1495-1512(3)
Tun Isap Barakah Muzaffar Shah I
Perak
r. 1528-1549
Alauddin Riayat Shah II
Johor
r. 1528-1564
♀Raja Putri Dewi Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Zainal Abidin Shah
r. 1540-1555(7)
♀Tun Kamala Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Muzaffar Shah
r. 1530-1540(6)
Tun Mahmud
Bendahara of Johor III
♀Putri Mansur Shah I
Perak
r. 1549-1577
Muzaffar Shah II
Johor
r. 1564-1570
♀Raja Kemala Dewi Raja Ahmad of Terengganu Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mansur Shah II
r. 1555-1560(8)
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jamal Shah
r. 1560-1575(9)
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Kadir Alauddin Shah
r. 1575-1590(10)
Tun Isap Misai
Bendahara of Johor IV
Alauddin Mansur Syah
Aceh
r. 1579-1586
Ahmad Tajuddin Shah
Perak
r. 1577-1584
Tajul Ariffin Shah
Perak
r. 1584-1594
♀Putri A Sultan of Aceh
Tun Ahmad Mukaddam Shah
Perak
r. 1603-1619
Mahmud Shah
Perak
r. 1627-1630
Raja Inu
Tun Sri Lanang
Bendahara of Johor V
♀Putri Abdullah ibn Shaykh al-Aydarus Alauddin Shah
Perak
r. 1594-1603
Mansur Shah II
Perak
r. 1619-1627
Tun Jenal
Bendahara of Johor VII
Ali Jalla Abdul Jalil Shah II
Johor
r. 1571-1597
Putri of Saiful Rijal of Brunei Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Shah II
r. 1590-1592(11)
♀Putri Bongsu Chandra Dewi
Putri of Siak
Ratu Ungu
Pattani
r. 1624-1635
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Ghafur Muhiuddin Shah
r. 1592-1614(12)
♀Raja Putri Zohra
Putri of Saiful Rijal of Brunei
♀Tun Kaishi Sayyid Zainal Abidin
a.k.a Tun Dagang
Abdul Jalil Shah I
Johor
r. 1570-1571
Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah
Johor
r. 1615-1623
♀Raja Putri Kamarliah Iskandar Thani
Aceh
r. 1610-1641
♀Ratu Kuning
Pattani
r. 1635-1688
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Alauddin Riayat Shah
r. 1614-1615(13)
Raja Abdullah ♀Putri
Alauddin Riayat Shah III
Johor
r. 1597-1615
Tun Muhammad Ali BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jalil Shah III
Sultan of Pahang
r. 1615-1617(14)
Sultan of Johor-Pahang
r. 1623-1677(15)
Raja Bajau
Yamtuan Muda of Pahang
r. 1641–1676(16)
Muzaffar Shah II
(Son of Raja Mahmud of Siak)
Perak
r. 1636-1654
♀Raja Putri Fatima Puteh
Sayyid Jaafar
Raja Temenggung of Muar
Tun Habib Abdul Majid
Bendahara of Johor XII
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ibrahim Shah
Johor-Pahang
r. 1677-1685(17)
Mahmud Iskandar Shah
Perak
r. 1654-1720
Raja Mansur
♀Putri Bakal BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mahmud Shah II
Johor-Pahang
r. 1685-1699(18)
Alauddin Mughayat Shah
Perak
r. 1720-1728
Muzaffar Shah III
Perak
r. 1728-1752
Muhammad Shah
Perak
r. 1744-1750
Tun Mas Anum
Bendahara of Johor XIV
Tun Abdullah
Bendahara of Johor XV
Zainal Abidin I
Terengganu
r. 1725-1733
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jalil Shah IV
Bendahara of Johor XIII
1697-1699
Sultan of Johor
r. 1699-1718
Iskandar Zulkarnain Shah
Perak
r. 1752-1765
Mahmud Shah
Perak
r. 1765-1773
Alauddin Mansur Shah
Perak
r. 1773-1786
Ahmaddin Shah
Perak
r. 1786-1806
Mansur Riayat Shah
Terengganu
r. 1733-1793
Tun Abbas
Bendahara of Johor XVII
1722-1736
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah
Johor
r. 1722-1760
Abdul Malik Mansur Shah
Perak
r. 1806-1825
Raja Syed Hitam of Siak ♀Raja Mandak
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jalil Muazzam Shah
Johor
r. 1760-1761
Raja Inu Muhammad Saleh Raja Abdul Rahman Ismail Mua'bidin Riayat Shah
Perak
r. 1871-1874
Tengku Muhammad Zainal Abidin II
Terengganu
r. 1793-1808
Tun Hassan
Bendahara of Johor XVIII
1736-1770
Flag of Pahang (1853 - 1887).svg
Tun Abdul Majid
Bendahara of Johor XIX
Raja Bendahara of Pahang I

r. 1770-1802
Tun Abdul Jamal
Temenggong of Johor
Daeng Maimuna
daughter of Daeng Parani
Shahbuddin Riayat Shah
Perak
r. 1830-1851
Abdullah Muhammad Shah
Perak
r. 1851-1857
Long Sulong
Tengku Putri of Kelantan
Ahmad
Kelantan
r. 1886-1890
Ahmad Shah I
Terengganu
r. 1808-1830
Flag of Pahang (1853 - 1887).svg
Tun Muhammad
Bendahara of Johor XX
Raja Bendahara of Pahang II

1802-1803
Flag of Pahang (1853 - 1887).svg
Tun Koris
Bendahara of Johor XXI
Raja Bendahara of Pahang III

1803-1806
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Riayat Shah
Johor
1761-1761
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mahmud Riayat Shah
Johor
1761-1812
Raja Ahmad Abdullah Muazzam Shah
Perak
r. 1825-1830
Mansur Shah II
Terengganu
r. 1831-1836
Abdul Rahman Shah
Terengganu
r. 1830-1831
Flag of Pahang (1853 - 1887).svg
Tun Ali
Bendahara of Johor XXII
Raja Bendahara of Pahang IV

1806-1847
Tun Abdul Hamid
(Engku Daeng Kechil)
Temenggong of Johor
Ali Al-Mukammal Inayat Shah
Perak
r. 1865-1871
Yusuf Sharifuddin Mudzaffar Shah
Perak
r. 1886-1887
Muhammad III
Kelantan
r. 1890-1891
Mansur
Kelantan
r. 1891-1900
Flag of Pahang (1853 - 1887).svg
Tun Mutahir
Bendahara of Johor XXII
Raja Bendahara of Pahang V

1847-1863
Flag of Pahang (1887 - 1903).svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Muadzam Shah
Raja Bendahara of Pahang VI
1863-1881
Sultan of Pahang
r. 1881-1914
Ungku Abdul Rahman
Temenggong of Johor
Hussein Muazzam Shah
Johor
1819-1835
Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah
Johor
1812-1819
Jaafar Muazzam Shah
Perak
r. 1857-1865
Raja Alang Iskandar
Muhammad IV
Kelantan
r. 1900-1920
Muhammad Shah
Terengganu
r. 1836-1839
Daud
Terengganu
r. 1831
Umar
Terengganu
r. 1839-1876
Tun Daeng Ibrahim
Temenggong of Johor
Ali Iskandar Shah
Johor
r. 1835-1855
Sultan of Muar
r. 1855-1877
Abdullah Muhammad Shah II
Perak
r. 1874-1876
Raja Musa Idris Murshidul'azzam Shah
Perak
r. 1887-1916
Ismail
Kelantan
r. 1920-1944
Ibrahim
Kelantan
r. 1944-1960
Tengku Mahmud Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mahmud Shah
r. 1914-1917
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdullah Al-Mu'tasim Billah Shah
r. 1917-1932
Abu Bakar
Temenggong of Johor
1862-1868
Sultan of Johor
r. 1868-1886
Abdul Aziz Al-Mu'tasim Billah Shah
Perak
r. 1938-1948
Abdul Jalil Karamatullah Shah
Perak
r. 1916-1918
Iskandar Shah
Perak
r. 1918-1938
Yahya Petra
Kelantan
r. 1960-1979
Ahmad Muazzam Shah
Terengganu
r. 1876-1881
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah
r. 1932-1974
Ibrahim
Johor
r. 1895-1959
Yussuff Izzuddin Shah
Perak
r. 1948-1963
Idris Iskandar Al-Mutawakkil Alallah Shah
Perak
r. 1963-1984
Zainal Abidin III Muazzam Shah
Terengganu
r. 1881-1918
Muhammad Muazzam Shah
Terengganu
r. 1918-1920
Ismail Nasiruddin Shah
Terengganu
r. 1945-1979
Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah
Terengganu
r. 1920-1942
Ismail
Johor
r. 1959-1981
Ismail Petra
Kelantan
r. 1979-2010
Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah
Terengganu
r. 1979-1998
Ali Shah
Terengganu
r. 1942-1945
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Shah
r. 1974-present
Iskandar
Johor
r. 1981-2010
Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah
Perak
r. 1984-2014
Muhammad V
Kelantan
r. 2010-present
Mizan Zainal Abidin
Terengganu
r. 1998-present
Tengku Abdullah ♀Tunku Azizah Aminah Maimunah Iskandariah Ibrahim Ismail
Johor
r. 2010-present
Nazrin Shah
Perak
r. 2014-present

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ahmad Fawzi Basri, Johor 1855-1917 : Pentadbiran dan Perkembangannya, Fajar Bakti, 1988, pages 33-34
  2. ^ History of the Sultanate of Pahang, National Archives, mdpekan.gov.my